Me Too

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此条目的本来名称是「#MeToo」,因技术限制而“#”符号被替换或省略。
在推特上发起“Me Too”运动的女演员艾莉莎·米兰诺

Me Too(或#MeToo,直译为“我也是”)是2017年10月哈维·韦恩斯坦性骚扰事件后在社交媒体上广泛传播的一个主题标签,用于遣责性侵犯性骚扰行为。[1][2][3]社会运动人士塔拉纳·伯克英语Tarana Burke在此之前数年便开始使用这一短语,后经女演员艾莉莎·米兰诺的传播而广为人知。米兰诺鼓励女性在推特上公开被侵犯的经历,以使人们能认识到这些行为的普遍性。[4][5]自此之后,数百万人使用了这一标签来公开她们的不快经历,其中也包括许多知名人士。[6][7]

起源[编辑]

社会活动人士与社区组织者塔拉纳·伯克于2006年在Myspace上最早使用了“Me Too”这一短语。[8]当时伯克发起了一场草根运动,在被性侵犯的有色人种、特别是底层女性中推广“用同理心实现赋权”(empowerment through empathy),而“Me Too”便是这场运动的一部分。[4][9][10][11][12]目前伯克正在制作一部名为《Me Too》的纪录片。她提到,那时有一位13岁的少女向她倾诉曾遭受的性侵犯,而她当时不知该如何回应。这一经历启发她开始使用“Me too”一词,她说她希望当时能用这个词来回应那位少女。[8]

2017年10月15日,女演员艾莉莎·米兰诺在推特上鼓励女性尽可能地传播这个词,使人们能意识到该问题的严重性与普通性。当时她写到:“如果所有被性骚扰或侵犯过的女性都能发一条‘Me too’的状态,那人们或许能认识到这个问题的重要性”。[13][14][15][6][4]米兰诺后来提到她是受到了伯克的启发,还说伯克的故事“感人至深、鼓舞人心”。[8]

影响[编辑]

仅10月15日“#MeToo”就在推特上出现了超过20万次[16],到次日更是超过了50万次。[1]Facebook上,最初的24小时内就有470万人在1200万条状态中提到了该标签。[7]据Facebook统计,45%的美国用户至少有一个朋友发布了带该标签的状态。[17]

有数以万计的女性回复了米兰诺的推特,其中包括:[18]

此外,泰瑞·克鲁斯[42]詹姆士·范·德·比克[43]等男性亦表示他们同样有过被性骚扰的经历。而另一些男性则通过标签“HowIWillChange”来承认他们有过对女性的无礼行为。[13]同时,伊丽莎白·普兰克英语Elizabeth Plank则创造了标签“HimThough”。[44]

好莱坞之外,“Me Too”宣言还引发了音乐界[23]、科学界[45]、学术界[46]、政界[47]等各个领域对性骚扰与性虐待的广泛讨论。如在音乐圈中,乐团Veruca Salt英语Veruca Salt使用该标签指控詹姆斯·托贝克英语James Toback的性骚扰行径[48],而爱丽丝·格拉斯英语Alice Glass则声称她原先在音乐组合水晶城堡英语Crystal Castles (band)的同伴伊森·凯斯英语Ethan Kath对其有侵犯行为。[49][50]

加利福尼亚州、伊利诺伊州、俄勒冈州与罗德岛州的州议会分别回应了在竞选中出现的性骚扰指控。[51]一些政界女性则讲述了她们遭遇过的性骚扰,其中包括联邦参议员海迪·海特坎普广野庆子克蕾儿·麦卡斯基伊丽莎白·沃伦[47]联邦众议员杰基·斯贝尔则发起了一项提案,旨在简化国会中告发性骚扰的流程。[52]

2017年11月12日,数百人在好莱坞参与了“还我职场游行”(Take Back the Workplace March)与“#MeToo幸存者游行”(#MeToo Survivors March),以抗议性侵犯行为。[53]

11月16日,纽约州联邦参议员陆天娜在被问到总统唐纳德·特朗普、前总统比尔·克林顿、参议员艾尔·弗兰肯以及罗伊·摩尔等政界人物被指控有不当行为时,特别提到了“Me Too”运动。[54]

國際性反應[编辑]

此一標籤已在全球最少85個國家中使用[55],包括印度、巴基斯坦和英國。法国則出現了這一短語的變種——「BalanceTonPorc」(直譯為「 譴責你的豬隻」)[56],用以鼓勵用戶對外公開涉嫌性侵犯與性騷擾者的姓名[57]。在菲律賓的男女亦籍此机会分享了他們的有关经歷[58]。意大利女性在公開被性侵犯與性騷擾的经歷时則附带「#QuellaVoltaChe 」(在那個時候)此一標籤[59][60]。「#Me Too」對應的西班牙語为「#YoTambién」;加拿大法語地區則以「#MoiAussi」这一標籤參與这埸運動。以色列當地的同意標籤為以希伯來語寫成的「גםאנחנו#」(#UsToo),其在2017年10月18日因登上當地報紙《新新聞報》而开始流行[56]。在瑞典,部分女性通过该标签指控马丁·蒂梅尔英语Martin Timell[61]与记者弗雷德里克·维尔塔宁英语Fredrik Virtanen[62]对她们的侵犯行为。蒂梅尔在TV4上的节目于10月20日被取消。[63][64]

欧洲议会欧盟布鲁塞尔办公室发生的骚扰行为被爆出后,欧洲议会召开了一次会议以回应Me Too运动。欧盟贸易专员塞西莉亚·马尔姆斯特伦英语Cecilia Malmström特别提到了该标签是召开此次会议的原因。[65]在英国,内阁办公厅启动了一项对下议员议员马克·加尼尔的调查。加尼尔被指控让其秘书帮他的妻子与情妇购买情趣用品。[66]

中国有媒体声称性骚扰是外国才有的问题,中国男人受到的教育使他们懂得保护女性。但这一论断引发了许多中国网民的愤怒。[67]

香港田径运动员吕丽瑶在其23岁生日当天用这一标签在Facebook上爆出了她曾遭到的性侵犯。她说她的举动是受到了体操运动员麦琪拉·玛隆妮的影响。她特别用了“#metoo”标签,并上传了一张她手书“#metoo lly”(lly为其姓名首字母)的照片。[68][69][70][71][72]

各地所用的对应标签[编辑]

批评[编辑]

有批评意见称这一标签让被性骚扰与性侵犯的受害者负起了将这些行为公开化的责任,而这可能会使受害者再度遭到心理创伤[74][75][76][77]还有意见则称这个标签只是简单地激起了愤怒,使人们无法进行有更有意义的交流。.[78][79]伯克最初批评这项运动忽视了黑人女性为针对性骚扰问题所做的工作。不过,她还是向参与该运动的人们致敬,并对米兰诺能认可她发起的类似运动表达了赞许。[9]

参见[编辑]

参考文献[编辑]

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