槲皮素

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槲皮素
IUPAC名
2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,5,7-trihydroxy-4H-chromen-4-one
別名 櫟精
Sophoretin
Meletin
Quercetine
Xanthaurine
Quercetol
Quercitin
Quertine
Flavin meletin
識別
CAS號 117-39-5  ✓
PubChem 5280343
ChemSpider 4444051
SMILES
InChI
InChIKey REFJWTPEDVJJIY-UHFFFAOYAW
KEGG C00389
性質
化學式 C15H10O7
摩爾質量 302.236 g/mol g·mol⁻¹
精確質量 302.042653
密度 1.799 g/cm3
熔點 316 °C
若非註明,所有數據均出自一般條件(25 ℃,100 kPa)下。

槲皮素Quercetin),也稱作五羥黃酮,是一種存在於水果、蔬菜和穀物等植物中的植源性黃酮類化合物

槲皮素廣泛存在於自然界中。其英文名「quercetin」最早出現於1857年,其來源於「quercetum」,意為櫟樹林[1][2]其是一種天然的生長素極性運輸抑制劑。[3]

槲皮素含量豐富的食品包括:茶葉(茶樹;2000-2500 mg/kg),刺山柑(1800 mg/kg)[4]歐當歸(1700 mg/kg),蘋果(44 mg/kg),紅洋蔥(1910 mg/kg,最外層的含量最高[5]),紅葡萄柑橘西紅柿西蘭花及其他綠葉蔬菜。此外還有許多漿果的含量也較高,包括覆盆子歐洲越橘(158 mg/kg,鮮重),越橘(種植74 mg/kg,野生146 mg/kg),蔓越莓(種植83 mg/kg,野生121 mg/kg),沙棘(62 mg/kg),岩高蘭(種植53 mg/kg,野生56 mg/kg)[6]仙人掌的果實。2007年一項研究發現,有機種植的西紅柿槲皮素含量比傳統種植的高出79%。[7]

澳大利亞昆士蘭大學的一項研究表明,部分品種的蜂蜜中也存在槲皮素,包括來源於桉樹澳洲茶樹的蜂蜜。[8][9]

苷元[編輯]

槲皮素是許多其他類黃酮苷苷元。槲皮素與鼠李糖結合形成槲皮苷;與芸香糖結合形成蘆丁;與阿拉伯糖結合形成番石榴苷;與乳糖結合形成金絲桃苷

生理活性[編輯]

大鼠生物利用度的研究顯示,當放射性同位素標記的槲皮素-4-葡萄糖苷通過胃腸道後,其被轉化為酚酸[10]

槲皮素既尚未被科學的證明其具有任何療效,也沒有得到任何監管機構的批准。美國食品與藥品管理局尚未批准任何關於槲皮素的功效說明。[11]

炎症[編輯]

一些實驗室的研究表明槲皮素可能具有抗炎特性[12][13],並在研究其潛在的療效。[13][14]

槲皮素可減輕花粉熱的症狀。[15]其一種酶改性衍生物被發現具有減輕花粉熱眼部症狀的作用。[16][17][18]

一項對老鼠的研究表明,槲皮素能有效的減少速釋型煙酸的流失,部分途徑為減少前列腺素D2的產生。[19]一個四人的試驗性臨床試驗給出的初步數據支持該觀點。[20]

癌症[編輯]

實驗室體外細胞研究顯示,槲皮素也可轉變為致癌物,但這項研究並沒有報告其會增加動物或人類的患癌風險。[21][22][23]

美國癌症協會說道,雖然槲皮素「已被選為對許多包括癌症的疾病有效的物質」,並且「一些早期的實驗結果顯示其具有開發前景,但現在還沒有可靠的臨床證據說明槲皮素可以預防或治療人類癌症。」充足的水果和蔬菜的攝入可能降低患癌症的風險[24],槲皮素是許多可能的作用源之一受到研究。

在動物實驗中,槲皮素被推測有可能降低患某些癌症的風險。[25][26]一項時長8年的研究發現,三種黃酮類化合物——山柰酚、槲皮素和楊梅素——可降低吸菸者患胰腺癌的風險。[27]

通過槲皮素與超聲波結合,可抑制體外培養的皮膚癌前列腺癌細胞。[28]

代謝[編輯]

槲皮素已被證明可增加大鼠的能量代謝,但僅限於短期(短於8周)。[12]槲皮素對小鼠運動耐受性的影響與增加粒線體生物合成有關。[13]小鼠口服12.5至25 mg/kg濃度依次增加的槲皮素,可增加粒線體生物標誌物的基因表達,並可改善運動耐受性。.[29]

已有有關於槲皮素對結節病哮喘、肥胖與糖尿病的葡萄糖吸收的安全性和有效性的初步研究。[30]

也有學者聲稱槲皮素可降低高血壓患者的血壓[31],及可降低肥胖者的低密度脂蛋白膽固醇的水平。[32]

體外研究表明槲皮素和白藜蘆醇聯合應用可抑制脂肪細胞的產生。[33]

藥物相互作用[編輯]

槲皮素有一些抗生素配伍禁忌;其可能影響氟喹諾酮的作用,因槲皮素也具有競爭結合DNA旋轉酶的能力。尚未確定其是否能抑制或增強氟奎諾酮的效果。[34]

《AHFS藥物信息》(2010年)[35]將槲皮素標記為CYP2C8的抑制劑,並具體的說明其與紫杉醇可能形成有害的相互作用。由於紫杉醇由CYP2C8代謝,其生物利用度可能增加或不可預測,可能導致毒副作用[36][37]

此外,槲皮素還被描述為CYP2C9的抑制劑[38],及CYP3A4的抑制劑[39]和誘導劑[40]。CYP2C9和CPY3A4都是細胞色素P450混合功能氧化酶系統的組分,因此這些酶參與外來物質的代謝。

參考文獻[編輯]

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