世界體系理論

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世界體系理論是一套由Samir Amin、Giovanni Arrighi、Andre Gunder Frank與伊曼紐·華勒斯坦等人創建的一套後馬克思主義國際關係及社會理論。

顧名思義,屬於後馬克思主義的世界體系論主要建基於馬克思的著作。它的根基之一在於對帝國主義的探討,列寧在名著《帝國主義是資本主義的最高階段》中首開其端,世界體系論中談及的核心與邊陲概念也源於列寧。

華勒斯坦從邊陲與核心的資源分配機制入手。「核心」係指已開發的工業化地區,「邊陲」指較貧窮並以出口原物料為主的未開發或開發中國家,「半邊陲」是一方面支配某些邊陲國,另一方面又被技術更先進的強國支配的國家。透過市場機制,邊陲受到中心的剝削。這是世界體系的空間劃分。華勒斯坦如是說:

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世界體系是一個社會體系,它有其邊界、結構、成員團體、合法性規則及凝聚性。它的生命由各種相衝突的力量構成,它們以張力聚合之,又隨著各團體試圖為己重塑這套體系而拆解之。它具有有機體的特徵,因為在其生命期中有些特徵在某些方面改變了,而在另一些方面則保持穩定。人們可以按照它功能的內在邏輯,定義其結構在不同時間的強或弱。[1]
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至於時間向度,華勒斯坦定義了世界體系的四個時間特色:週期節律代表經濟的短期波動,華勒斯坦基於康德拉捷夫長波理論,指出資本主義具有約40-50年的擴張-收縮週期,而中心、邊陲與半邊陲的格局也隨之調整。長期趨勢一如其名,代表經濟成長或衰退等長期的傾向。矛盾是系統內的一般爭議,通常是關於短期與長程目標之間的取捨。最後一個特色是危機,這也代表該系統的終結。

嚴格來說,世界體系論並非一套理論,而是一套研究社會及社會變遷的方法。除了繼承新馬克思主義的源流,法國年鑑學派對之也頗具影響,其中又以費爾南·布勞岱爾的影響最大。

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註記[编辑]

  1. ^ Immanuel Wallerstein (1974) the Modern World-System, New York, Academic Press, pp. 347-57.