|在位||前358年 – 前338年|
阿尔塔薛西斯三世（古波斯楔形文字：𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎠 Artaxšaça；古希腊语：Ἀρταξέρξης；英语：Artaxerxes III；？－前338年），波斯阿契美尼德王朝国王（前358年至前338年在位）。他继承了其父阿尔塔薛西斯二世的王位。即位后，他为了防止内乱，杀死了自己几乎所有的亲戚。前343年，他击败了埃及法老内克塔内布二世，重新建立了波斯对埃及的统治。前338年，他被宦官巴戈阿斯杀害。
公元前351年左右，针对在他的父亲阿尔塔薛西斯三世时期叛乱独立的埃及，阿尔塔薛西斯筹划了一场收复战争。与此同时，在小亚细亚爆发了一场由底比斯支持的叛乱，情况变得很严重 在征召了大量军队之后，波斯人开赴埃及, 同内克塔内布二世领导的埃及作战。在同埃及法老交战的一年后，内克塔内布在希腊佣兵Diophantus以及Lamius的支持下，痛击了波斯人的入侵。 阿尔塔薛西斯被迫撤退，只能推迟了他重新征服埃及的计划。
Soon after this defeat, Phoenicia, Asia Minor and Cyprus declared their independence from Persian rule. In 343 BC, Artaxerxes committed responsibility for the suppression of the Cyprian rebels to Idrieus, prince of Caria, who employed 8,000 Greek mercenaries and forty triremes, commanded by Phocion the Athenian, and Evagoras, son of the elder Evagoras, the Cypriot monarch. Idrieus succeeded in reducing Cyprus. Artaxerxes initiated a counter-offensive against Sidon by commanding the satrap of Syria and Mezseus, and the satrap of Cilicia to invade the city and to keep the Phoenicians in check. Both satraps suffered crushing defeats at the hands of Tennes, the Sidonese king, who was aided by 40,000 Greek mercenaries sent to him by Nectanebo II and commanded by Mentor of Rhodes. As a result, the Persian forces were driven out of Phoenicia.
After this, Artaxerxes personally led an army of 330,000 men against Sidon. Artaxerxes' army comprised 300,000 foot soldiers, 30,000 cavalry, 300 triremes, and 500 transports or provision ships. After gathering this army, he sought assistance from the Greeks. Though refused aid by Athens and Sparta, he succeeded in obtaining a thousand Theban heavy-armed hoplites under Lacrates, three thousand Argives under Nicostratus, and six thousand Æolians, Ionians, and Dorians from the Greek cities of Asia Minor. This Greek support was numerically small, amounting to no more than 10,000 men, but it formed, together with the Greek mercenaries from Egypt who went over to him afterwards, the force on which he placed his chief reliance, and to which the ultimate success of his expedition was mainly due.
The approach of Artaxerxes sufficiently weakened the resolution of Tennes that he endeavoured to purchase his own pardon by delivering up 100 principal citizens of Sidon into the hands of the Persian king, and then admitting Artaxerxes within the defences of the town. Artaxerxes had the 100 citizens transfixed with javelins, and when 500 more came out as supplicants to seek his mercy, Artaxerxes consigned them to the same fate. Sidon was then burnt to the ground, either by Artaxerxes or by the Sidonian citizens. Forty thousand people died in the conflagration. Artaxerxes sold the ruins at a high price to speculators, who calculated on reimbursing themselves by the treasures which they hoped to dig out from among the ashes. Tennes was later put to death by Artaxerxes. Artaxerxes later sent Jews who supported the revolt to Hyrcania, on the south coast of the Caspian Sea.
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