草稿:艾伦·图灵

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艾伦·图灵
Alan Turing

OBE FRS
Alan Turing Aged 16.jpg
16岁时,1928年
出生艾伦·马西森·图灵
Alan Mathison Turing

(1912-06-23)1912年6月23日
 英格兰伦敦麥達維爾
逝世1954年6月7日(1954歲-06-07)(41歲)
 英格兰柴郡威姆斯洛
死因氰化物中毒自杀(有争议)
墓地骨灰撒在沃金火葬场英语Woking Crematorium
教育程度舍伯恩学校英语Sherborne School
母校
知名于
伴侣琼·克拉克英语Joan Clarke
(1941年订婚,未结)
奖项史密斯獎(1936)
科学生涯
研究领域
机构
论文Systems of Logic Based on Ordinals(1938)
博士導師阿隆佐·邱奇[2]
博士生罗宾·甘迪英语Robin Gandy[2][3]
比阿特丽斯·沃斯利英语Beatrice Worsley[4]
受影响自马克斯·纽曼英语Max Newman[5]
签名
Alan Turing signature.svg

艾伦·马西森·图灵(英語:Alan Mathison Turing/ˈtjʊərɪŋ/OBE FRS,1912年6月23日-1954年6月7日),英国数学家電腦科學家逻辑学家密码分析师哲学家数理生物学家[6][7]。他深刻影响理论计算机科学的发展,将算法运算等概念形式化为普遍认为是通用计算机图灵机[8][9][10],因此被普遍认为是理论计算机科学及人工智能之父[11]

图灵出生于伦敦麥達維爾,在南英格蘭成长。凭数学学位在剑桥大学国王学院毕业后,图灵留校担任院士,期间证明部分纯数学的对错问题无法通过运算解答、定义了图灵机、继续证明图灵机的停机问题无法决定。1938年,图灵取得普林斯顿大学数学系英语Princeton University Department of Mathematics哲学博士学位。第二次世界大战期间,图灵来到政府通信总部密码破译中心布萊切利園,为Ultra英语Ultra情报部门工作。他率领8号小屋英语Hut 8分部,专门负责破译德国海军的密码,期间设计多种技术加快密码破解速度,包括改良波兰在大战前推出的电动密码机炸弹法英语Bomba (cryptography),找出恩尼格玛密码机的设定。图灵破译了大量从敌军截获的加密信息,推动同盟国在大西洋海战等重大战役中击败轴心国[12][13]

战后,图灵在英国国家物理实验室设计出自动运算引擎,属于第一批能够储存程序的计算机。1948年,图灵加入马克斯·纽曼英语Max Newman曼彻斯特维多利亚大学计算机实验室英语Computing Machine Laboratory,开发出曼彻斯特大学计算机组英语Manchester computers,同时进军数理生物学界。他撰写论文研究形态发生的化学基础[1],预言了摆动式化学反应,例如最开始于1960年代被发现的别洛乌索夫-扎博廷斯基反应。由于大部分研究成果依照《官方保密法英语Official Secrets Act 1939》封存,图灵在世时从未获得祖国完全认可[14]

1952年,图灵因同性恋行为英语Gross indecency被起诉,随后接受代替刑罚的己烯雌酚化学阉割。1954年,在离42岁还有16天的时候,图灵氰化物中毒死亡。死因调查证实他的死属于自杀,不过值得注意的是,现存证据一致显示图灵意外中毒。

2009年,迫于网络舆论压力,英国首相戈登·布朗代表英国政府,就图灵遭受的“骇人对待”正式道歉。2013年,英国女王伊丽莎白二世向图灵追授赦免令。2017年,英国政府通过一项法案,追溯赦免过去因禁止同性恋法被警告或定罪的男性,这项法律名叫《艾倫·圖靈法[15]

图灵为后世带来深远的影响英语Legacy of Alan Turing。出于纪念,后人为他设立雕像,用他的名字命名了许多事物英语List of things named after Alan Turing,包括表彰计算机科学发明的年度奖项,而在他寿辰前发布的英格蘭銀行50英鎊紙幣印有他的肖像。根据观众投票结果,2019年BBC电视节目《偶像:20世纪伟人巡礼英语Icons: The Greatest Person of the 20th Century》将艾伦提名为20世纪最伟大的人。

早年及教育[编辑]

家庭[编辑]

图灵生于伦敦麥達維爾[7],父亲朱利叶斯·马蒂森·图灵(Julius Mathison Turing,1873–1947)是马德拉斯省(今奥里萨邦恰特拉普尔的休班印度公务员英语Indian Civil Service[16][17],祖父约翰·罗伯特·图灵牧师(Rev. John Robert Turing)出生在荷兰的一个苏格兰商业世家,家里有位從男爵。图灵母亲埃塞尔·萨拉·图灵(娘家姓斯托尼(Stoney),1881–1976)是马德拉斯铁路英语Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway首席工程师爱德华·沃勒·斯托尼(Edward Waller Stoney)之女。斯托尼一家是盎格魯愛爾蘭人,信奉新教英语Protestantism in Ireland,在蒂珀雷里郡朗福德郡属于绅士阶级,不过埃塞尔的童年多数在克莱尔郡度过[18]

朱利叶斯在印度公务员局的工作让他家人来到印度,当时他的父亲在孟加拉军队英语Bengal Army当将军。不过朱利叶斯和埃塞尔希望孩子们能在英国长大,于是搬到了伦敦的麥達維爾[19]。原为图灵故居的柱廊酒店英语Colonnade Hotel (London)[16][20]外有一块蓝色牌匾,上面记载艾伦·图灵于1912年6月23日出生[21][22]。图灵有一个哥哥,叫约翰,是图灵男爵世家英语Turing baronets第12代男爵约翰·德莫特·图灵爵士英语Dermot Turing的父亲[23]

图灵少年时代,父亲仍有公务员职责在身,他与妻子在英国黑斯廷斯[24]和印度两地奔波,将两个儿子托付给英国陆军的一对退伍夫妇。图灵在黑斯廷斯期间住在海边的圣伦纳兹英语St Leonards-on-Sea上迷宫山(Upper Maze Hill)的巴斯顿旅馆英语Baston Lodge。旅馆外有一块蓝色牌匾[25],在2012年6月23日图灵百岁诞辰纪念日揭幕[26]

图灵儿时天赋异禀,铸就了他日后天才的人生[27]。1927年,父母在吉尔福德买下一栋房子,学校放假的时候,图灵就会在那边。房子外也有一块蓝色牌匾[28]

教育[编辑]

图灵6岁到9岁在海边的圣伦纳兹查尔斯路20号(20 Charles Road)圣迈克尔斯小学(St Michael's)就读。校长非常认可图灵的才华,说自己见过很多聪明、刻苦用功的男孩,但“图灵完全是天才”[29]

1922年至1926年,图灵来到萨塞克斯郡(今东萨塞克斯郡法兰特村英语Frant私立学校黑兹赫斯特预科学校(Hazelhurst Preparatory School)读书[30],之后在1926年以13岁之龄转学到多塞特郡商业重镇谢尔本寄宿私立学校谢尔本学校英语Sherborne School[31],借住韦斯科特之家(Westcott House)。图灵上学第一天恰逢1926年英国大罢工,但他毅然决定上学,独自踩着自行车,从南安普顿骑了60英里(97公里)的路程,去谢尔本上学,中途在一家客栈过夜[32]

图灵天生喜欢数学和科学,但谢尔本的学校更看重古典学的教学,所以那里的老师看不起他。校长曾写信给他的父母:“我希望他将来不会落到两头不到岸的境地。如果他要留在公立学校,就必须要用‘知识渊博’的模样。如果他只想成为‘科学专家’,那他待在公立学校就是浪费时间[33]。”尽管如此,图灵还是在自己喜欢的研究领域大放异彩:1927年,没接触初级的微积分学知识的他,已经可以解决高级的难题。1928年,16岁的图灵接触到阿尔伯特·爱因斯坦的著作,不仅掌握到书中的内容,而且还从意义含糊的文字中,推测到爱因斯坦对牛顿运动定律有所质疑[34]

克里斯托弗·莫科姆[编辑]

图灵在谢尔本结识到同窗好友克里斯托弗·科兰·莫科姆(Christopher Collan Morcom,1911年7月13日 – 1930年2月13日)[35],他是图灵的“初恋”。两人的浪漫关系鼓励图灵过好之后的人生,但最终因莫科姆于1930年2月去世而告终。几年前,莫科姆饮用受污染的牛奶,患上牛结核病英语bovine tuberculosis,最终因该病并发症病逝[36][37][38]

图灵陷入莫大的悲伤,需要更加努力研究和莫科姆一起提出的科学和数学课题,才能分散注意力。图灵在写给莫科姆母亲的信中说:

我敢肯定,这么聪明、有魅力、不自负的伴侣,我在别的地方不可能找到。我对自己研究及天文学(他带我进去的)的兴趣,可以和他分享。他对我的感觉,我认为也有点是这样的......我必须将更多的精力投入到自己的研究中,就好像他还在世一样,因为这是他希望我去做的事情[39]

莫科姆死后,图灵和他母亲一直保持联系。到了莫科姆忌日,图灵一般会写信给对方,对方则给他寄礼物[40]。莫科姆第三个忌日的前一天(1933年2月13日),图灵写信给他母亲:

希望您收到这封信的时候,能想起克里斯。我也会想起他。之所以给您写这封信,是想告诉您,明天我和您一样会想起克里斯。我敢相信,如果他还在,一定会很开心。您深情的艾伦[41]

部分人推测莫科姆的死让图灵不信教,成为唯物主义[42]。显然,到了这个时候,他仍然认为精神独立于肉体,肉体死亡,精神永存。后来他在写给莫科姆母亲的信中说:

在我看来,精神确实永远跟物质联系在一起,但肯定不会和肉体那样的物质串连......至于精神和肉体间的实际关联,我认为肉体可以保存‘精神’,但肉体是活着的、醒着的,两者紧密联系。肉体沉睡的时候,我猜不出肉体会发生什么。但肉体消亡的时候,肉体的‘机制’,保存中的‘精神’消失了,精神迟早或者马上去找一副新的肉体[43][44]

大学生涯与可计算性的研究工作[编辑]

离开谢尔本,图灵于1931年到1934年在剑桥大学国王学院读本科[7],取得数学系一等荣誉。1935年,22岁的图灵凭借证明中心极限定理的毕业论文,成为国王学院院士[45]。不过委员会不知道该定理早在1922年就被贾尔·瓦尔德马·林德伯格英语Jarl Waldemar Lindeberg证明[46]

1936年,图灵发表论文《论可计算数与其在可判定性中的应用英语On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem[47]。文章于11月30日和12月23日分两篇在《伦敦数学学会会刊》(Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society)发表[48]。在該論之前,庫爾特·哥德爾已於1931年發表了證明與計算的極限相關的結果,後來被稱作哥德爾不完備定理,而圖靈則修改哥德爾文章中的部分設定,將哥德爾的泛算術基礎的形式語言修改成一個簡單而形式的理想裝置,也就是眾所周知的圖靈機。1928年,德國數學家大衛·希爾伯特首次提出問題的可判定性這一概念,並且,圖靈證明他的「泛計算裝置」有能力執行所有可以用演算法表示出來的數學計算。

他之后继续证明决定性问题无解,一开始是提出停机问题是图灵机的决定性问题,不可能通过算法判断图灵机会不会停止。这篇论文被认为“很容易成为历史上最有影响力的数学论文”[49]

图灵1931年于剑桥大学国王学院本科毕业,1935年成为院士。学院的电脑室冠以她的名字

图灵证明英语Turing's proof发表前不久,阿隆佐·邱奇才自己的Λ演算法提出等价的证据[50],但图灵的方法比邱奇更简单、更直观[51]。图灵在证明中构思一种了“通用机”,也就是现在的通用图灵机,认为这种机器能执行其他计算机器的任务(这一点邱奇的Λ演算法确实能做到)。根据邱奇-图灵论题,图灵机和Λ演算法能够计算一切可计算的事物。约翰·冯·诺伊曼认为现代计算机的中央思想源于图灵的论文[52]。时至今日,图灵机仍是计算理论研究领域的重点课题。

1936年9月到1938年7月,图灵大部分时间都在普林斯顿大学师从邱奇[4],第二年出任简·伊丽莎·普罗克特访问学者英语Jane Eliza Procter Fellowship。除了单纯研究数学,图灵还钻研密码学,完成了电动乘法器四个建造阶段的前三个[53]。1938年6月,获普林斯顿大学数学系英语Princeton University Department of Mathematics博士学位[54],其论文《基于序数的逻辑系统英语Systems of Logic Based on Ordinals[55][56]介绍了序数逻辑英语ordinal logic概念及相对的计算方法。约翰·冯·诺伊曼想请他当博士后助理,但他回到了英国[57]

研究[编辑]

当图灵回到剑桥时,他参加了1939年路德维希·维特根斯坦关于数学基础的讲座。[58]讲座已根据学生的笔记逐字重建,包括图灵和其他学生的感叹词。[59]图灵和维特根斯坦争论不休,图灵为数学形式辩护,而维特根斯坦提出他的观点,即数学不发现任何绝对真理,而是发明它们。[60]

密码分析[编辑]

在第二次世界大战期间,图灵是在布萊切利園破解德国密码的主要参与者。历史学家和战时密码破译者Asa Briggs英语Asa Briggs曾说过:“你需要非凡的才能,你需要布莱切利的天才,而图灵就是那个天才。”[61]

1938年起,图灵在英国密码破译机构政府密码学校兼职,与高级密码破解员第利·诺克斯英语Dilly Knox专责对纳粹德国恩尼格玛机进行密码解析英语cryptanalysis of the Enigma[62]。1939年7月,波兰密码局英语Polish Cipher Bureau华沙附近召集会议,向英国和法国提供了恩尼格玛机转子英语Enigma rotor details的接线,以及他们解码恩尼格玛密码机信息的方法。图灵和诺克斯依照这些信息,开发出更为广泛的方案[63]。波兰的方法依赖并不安全的分析仪手段,这个环节德国人很容易更改,实际上他们在1940年5月改过一次。图灵的方法更加通用,用的是基于婴儿床的破解方法英语Cryptanalysis of the Enigma#Crib-based decryption(“婴儿床”为布莱切利园对任何已知明文或可疑明文的代称),并以此开发出炸弹机英语bombe波兰炸弹机英语Bomba (cryptography)的改良版)的功能参数[64]

布萊切利園马棚小院的两间小屋,图灵1939年至1940年在这里工作,之后才搬到8号小屋英语Hut 8

1939年9月4日,英国对德国宣战的第二天,图灵来到政府密码学校的战时站点布莱切利园报道[65]。和其他来报道的人一样,他需要签署《官方保密法英语Official Secrets Act 1939》,同意不透露布莱切利园的工作内容,否则因违反法律而面临严重的法律处罚[66]

指明炸弹机是图灵在战时为密码分析学取得的其中一项重大进展,另外四项为推导德国海军使用的分析仪程序、开发代号班布里莫斯英语Banburismus的统计程序提供密码机运作效率、开发代号图灵里英语Turingery的程序找出洛伦兹 SZ 40/42英语Lorenz SZ 40/42密码机凸轮的设置,以及在战争快结束的时候为汉斯洛普园英语Her Majesty's Government Communications Centre开发代号“大丽花”的加密语音英语secure voice加扰器。

图灵在解密过程中,利用统计技术优化对不同概率的试验,为这一课题作出突出贡献。他在《概率在密码学中的应用》(The Applications of Probability to Cryptography[67]和《关于重复的统计论文》(Paper on Statistics of Repetitions[68]两篇文章中讨论的数学方法,受到密码学校和后来的政府通信总部重视,相关内容直到图灵百岁诞辰2012年4月前才由英國國家檔案館公开。仅自称“理查德”(Richard)的政府通信总部数学家当时曾说,这些内容按照《官方保密法》被保密约70年,足以证明其重要性及对战后密码分析学的关联性[69]

他表示,这些内容一直被限制,‘证明它对我们学科的基础有着非常大的重要性’......这些论文详细记述用‘数学分析找出最有可能的设定,方便破译人员尽可能迅速地进行尝试’的方法......理查德说政治通信总部现在已经‘榨干了(两篇论文)的果汁’,‘愿意把他们放上公有领域’。

图灵在布莱切利园是出了名的古怪,同事一般叫他‘教授’,把他对恩尼格玛机的内容称为“教授的著作”[70]。根据历史学家罗纳德·勒温英语Ronald Lewin,曾和图灵共事的密码分析师杰克·古德英语I.J. Good回忆道:

每年六月第一个礼拜,他都会患上严重的花粉症。他骑自行车去办公室的时候,都会戴上军用防毒面具,防止吸入花粉。他的自行车有个毛病,就是链条会定期松脱,但他不拿去修理,而是依照踏板转动次数算出它什么时候会掉下来,那到时候,他就会亲手换链条了。他还有个毛病,就是把马克杯用铁链拴在暖气管上,防止别人偷走[71]

彼得·希尔顿在《美国百年数学史》一书的文章《布莱切利园的回忆》中,提到自己和图灵共事的经历[72]

遇见真正的天才是一种很罕见的体验。我们这些生活在学术世界的人,都很熟悉被才华横溢的同事醍醐灌顶的体验。我们可以欣赏他们的想法,一般也能理解他们的想法从何而来。我们甚至经常以为自己也能提出这样的概念,诞生这样的想法。但是,和天才头脑碰撞的体验是完全不同的,就像一个人意识到自己站在天才的面前,对方又有着深度和独创性非常高的敏感性,会变得讶异和兴奋,而艾伦·图灵就是那样的天才。而像我一样,因为第二次世界大战的诡异紧张兴奋得到惊人且意想不到的机会,和图灵做同事和朋友的人们,永远不会忘记那段经历,永远不会丢失他给我们带来的深厚影响。

希尔顿在公共广播电视公司Nova纪录片《解码纳粹秘密》(Decoding Nazi Secrets)也提到类似的想法[73]

在布莱切利园工作期间,身为长跑健将的图灵经常跑40英里(64公里)的路去伦敦开会[74],跑步水平达到世界级马拉松标准[75][76]图灵参加1948年英国奥运代表队试训,但因为受伤退出。他的马拉松试训成绩只比凭借2小时35分钟获得银牌的英国选手托马斯·理查德(Thomas Richards)慢了11分钟。图灵是沃尔顿竞技俱乐部(Walton Athletic Club)的最佳跑手,这个事实是他在超越大部队独自奔跑时发现的[77][78][79]

被问到为什么这么努力地练跑步,他说:

我的工作很紧张,只有在努力跑步的时候才能忘掉,这是我释放压力的唯一方式[80]

由于一些反事实历史英语counterfactual history的问题,Ultra情报部门在二战期间发挥的确切作用很难估计[81]。但是,官方战争历史学家哈里·欣斯利英语Harry Hinsley估计这项研究将欧洲的战事缩短了两年多,拯救了1400万人[82]

战争结束时,布莱切利园的员工都收到一份备忘录,提醒他们《官方保密法》的效力并不会随着战争结束而失效,而是一直持续下去[66]。正因为如此,图灵1946年因战时的工作获国王乔治六世颁发大英帝国勋章后,其研究成果仍被保密许多年[83][84]

解碼器「炸彈」[编辑]

在到達布萊切利園的幾週內[65],圖靈優化波蘭解碼器「炸彈英语bomba (cryptography)」,成功加速破解納粹德國的恩尼格瑪密碼機,從而設計出自己的同名機電裝置「炸彈」,不過波蘭的解碼器名是波蘭語的炸彈 bomba,而圖靈則是以法語將他的解碼器命名為 bombe。接受了數家Gordon Welchman英语Gordon Welchman的建議而做出修正之後,圖靈的「炸彈」成為了衝擊恩尼格瑪密碼機加密資訊最重要的手段之一,也成為最主要的所有自動化工具。[85]

A complete and working replica of a bombe英语bombe now at The National Museum of Computing英语The National Museum of Computing on Bletchley Park

The bombe searched for possible correct settings used for an Enigma message (i.e., rotor order, rotor settings and plugboard settings) using a suitable crib: a fragment of probable plaintext. For each possible setting of the rotors (which had on the order of 1019 states, or 1022 states for the four-rotor U-boat variant),[86] the bombe performed a chain of logical deductions based on the crib, implemented electromechanically.[87]

The bombe detected when a contradiction had occurred and ruled out that setting, moving on to the next. Most of the possible settings would cause contradictions and be discarded, leaving only a few to be investigated in detail. A contradiction would occur when an enciphered letter would be turned back into the same plaintext letter, which was impossible with the Enigma. The first bombe was installed on 18 March 1940.[88]

By late 1941, Turing and his fellow cryptanalysts Gordon Welchman, Hugh Alexander and Stuart Milner-Barry英语Stuart Milner-Barry were frustrated. Building on the work of the Poles英语Biuro Szyfrów#Gift to allies, they had set up a good working system for decrypting Enigma signals, but their limited staff and bombes meant they could not translate all the signals. In the summer, they had considerable success, and shipping losses had fallen to under 100,000 tons a month; however, they badly needed more resources to keep abreast of German adjustments. They had tried to get more people and fund more bombes through the proper channels, but had failed.[89]

On 28 October they wrote directly to Winston Churchill explaining their difficulties, with Turing as the first named. They emphasised how small their need was compared with the vast expenditure of men and money by the forces and compared with the level of assistance they could offer to the forces.[89] As Andrew Hodges英语Andrew Hodges, biographer of Turing, later wrote, "This letter had an electric effect."[90] Churchill wrote a memo to General Ismay, which read: "ACTION THIS DAY. Make sure they have all they want on extreme priority and report to me that this has been done." On 18 November, the chief of the secret service reported that every possible measure was being taken.[90] The cryptographers at Bletchley Park did not know of the Prime Minister's response, but as Milner-Barry recalled, "All that we did notice was that almost from that day the rough ways began miraculously to be made smooth."[91] More than two hundred bombes were in operation by the end of the war.[92]

Statue of Turing by Stephen Kettle英语Stephen Kettle at Bletchley Park, commissioned by Sidney Frank英语Sidney Frank, built from half a million pieces of Welsh slate.[93]

8号小屋与海军恩尼格玛机[编辑]

Turing decided to tackle the particularly difficult problem of German naval Enigma英语Cryptanalysis of the Enigma#German Naval Enigma "because no one else was doing anything about it and I could have it to myself".[94] In December 1939, Turing solved the essential part of the naval indicator system, which was more complex than the indicator systems used by the other services.[94][95]

That same night, he also conceived of the idea of Banburismus英语Banburismus, a sequential statistical technique (what Abraham Wald later called sequential analysis英语sequential analysis) to assist in breaking the naval Enigma, "though I was not sure that it would work in practice, and was not, in fact, sure until some days had actually broken."[94] For this, he invented a measure of weight of evidence that he called the ban英语Ban (unit). Banburismus could rule out certain sequences of the Enigma rotors, substantially reducing the time needed to test settings on the bombes.[96] Later this sequential process of accumulating sufficient weight of evidence using decibans (one tenth of a ban) was used in Cryptanalysis of the Lorenz cipher英语Cryptanalysis of the Lorenz cipher.[97]

Turing travelled to the United States in November 1942[98] and worked with US Navy cryptanalysts on the naval Enigma and bombe construction in Washington; he also visited their Computing Machine Laboratory英语United States Naval Computing Machine Laboratory in Dayton, Ohio.

Turing's reaction to the American bombe design was far from enthusiastic:

The American Bombe programme was to produce 336 Bombes, one for each wheel order. I used to smile inwardly at the conception of Bombe hut routine implied by this programme, but thought that no particular purpose would be served by pointing out that we would not really use them in that way. Their test (of commutators) can hardly be considered conclusive as they were not testing for the bounce with electronic stop finding devices. Nobody seems to be told about rods or offiziers or banburismus unless they are really going to do something about it.[99]

During this trip, he also assisted at Bell Labs with the development of secure speech英语secure speech devices.[100] He returned to Bletchley Park in March 1943. During his absence, Hugh Alexander had officially assumed the position of head of Hut 8, although Alexander had been de facto head for some time (Turing having little interest in the day-to-day running of the section). Turing became a general consultant for cryptanalysis at Bletchley Park.[101]

Alexander wrote of Turing's contribution:

There should be no question in anyone's mind that Turing's work was the biggest factor in Hut 8's success. In the early days, he was the only cryptographer who thought the problem worth tackling and not only was he primarily responsible for the main theoretical work within the Hut, but he also shared with Welchman and Keen the chief credit for the invention of the bombe. It is always difficult to say that anyone is 'absolutely indispensable', but if anyone was indispensable to Hut 8, it was Turing. The pioneer's work always tends to be forgotten when experience and routine later make everything seem easy and many of us in Hut 8 felt that the magnitude of Turing's contribution was never fully realised by the outside world.[102]

图灵方法[编辑]

In July 1942, Turing devised a technique termed Turingery英语Turingery (or jokingly Turingismus)[103] for use against the Lorenz cipher英语Lorenz cipher messages produced by the Germans' new Geheimschreiber (secret writer) machine. This was a teleprinter rotor cipher attachment codenamed Tunny at Bletchley Park. Turingery was a method of wheel-breaking, i.e., a procedure for working out the cam settings of Tunny's wheels.[104] He also introduced the Tunny team to Tommy Flowers英语Tommy Flowers who, under the guidance of Max Newman英语Max Newman, went on to build the Colossus computer, the world's first programmable digital electronic computer, which replaced a simpler prior machine (the Heath Robinson英语Heath Robinson (codebreaking machine)), and whose superior speed allowed the statistical decryption techniques to be applied usefully to the messages.[105] Some have mistakenly said that Turing was a key figure in the design of the Colossus computer. Turingery and the statistical approach of Banburismus undoubtedly fed into the thinking about cryptanalysis of the Lorenz cipher英语cryptanalysis of the Lorenz cipher,[106][107] but he was not directly involved in the Colossus development.[108]

黛利拉[编辑]

Following his work at Bell Labs in the US,[109] Turing pursued the idea of electronic enciphering of speech in the telephone system. In the latter part of the war, he moved to work for the Secret Service's Radio Security Service (later HMGCC英语Her Majesty's Government Communications Centre) at Hanslope Park英语Hanslope Park. At the park, he further developed his knowledge of electronics with the assistance of engineer Donald Bayley. Together they undertook the design and construction of a portable secure voice英语secure voice communications machine codenamed Delilah.[110] The machine was intended for different applications, but it lacked the capability for use with long-distance radio transmissions. In any case, Delilah was completed too late to be used during the war. Though the system worked fully, with Turing demonstrating it to officials by encrypting and decrypting a recording of a Winston Churchill speech, Delilah was not adopted for use.[111] Turing also consulted with Bell Labs on the development of SIGSALY, a secure voice system that was used in the later years of the war.

雏形计算机与图灵测试[编辑]

Plaque, 78 High Street, Hampton英语Hampton, London

Between 1945 and 1947, Turing lived in Hampton英语Hampton, London, London,[112] while he worked on the design of the ACE (Automatic Computing Engine) at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL). He presented a paper on 19 February 1946, which was the first detailed design of a stored-program computer英语stored-program computer.[113] Von Neumann's incomplete First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC had predated Turing's paper, but it was much less detailed and, according to John R. Womersley英语John R. Womersley, Superintendent of the NPL Mathematics Division, it "contains a number of ideas which are Dr. Turing's own".[114]

Although ACE was a feasible design, the effect of the Official Secrets Act英语Official Secrets Act 1939 surrounding the wartime work at Bletchley Park made it impossible for Turing to explain the basis of his analysis of how a computer installation involving human operators would work.[115] This led to delays in starting the project and he became disillusioned. In late 1947 he returned to Cambridge for a sabbatical year during which he produced a seminal work on Intelligent Machinery that was not published in his lifetime.[116] While he was at Cambridge, the Pilot ACE was being built in his absence. It executed its first program on 10 May 1950, and a number of later computers around the world owe much to it, including the English Electric DEUCE英语English Electric DEUCE and the American Bendix G-15英语Bendix G-15. The full version of Turing's ACE was not built until after his death.[117]

According to the memoirs of the German computer pioneer Heinz Billing英语Heinz Billing from the Max Planck Institute for Physics, published by Genscher, Düsseldorf, there was a meeting between Turing and Konrad Zuse.[118] It took place in Göttingen in 1947. The interrogation had the form of a colloquium. Participants were Womersley, Turing, Porter from England and a few German researchers like Zuse, Walther, and Billing (for more details see Herbert Bruderer, Konrad Zuse und die Schweiz).

In 1948, Turing was appointed reader英语Reader (academic rank) in the Mathematics Department英语School of Mathematics, University of Manchester at the Victoria University of Manchester. A year later, he became Deputy Director of the Computing Machine Laboratory, where he worked on software for one of the earliest stored-program computers—the Manchester Mark 1. Turing wrote the first version of the Programmer's Manual for this machine, and was recruited by Ferranti as a consultant in the development of their commercialised machine, the Ferranti Mark 1. He continued to be paid consultancy fees by Ferranti until his death.[119] During this time, he continued to do more abstract work in mathematics,[120] and in "Computing Machinery and Intelligence英语Computing Machinery and Intelligence" (Mind英语Mind (journal), October 1950), Turing addressed the problem of artificial intelligence, and proposed an experiment that became known as the Turing test, an attempt to define a standard for a machine to be called "intelligent". The idea was that a computer could be said to "think" if a human interrogator could not tell it apart, through conversation, from a human being.[121] In the paper, Turing suggested that rather than building a program to simulate the adult mind, it would be better to produce a simpler one to simulate a child's mind and then to subject it to a course of education. A reversed form of the Turing test is widely used on the Internet; the CAPTCHA test is intended to determine whether the user is a human or a computer.

In 1948 Turing, working with his former undergraduate colleague, D.G. Champernowne英语D.G. Champernowne, began writing a chess program for a computer that did not yet exist. By 1950, the program was completed and dubbed the Turochamp英语Turochamp.[122] In 1952, he tried to implement it on a Ferranti Mark 1英语Ferranti Mark 1, but lacking enough power, the computer was unable to execute the program. Instead, Turing "ran" the program by flipping through the pages of the algorithm and carrying out its instructions on a chessboard, taking about half an hour per move. The game was recorded.[123] According to Garry Kasparov, Turing's program "played a recognizable game of chess."[124] The program lost to Turing's colleague Alick Glennie英语Alick Glennie, although it is said that it won a game against Champernowne's wife, Isabel.[125]

His Turing test was a significant, characteristically provocative, and lasting contribution to the debate regarding artificial intelligence, which continues after more than half a century.[126]

图灵斑图与数理生物学[编辑]

1951年,圖靈39歲,他轉向數理生物學,終於在1952年1月,發表名篇《形態發生的化學基礎英语The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis》。圖靈有志研究形态发生,即生物體的形態、圖案如何產生。他提出,一個反應-擴散系統英语reaction–diffusion system,即若干種化學物質一邊互相反應,一邊擴散而形成的系統,可以解釋「形態發生的主要現象」("the main phenomena of morphogenesis")。[127]他探用偏微分方程組,為有催化的化學反應建模。例如,若某化學反應需要催化劑甲才發生,但該反應本身亦產生催化劑甲,則稱該反應自催化,是個正回饋系統,可以用非線性微分方程描述。圖靈發現,若反應不僅產生催化劑甲,還同時產生抑制劑乙,抑劑甲的產生,而兩者以不同的速率在容器中擴散,則可以有某些區域由甲佔主導,另一些區域由乙主導,從而產生圖案。若要準確模擬此現象,需要強大的電腦,但在1951年不易取用,所以圖靈僅能考慮方程的線性近似,以紙筆解出。其計算給出正確的定性結論,例如推斷出由某種均勻混合物開始,可以出奇地產生固定間距的紅點。俄國生化學家鮑里斯·別洛烏索夫英语Boris Pavlovich Belousov曾得出類似的實驗結果,但未能發表論文,因為當時的成見認為,任何此種現象必然違反热力学第二定律。別氏未曾知道圖靈在《自然科学会报》發表了論文。[128]:126

雖然圖靈發表論文的時間,尚早於學界明白DNA結構和功用的時間,但圖靈對形態發生的研究,至21世紀仍具意義,在數理生物領域被視為具開創性。[129]作為該論文的早期應用,詹姆士·莫瑞解釋了大小貓科動物的毛如何形成斑點與條紋。[130]:80[131][128]:134後續研究指出,生物之所以長出「羽毛、毛囊、肺的分枝結構」,甚至為何有「將心臟置於左胸的左右不對稱性」,皆可由圖靈的論文部分解釋。[132]2012年,舍思等人發現,移除鼠的同源异形基因,會增加指頭的數目,而不改變肢體的整體大小,推論該種基因控制指頭生長的機制,是藉由調校某個圖靈斑圖的波長(即前段機制中,圖案的間距)。[133]此後圖靈的論文,要待1992年《圖靈文集》(Collected Works of A. M. Turing)出版,才見諸市面。[134]

个人生活[编辑]

订婚[编辑]

In 1941, Turing proposed marriage to Hut 8 colleague Joan Clarke英语Joan Clarke, a fellow mathematician and cryptanalyst, but their engagement was short-lived. After admitting his homosexuality to his fiancée, who was reportedly "unfazed" by the revelation, Turing decided that he could not go through with the marriage.[135]

猥亵罪[编辑]

In January 1952, Turing was 39 when he started a relationship with Arnold Murray, a 19-year-old unemployed man. Just before Christmas, Turing was walking along Manchester's Oxford Road英语Wilmslow Road when he met Murray just outside the Regal Cinema英语Dancehouse and invited him to lunch. On 23 January, Turing's house was burgled. Murray told Turing that he and the burglar were acquainted, and Turing reported the crime to the police. During the investigation, he acknowledged a sexual relationship with Murray. Homosexual acts were criminal offences in the United Kingdom at that time,[136] and both men were charged with "gross indecency英语gross indecency" under Section 11英语Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885#Section 11 of the Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885英语Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885.[137] Initial committal proceedings英语committal procedure for the trial were held on 27 February during which Turing's solicitor "reserved his defence", i.e., did not argue or provide evidence against the allegations.

Turing was later convinced by the advice of his brother and his own solicitor, and he entered a plea of guilty.[138] The case, Regina v. Turing and Murray, was brought to trial on 31 March 1952.[139] Turing was convicted and given a choice between imprisonment and probation. His probation would be conditional on his agreement to undergo hormonal physical changes designed to reduce libido. He accepted the option of injections of what was then called stilboestrol (now known as diethylstilbestrol or DES), a synthetic oestrogen; this feminization of his body was continued for the course of one year. The treatment rendered Turing impotent and caused breast tissue to form,[140] fulfilling in the literal sense Turing's prediction that "no doubt I shall emerge from it all a different man, but quite who I've not found out".[141][142] Murray was given a conditional discharge.[143]

Turing's conviction led to the removal of his security clearance and barred him from continuing with his cryptographic consultancy for the Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ), the British signals intelligence agency that had evolved from GC&CS in 1946, though he kept his academic job. He was denied entry into the United States after his conviction in 1952, but was free to visit other European countries.[144]

自杀[编辑]

A blue plaque on the house at 43 Adlington Road, Wilmslow where Turing lived and died[145]

On 8 June 1954, at his house at 43 Adlington Road, Wilmslow,[145] Turing's housekeeper found him dead. He had died the previous day at the age of 41. Cyanide poisoning was established as the cause of death.[146] When his body was discovered, an apple lay half-eaten beside his bed, and although the apple was not tested for cyanide,[147] it was speculated that this was the means by which Turing had consumed a fatal dose. An inquest英语Inquests in England and Wales determined that he had committed suicide. Andrew Hodges and another biographer, David Leavitt英语David Leavitt, have both speculated that Turing was re-enacting a scene from the Walt Disney film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937), his favourite fairy tale. Both men noted that (in Leavitt's words) he took "an especially keen pleasure in the scene where the Wicked Queen immerses her apple in the poisonous brew".[148] Turing's remains were cremated at Woking Crematorium英语Woking Crematorium on 12 June 1954,[149] and his ashes were scattered in the gardens of the crematorium, just as his father's had been.[150]

Philosopher Jack Copeland英语Jack Copeland has questioned various aspects of the coroner's historical verdict. He suggested an alternative explanation for the cause of Turing's death: the accidental inhalation of cyanide fumes from an apparatus used to electroplate gold onto spoons. The potassium cyanide was used to dissolve the gold. Turing had such an apparatus set up in his tiny spare room. Copeland noted that the autopsy findings were more consistent with inhalation than with ingestion of the poison. Turing also habitually ate an apple before going to bed, and it was not unusual for the apple to be discarded half-eaten.[151] Furthermore, Turing had reportedly borne his legal setbacks and hormone treatment (which had been discontinued a year previously) "with good humour" and had shown no sign of despondency prior to his death. He even set down a list of tasks that he intended to complete upon returning to his office after the holiday weekend.[151] Turing's mother believed that the ingestion was accidental, resulting from her son's careless storage of laboratory chemicals.[152] Biographer Andrew Hodges theorised that Turing arranged the delivery of the equipment to deliberately allow his mother plausible deniability with regard to any suicide claims.[153]

Turing's OBE currently held in Sherborne School英语Sherborne School archives

It has been suggested that Turing's belief in fortune-telling英语fortune-telling may have caused his depressed mood.[150] As a youth, Turing had been told by a fortune-teller that he would be a genius. In mid-May 1954, shortly before his death, Turing again decided to consult a fortune-teller during a day-trip to St Annes-on-Sea with the Greenbaum family.[150] According to the Greenbaums' daughter, Barbara:[154]

But it was a lovely sunny day and Alan was in a cheerful mood and off we went... Then he thought it would be a good idea to go to the Pleasure Beach at Blackpool英语Blackpool Pleasure Beach. We found a fortune-teller's tent[,] and Alan said he'd like to go in[,] so we waited around for him to come back... And this sunny, cheerful visage had shrunk into a pale, shaking, horror-stricken face. Something had happened. We don't know what the fortune-teller said[,] but he obviously was deeply unhappy. I think that was probably the last time we saw him before we heard of his suicide.

政府道歉与赦免[编辑]

In August 2009, British programmer John Graham-Cumming英语John Graham-Cumming started a petition urging the British government to apologise for Turing's prosecution as a homosexual.[155][156] The petition received more than 30,000 signatures.[157][158] The Prime Minister, Gordon Brown, acknowledged the petition, releasing a statement on 10 September 2009 apologising and describing the treatment of Turing as "appalling":[157][159]

Thousands of people have come together to demand justice for Alan Turing and recognition of the appalling way he was treated. While Turing was dealt with under the law of the time and we can't put the clock back, his treatment was of course utterly unfair and I am pleased to have the chance to say how deeply sorry I and we all are for what happened to him ... So on behalf of the British government, and all those who live freely thanks to Alan's work I am very proud to say: we're sorry, you deserved so much better.[157][160]

In December 2011, William Jones and his Member of Parliament, John Leech英语John Leech (politician), created an e-petition英语e-petition[161] requesting that the British government pardon Turing for his conviction of "gross indecency":[162]

We ask the HM Government to grant a pardon to Alan Turing for the conviction of "gross indecency". In 1952, he was convicted of "gross indecency" with another man and was forced to undergo so-called "organo-therapy"—chemical castration. Two years later, he killed himself with cyanide, aged just 41. Alan Turing was driven to a terrible despair and early death by the nation he'd done so much to save. This remains a shame on the British government and British history. A pardon can go some way to healing this damage. It may act as an apology to many of the other gay men, not as well-known as Alan Turing, who were subjected to these laws.[161]

The petition gathered over 37,000 signatures,[161][163] and was submitted to Parliament by the Manchester MP John Leech英语John Leech (politician) but the request was discouraged by Justice Minister Lord McNally英语Tom McNally, Baron McNally#Political career, who said:[164]

A posthumous pardon was not considered appropriate as Alan Turing was properly convicted of what at the time was a criminal offence. He would have known that his offence was against the law and that he would be prosecuted. It is tragic that Alan Turing was convicted of an offence that now seems both cruel and absurd—particularly poignant given his outstanding contribution to the war effort. However, the law at the time required a prosecution and, as such, long-standing policy has been to accept that such convictions took place and, rather than trying to alter the historical context and to put right what cannot be put right, ensure instead that we never again return to those times.[165]

John Leech英语John Leech (politician), the MP for Manchester Withington (2005–15), submitted several bills to Parliament[166] and led a high-profile campaign to secure the pardon. Leech made the case in the House of Commons that Turing's contribution to the war made him a national hero and that it was "ultimately just embarrassing" that the conviction still stood.[167] Leech continued to take the bill through Parliament and campaigned for several years, gaining the public support of numerous leading scientists, including Stephen Hawking.[168][169] At the British premiere of a film based on Turing's life, The Imitation Game, the producers thanked Leech for bringing the topic to public attention and securing Turing's pardon.[170] Leech is now regularly described as the "architect" of Turing's pardon and subsequently the Alan Turing Law which went on to secure pardons for 75,000 other men and women convicted of similar crimes.[171][172][173][174][175][176][177][178][179][180][181]

On 26 July 2012, a bill was introduced in the House of Lords to grant a statutory pardon to Turing for offences under section 11 of the Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885, of which he was convicted on 31 March 1952.[182] Late in the year in a letter to The Daily Telegraph, the physicist Stephen Hawking and 10 other signatories including the Astronomer Royal Lord Rees, President of the Royal Society Sir Paul Nurse, Lady Trumpington英语Jean Barker, Baroness Trumpington (who worked for Turing during the war) and Lord Sharkey英语John Sharkey, Baron Sharkey (the bill's sponsor) called on Prime Minister David Cameron to act on the pardon request.[183] The government indicated it would support the bill,[184][185][186] and it passed its third reading in the House of Lords in October.[187]

At the bill's second reading in the House of Commons on 29 November 2013, Conservative MP Christopher Chope objected to the bill, delaying its passage. The bill was due to return to the House of Commons on 28 February 2014,[188] but before the bill could be debated in the House of Commons,[189] the government elected to proceed under the royal prerogative of mercy英语royal prerogative of mercy. On 24 December 2013, Queen Elizabeth II signed a pardon for Turing's conviction for "gross indecency", with immediate effect.[190] Announcing the pardon, Lord Chancellor Chris Grayling said Turing deserved to be "remembered and recognised for his fantastic contribution to the war effort" and not for his later criminal conviction.[163][191] The Queen officially pronounced Turing pardoned in August 2014.[192] The Queen's action is only the fourth royal pardon granted since the conclusion of the Second World War.[193] Pardons are normally granted only when the person is technically innocent, and a request has been made by the family or other interested party; neither condition was met in regard to Turing's conviction.[194]

In September 2016, the government announced its intention to expand this retroactive exoneration to other men convicted of similar historical indecency offences, in what was described as an "Alan Turing law".[195][196] The Alan Turing law is now an informal term for the law in the United Kingdom, contained in the Policing and Crime Act 2017英语Policing and Crime Act 2017, which serves as an amnesty law英语amnesty law to retroactively pardon men who were cautioned or convicted under historical legislation that outlawed homosexual acts. The law applies in England and Wales.[197]

影响[编辑]

奖项与荣誉[编辑]

The Alan Turing Building英语Alan Turing Building at the University of Manchester in 2008

Turing was appointed an officer of the Order of the British Empire in 1946.[84] He was also elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS)英语List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1951 in 1951.[8]

Turing has been honoured in various ways in Manchester, the city where he worked towards the end of his life. In 1994, a stretch of the A6010 road英语A6010 road (the Manchester city intermediate ring road) was named "Alan Turing Way". A bridge carrying this road was widened, and carries the name Alan Turing Bridge. A statue of Turing英语Alan Turing Memorial was unveiled in Manchester on 23 June 2001 in Sackville Park英语Sackville Park, between the University of Manchester building on Whitworth Street and Canal Street. The memorial statue depicts the "father of computer science" sitting on a bench at a central position in the park. Turing is shown holding an apple. The cast bronze bench carries in relief the text 'Alan Mathison Turing 1912–1954', and the motto 'Founder of Computer Science' as it could appear if encoded by an Enigma machine: 'IEKYF ROMSI ADXUO KVKZC GUBJ'. However, the meaning of the coded message is disputed, as the 'u' in 'computer' matches up with the 'u' in 'ADXUO'. As a letter encoded by an enigma machine cannot appear as itself, the actual message behind the code is uncertain.[198]

Turing memorial statue plaque in Sackville Park英语Sackville Park, Manchester

A plaque at the statue's feet reads 'Father of computer science, mathematician, logician, wartime codebreaker, victim of prejudice'. There is also a Bertrand Russell quotation: "Mathematics, rightly viewed, possesses not only truth, but supreme beauty—a beauty cold and austere, like that of sculpture." The sculptor buried his own old Amstrad英语Amstrad computer under the plinth英语plinth as a tribute to "the godfather of all modern computers".[199]

In 1999, Time magazine named Turing as one of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th century and stated, "The fact remains that everyone who taps at a keyboard, opening a spreadsheet or a word-processing program, is working on an incarnation of a Turing machine."[9]

A blue plaque was unveiled at King's College on the centenary of his birth on 23 June 2012 and is now installed at the college's Keynes Building on King's Parade.[200][201]

On 25 March 2021, the Bank of England publicly unveiled the design for a new £50 note, featuring Turing's portrait, before its official issue on 23 June, Turing's birthday. Turing was selected as the new face of the note in 2019 following a public nomination process.[202]

百年诞辰[编辑]

To mark the 100th anniversary of Turing's birth, the Turing Centenary Advisory Committee (TCAC) co-ordinated the Alan Turing Year英语Alan Turing Year, a year-long programme of events around the world honouring Turing's life and achievements. The TCAC, chaired by S. Barry Cooper英语S. Barry Cooper with Turing's nephew Sir John Dermot Turing acting as Honorary President, worked with the University of Manchester faculty members and a broad spectrum of people from Cambridge University and Bletchley Park.

钢雕塑争议[编辑]

In May 2020 it was reported by Gay Star News英语Gay Star News that a 12-英尺(3.7-米) high steel sculpture, to honour Turing, designed by Sir Antony Gormley英语Antony Gormley, was planned to be installed at King's College, Cambridge. Historic England英语Historic England, however, was quoted as saying that the abstract work of 19 steel slabs "... would be at odds with the existing character of the College. This would result in harm, of a less than substantial nature, to the significance of the listed buildings and landscape, and by extension the conservation area."[203]

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