最小質量恆星列表

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太陽與紅矮星、棕矮星、木星之間的比較

這是一份有關最小質量恆星的列表,依木星質量太陽質量的多寡來依序排列。

恆星質量是恆星最重要的一個要素。質量加上化學成分能確定一顆恆星的光度、實際上的大小和最後的命運。列在表上的恆星質量都小於1倍太陽質量,包括棕矮星紅矮星。研究顯示大於13倍木星質量的天體會發生核聚變,而大於65倍木星質量的天體會產生聚變,因此恆星的質量不會低於13倍木星質量[1]棕矮星是類恆星天體的一種,它們是所謂「失敗的恆星」(Failed Star),由於質量不足,不能像正常恆星那樣通過核聚變維持光度,無法成為主序星。但它們的內部及表面均呈對流狀態,不同的化學物質並不會在內部分層存在。研究表明褐矮星為處於13倍木星質量與75-80倍木星質量之間的天體。[2]

小質量恆星的種類[编辑]

紅矮星(左)與太陽(右)的大小

黑矮星[编辑]

黑矮星Black dwarf)是一顆白矮星在溫度低到不再能發出可以被偵測到的光或熱時的狀態。因為目前宇宙還沒有任何黑矮星存在,因此其質量不明。[3]

棕矮星[编辑]

棕矮星Brown dwarf)是一種小質量恆星。它們就是「失敗的恆星」。由於質量不足,不能像其他恆星通過氫核聚變維持光度,因此無法成為主序星,並導致其質量較低。棕矮星的質量為13倍至80倍木星質量,即太陽質量的0.01至0.08倍。[2]

紅矮星[编辑]

紅矮星Red dwarf)是一種質量較小、溫度較低的恆星[1],其質量是太陽質量的0.075至0.5倍。[4]

橙矮星[编辑]

橙矮星Orange dwarf),是較為接近太陽質量的恆星種類,其質量是太陽質量的0.5至0.8倍。[5]

黃矮星[编辑]

黃矮星Yellow dwarf),是最接近太陽質量的恆星種類。這些恆星的質量大約在0.8至1.0太陽質量[5]太陽也是一個黃矮星。[6]

白矮星[编辑]

白矮星White dwarf),是低質量恆星演化階段的最終產物。這些恆星的質量大於1太陽質量。[7]

列表[编辑]

太陽(左上)、低質量的恆星(左中)、棕矮星(右中)、木星(右下)
棕矮星(左)與土星(右)的比較
OGLE-TR-122(中)與八大行星的比較
格利泽229A與B的照片,該系統距離地球約19光年
2M1207與2M1207b的照片,該系統距離地球約173光年
最小質量恆星的列表(紅色為M型主序星,深棕色為T棕矮星,浅棕色为L型棕矮星,橘色為K型主序星,蓝色为A B O型蓝矮星)
恆星名稱 太陽質量 木星質量 光谱类型 參考文獻
木星(非恒星,参照物) 0.00096 1 行星 [8]
蝘蜓座110913-773444 0.009 8 T [9]
OTS 44 0.013 15 T [10]
蛇夫座1622 A 0.014 15.5 T [11]
蛇夫座1622 B 0.016 17.5 T [11]
格利泽229 0.021 25 T [12]
2M1207 0.021 25 T [13]
印第安座εB 0.024 28 T [14]
HD 98230B 0.037 39 L [15]
Teide 1 0.041 43 L [16]
印第安座εA 0.045 47 L [14]
沃夫424B 0.050 52 L [14]
葛利斯570D 0.050 52 L [14]
LP 944-020 0.056 58 L [17]
2MASS 0415-0935 0.060 63 L [18]
Wolf 424A 0.060 63 L [19]
DENIS 1048-0039 0.065 68 L [20]
2MASS 1835+3259 0.070 75 L [18]
DENIS 0255-4700 0.070 75 L [20]
格利泽1245C 0.074 79 L [21]
2MASS 0532+8246 0.077 81 M9.5 [18]
LHS 3003GJ 3877 0.077 81 M9.5 [22]
格利澤165B 0.080 84 M9 [23]
格利澤623B 0.080 84 M9 [23]
LHS 1070B 0.080 84 M9 [24]
LHS 1070C 0.080 84 M9 [24]
羅斯614B 0.080 84 M9 [17]
蒂加登星 0.080 84 M9 [17]
VB 10 0.080 84 M9 [25]
Gl 105C 0.082 86 M9 [26]
LHS 292 0.083 87 M8 [17]
LP 731-058 0.083 87 M8 [17]
巨蟹座DX 0.087 91 M7 [17]
VB 8 0.088 92 M7 [27]
劍魚座ABC 0.089 93 M7 [28]
OGLE-TR-122b 0.091 96 M6.5 [29]
沃夫 359 0.1 105 M4 [17]
太陽 1.0 1042 G2 [30]
天狼星 2.32 2436 A2 [31]
参宿七 17 ------ B8 [32]
参宿一 28 ------ 09.5 [33]
R136a1 300 ------ O6-Ia0 [34]

堰蜓座110913-773444[编辑]

蝘蜓座110913-773444比之前所知最小的棕矮星OTS 44還要小,質量祇有8倍木星質量,甚至比一些太陽系外行星還小。科學家對這個天體的分類還沒有取得共識,所以堰蜓座110913-773444可能是一顆次棕矮星或是一顆流浪行星[9]

參見[编辑]

參考[编辑]

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