巨大質量恆星列表

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這是一份有關巨大質量恆星的列表,依太陽質量的多寡排列(1太陽質量=太陽的質量而不是太陽系的質量)。

恆星質量是恆星最重要的一個要素。質量加上化學成分能確定一顆恆星的光度、它實際上的大小和它最後的命運。列在表上的恆星,由於它們的質量非常巨大,到最後大多都會爆發成超新星甚至是極超新星,然後形成黑洞

不確定性和警告[编辑]

藝術家筆下的遠觀巨大質量恆星

表中所列出的恆星質量都是從理論上推測的,依據的是恆星很難測定的溫度和絕對星等。所有列出的恆星質量都是不確定的:因為天文學家已經將目前的理論和測量技術發揮到了極限,而無論是理論或觀測,只要有一個錯誤,或是兩者都錯,結果就會不正確。例如仙王座VV變星,依據這顆恆星特有的產物估算,質量就可能是太陽的25至40倍,或是100倍。[1]

大質量恆星是很罕見的,表中列出的恆星距離都在數千光年以上,它們孤單地存在著,使距離很難測量。除了很遠之外,這些質量極端巨大的恆星似乎都被噴發出來的氣體雲氣包圍著;周圍的氣體會遮蔽恆星的光度,使原本就很難測量的光度和溫度更難測量,並且也使測量他們內部化學成分變成更加複雜的問題。[2]

另一方面,雲氣的遮蔽也阻礙了觀測,而難以確認是一顆大質量恆星,還是多星系統。下表中必然有一定數量的恆星也許是轨道极近的聯星,每一顆恆星的質量必然也不小,但不一定是巨大的質量;這些系統仍然可以二選一的是一顆或多顆大質量恆星,或有許多質量不大的伴星。因此表中許多恆星的質量經常是目前被研究的主題,質量經常被重測,而且經常被校正。[3]

表中列出的質量中,數據最可靠的恆星是NGC 3603-A1[4]維斯特盧2[5],因為兩者都是聯星系統(兩顆恆星沿著軌道互繞)。天文學家能夠運用克卜勒行星運動定律,經由研究它們的軌道運動可以測量出兩顆恆星各自的質量。NGC 3603-A1和維斯特盧2還都是食雙星,還可以測量徑向速度和光度曲線來測量質量。

恆星演化[编辑]

一定數量的恆星也許已經拋出了比目前估計還要多的質量,但因為這些巨額質量的流失是經由次級的假超新星爆炸事件產生的,因此可能已經拋出了10倍於太陽的質量。也會有一定數量的超新星和極超新星殘骸,它們的質量可以依據在爆炸前觀測到的前超新星或前極超新星的質量,和超新星或極超新星爆炸時的能量和事件的類型來估計。[6]這種恆星(如果還未爆炸)將很容易出現在這張表中(但是它們也可能不在表中)。

巨大質量的恆星列表[编辑]

由左至右:紅矮星、太陽、藍矮星和R136a1

表上的恆星質量估計至少有太陽質量的25倍:

恆星名字 太陽質量(太陽=1) 參考文獻
R136a超星團 12顆恆星:37至265 [7]
R136a1 265,原初320 [8]
R136a2 195,原初240 [8][4]
R136c 175,原初220,但很有可能是未分辨出的双星系統 [9]
WR 102ka 150-175 [10]
HD 269810 150 [11]
VFTS 682 150 [12]
R136a3 135,原初165,比R136a2明亮 [9]
WR42e 125-135 [13]
NGC 3603B 132,原初166 [14]
LBV 1806-20 130 [15]
海山二 120,原初150 [16]
NGC 3603-A1 A:120,B:92 [4]
HD 93129 A + B A:120,B:80 [17][18]
Pismis 24-1 A + B A:120-100、B:100 [19]
HD 93250 118 [20]
NGC 3603C 113,原初137 [4]
R136b 111,原初136 [21]
天鵝座 OB2-12 110 [22]
圓拱星團 許多顆恆星:100至130 [23][24][25][26]
Pismis 24-17 100 [19]
Melnick 42 90 [27][28][29]
維斯特盧2 A:83,B:82 [5]
手槍星 80-150 [30]
HD 97950 80 [31][32]
Sk-71 51 80 [33]
WR22 78 [34][35]
M33 X-7的伴星 70 [36]
船底座AG 70 [37]
LH54-425 A + B A:62,B:37 [38]
Var 83(位於M33中) 60-85 [39]
麒麟座15 59 [40]
普拉斯基特星 A:54,B:56 [41][42][43]
WR102c 45-55 [44]
劍魚座S 45 [45]
IRS-8* 44.5 [46]
HD 5980 A + B A:58-79,B:51-67 [47][48][49][50]
Chi2 Orionis 43 [51]
少衛 43 [52]
Sher 25(位於NGC 3603中) 40-52 [53][54]
參宿二 40 [55]
HD 14893 40 [56][57]
IRAS 05423-7120 40 [33]
Theta1 Orionis C 40 [58]
Xi Persei 26-36 [59][60]
NGC300 X-1的伴星 38 [61]
Zeta-1 Scorpii 36 [22]
IC10 X-1的伴星 35 [62]
天社一 A 30 [63]
天鵝座 P 30 [64]
R 66 <30 [65]
參宿一 27 [66]
IRS 15 26 [67]
仙王座VV <25 [1]
王良增一 25 [68]
天鵝座KY 25 [69]
造父四 19 [70]
弧矢增二十二 22.5 [71]
NGC 7538 S 20-40 [72]
大犬座EZ 20 [73]
螣蛇十二 14-30 [74]
仙后座V509 11 [75]
大犬座VY 9-25 [76]

黑洞[编辑]

黑洞是巨型恆星的最終演化物。理論上它們不是恆星,它們核心不再引起核聚變。另外,理论上存在微黑洞,它们与恒星演化无关。

愛丁頓光度極限[编辑]

天文學家經過長期推論的結果顯示,一顆原恆星成長到120倍太陽質量以上時必然會猛烈爆炸。很早期的第三星族星可以超過這個極限,如果目前宇宙存在任何質量超過120倍太陽質量的恆星,它們將對現時的恆星演化理論產生疑慮。

質量極限出現的原因是因為擁有更巨大質量的恆星在消耗燃料的速率更快,比其他中小質量的恆星更加巨大。如果一顆巨型恆星在恆星核心引起核聚變所發岀的壓力發光能量超出它本身內部拉扯重力,就稱為愛丁頓極限。在超過這個極限時,恆星將會開始推擠自己,或流失足夠的質量使內部降低到至恆星可以承受的速率。在理論上,由於恆星風會讓許多物質流出,一顆更巨大的恆星不能一直維持如此巨大的質量。[80]

天文學家在研究銀河系已知恆星最密集的星群:圓拱星團後,證實在那裏不存在質量達到150倍太陽質量的恆星,但经过对大麦哲伦云星系R136超星团研究后,却发现了多颗超过这一极限的恒星,这些超大的恒星很有可能是合并的产物。[81]

參見[编辑]

參考文獻[编辑]

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外部連結[编辑]