巨大恆星列表

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提示:本条目的主题不是巨大質量恆星列表

以下為已知體積最大的恆星列表,其排序比較的依據是太陽半徑(695,500公里)。 然而已知恆星大小的確實排序尚未消楚,也尚未妥善定義。原因有 雙星有時會分開處理,有時會被視為單一系統; 估計恆星大小,不同的測量法會得到不同的結果; 部份恆星的測量結果並不準確; 大部分恆星的距離未能確定,因此其大小亦未能確定; 大部分恆星均有大氣層,而這些大氣層會導致測量結果被高估; 有理論指出銀河系中並沒有半徑大於太陽1500倍的恆星; 一個關於麥哲倫雲的調查發現星雲共有44個半徑大於太陽700倍的紅巨星[1],這顯示還有很多巨大恆星未被發現。

巨大恆星的種類[编辑]

一系列包括太陽在內的赫羅圖例子。

次巨星[编辑]

次巨星Subgiant)是一類正在脹大為一顆巨星的恆星。它們的直徑和亮度都比主序星(即矮星)大,但直徑通常會比巨星小。次巨星是巨大恆星中最小的一種。[2]

巨星[编辑]

巨星Giant)是在一顆恆星在核心所有的氫都經由核融合耗盡後而變成的一類恆星[3]。巨星的半徑是太陽的10倍至100倍,蒭藁增二[4]参宿七[5]老人星[6]便是典型的巨星。

亮巨星[编辑]

亮巨星Bright giant)是介於超巨星和巨星之間的一類恆星。[7]帝座便是一個例子。[8]

超巨星[编辑]

超巨星Supergiant)是巨大恆星中較大的一類恆星。這些恆星都是由一顆質量較高的恆星演變而成的。超巨星的壽命較為短暫,只有約一千萬至五千萬年。超巨星的半徑是太陽的30至500倍,部份更超過1000倍。[9]仙王座V354[10]仙王座μ[11]便是典型的超巨星。

特超巨星[编辑]

特超巨星Hypergiant)是巨大恆星中最大的一類恆星,但部份特超巨星會比超巨星小。特超巨星的壽命非常短暫,只有約數百萬年。特超巨星的半徑能大於太陽1000倍。[12]大犬座VY便是一個例子。[13]

巨星列表[编辑]

大犬座VY(右上)與太陽(左下)的大小比較
心宿二(左)、大角星(右)、太陽(右上)
獵犬座Y(右)與太陽(左)的大小比較
畢宿五(左)與太陽(右)的大小比較
參宿一(右)與太陽(左)大小比較
飛馬座IK(左)與太陽(右)的大小比較
紅矮星(左下)、太陽(左中)、藍矮星(右中)、R136a1(右上)
參宿四(大圓)、劍魚座R(小圓)、下圖(中)
參宿四(大圓)、劍魚座R(小圓)、下圖(中)
參宿七(左上)、畢宿五(右上)、下圖(中)
參宿七(左上)、畢宿五(右上)、下圖(中)
參宿五(左上)、大陵五B(右上)、太陽(中)
參宿五(左上)、大陵五B(右上)、太陽(中)


巨大恆星列表
恆星名稱 太阳半径
太阳 = 1)
註釋
盾牌座UY 1,708[14] 尺寸誤差為±192個太陽半徑。
天鵝座NML 1,650[15] 已知光度最高的恆星之一。[16]
WOH G64 1,540[17] 大麥哲倫星系中最大的恆星,但其不尋常的位置和運動顯示它可能並沒有那麼大。
維斯特盧1-26 1,530-1,580[18](–2,544)[19][20] 具有較強輻射的恆星,其大小不能被確定。
人马座VX 1,520[10] 人马座VX是一個脈動變星。
天鵝座KY 1,420–2,850[21] 天鵝座KY的大小可能被高估,因為其不尋常的K頻和人為的發紅校正錯誤。而它亦可能被低估,因為科學家是以同類恆星作比較得出其大小的。
大犬座VY 1420[13][22] 曾被以為是最大恆星,但改良的測量方式發現體積較小。[23][22]
天蠍座AH 1,287-1,535[14] 天蠍座AH的直徑不明是因為其溫度也不明。
仙王座RW 1,260–1,610 [24] 仙王座RW的亮度和光譜類型均不明,因此無法斷定其溫度和大小。
仙后座PZ 1,190-1,940[21] 仙后座PZ的大小可能被高估,因為其不尋常的K頻和人為的發紅校正錯誤。而它亦可能被低估,因為科學家是以同類恆星作比較得出其大小的。
仙王座VV A 1600[25][26]–1,900[25] 與仙王座VV B組成的雙星系統。[27]
人馬座KW 1,009[14]-1,460[21][21]
造父四仙王座μ 650[11]-1,420[21]
天鵝座BI 916[10]-1,240[21]
仙王座V354 690[10]-1,520[21]
英仙座S 780-1,230[21] 位於英仙座雙星團內。
天鵝座BC 1,140[21]
船底座RT 1,090[21]
半人马座V396 1,070[21]
船底座CK 1,060[21]
天鵝座V1749 620-1,040[21]
英仙座RS 1,000[21] 位於英仙座雙星團內。
狐狸座NR 980[21]
英仙座RW 980[21]
参宿四(獵戶座α) 950[28]
心宿二(天蠍座α) 883[29]
船底座V602 860[21]
仙后座TZ 800[21]
船底座IX 790[21]
英仙座SU 780[21] 位於英仙座雙星團內。
雙子座TV 770[21]
仙王座V355 300[10]-770[21]
船底座V382 700 屬於罕見的黃特超巨星
以下恆星並非巨大恆星,只作比較用
金牛座119(紅寶石星)[30] 608 會被月亮遮掩,因此可以準確地測量其直徑。[31]
劍魚座S 550[32]
仙王座T 540 [33]
獵戶座S 530 [34]
長蛇座W 520 [35]
金牛座119 510 [36]
仙后座R 470 [37]
帝座武仙座α) 460[8]
螣蛇十二 450 黃特超巨星[38]
仙后座V509 400-750[39]
蒭藁增二(米拉) 400[4] 米拉變星原型
麒麟座V838 380 曾被視為巨大恆星之一,但改良的測量方式發現體積較小。[40]
天鵝座χ 350 [41][42]
劍魚座R 350 [43]
獅子座R 350 [44]
手槍星 306 藍特超巨星[45]
弧矢一(大犬座δ) 237[46]
獵犬座Y 215 其中一個最紅和最低溫的恆星。[47]
天津四 (天鵝座α) 204[48]
海山二 85–195[49] 以前被認為是最龐大的單一恆星,但於2005年被發現是雙星系統。[50]
危宿三(飛馬座ε) 187[51]
御夫座ζ 148 [52]
柱一(御夫座εA) 145[53]
廁一 (天兔座α) 132[54]
LBV 1806-20 120[55]
牡丹星雲恆星 100 銀河系最明亮的恆星之一。[56]
十字架一(南十字座γ) 88[57]
参宿七 (獵戶座β) 74[5]
老人星(船底座α) 65 夜空中第二亮的恆星。[6]
畢宿五(金牛座α) 44.2[58]
R136a1 35.4 已知質量最大和最明亮的恆星。[59]
天鵝座X-1 20-22 與黑洞組成雙星系統。該黑洞比天鵝座X-1小500,000倍。[60]
仙王座VV B 10 與仙王座VV A組成的雙星系統。[27]
天狼星 1.711[61] 夜空中最亮的恆星。[61]

參見[编辑]

參考資料[编辑]

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外部連結[编辑]