血液检验项目正常参考值范围

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血液检验项目正常参考值范围英语Reference ranges for blood tests),指的是医疗保健专家从血液样品中选取的一组用来描述医疗检验结果的正常参考值。

血液检验的测量值在临床中意义非常重要,人们通过对体液进行分析来寻找属于病理学中的病理改变来作为是否患病的参考,属于对临床化学(临床生化学、化学病理学、纯血液化学的总称)领域中的研究。

分类[编辑]

离子及微量金属[编辑]

这里包括了一些如含铁结合蛋白、含铜结合蛋白之类的一些蛋白质。

项目 下限值 上限值 单位 备注
(Na) 135[1], 137[2][3] 145[2][3], 147[1] mmol/L or mEq/L[1]
31[4] , 32[4] 33[4] , 34[4] mg/dl
(K) 3.5[1][3] , 3.6[2] 5.0[1][2][3] , 5.1 mmol/L or mEq/L[1] 参见低钾血症
高钾血症
14[5] 20[5] mg/dl
(Cl) 95[1], 98[6], 100[3] 105[1], 106[6], 110[3] mmol/L or mEq/L[1]
340[7] 370[7] mg/dl
离子 (Ca) 1.03[8] , 1.10[3] 1.23[8] , 1.30[3] mmol/L
4.1 [9] , 4.4[9] 4.9 [9] , 5.2[9] mg/dL
血清铁 (TSI) – 男性 65[10], 76[2] 176[10], 198[2] µg/dL
11.6[11][12] , 13.6[12] 30[11], 32[12], 35[12] μmol/L
总血清铁(TSI) – 女性 26[2], 50[10] 170[2][10] µg/dL
4.6[12] , 8.9[11] 30.4[11] μmol/L
总血清铁(TSI) - 新生儿 100[10] 250[10] µg/dL
18[12] 45[12] µmol/L
总血清铁(TSI) - 儿童 50[10] 120[10] µg/dL
9[12] 21[12] µmol/L
总铁结合力(TIBC) 240[10], 262[2] 450[10], 474[2] μg/dL
43[12] , 47[12] 81[12] , 85[12] µmol/L
转铁蛋白 190[13], 194[3], 204[2] 326[3], 330[13], 360[2] mg/dL
25[14] 45[14] μmol/L
饱和转铁蛋白 20[10] 50[10]  %
– 男性 12[15] 300[15] ng/mL
27 [16] 670[16] pmol/L
铁 – 女性 12[15] 150[15] ng/mL
27 [16] 330[16] pmol/L
10[17], 20[18] 35[17], 65[18] μmol/L
17[19] , 34[19] 60[19] , 110[19] μg/dL
70[20] 150[20] µg/dL
11 [21] 24[21] μmol/L
铜蓝蛋白 15[20] 60[20] mg/dL
1 [22] 4[22] μmol/L
钙总量 (Ca) 2.1[1][23] , 2.2[3] 2.5[23][3], 2.6[23], 2.8[1] mmol/L
8.4[1], 8.5[20] 10.2[1], 10.5[20] mg/dL
磷酸 (HPO42−) 0.8 1.5 [24] mmol/L
无机 (血清) 1.0[1] 1.5[1] mmol/L
3.0[1] 4.5[1] mg/dL
(Cu) 11[25] 24 μmol/L
(Zn) 60 [26] , 72[27] 110[27] , 130[26] μg/dL
9.2[28] , 11[3] 17[3] , 20[28] µmol/L
1.5[20] , 1.7[29] 2.0[20] , 2.3[29] mEq/L or mg/dL
0.6[30] , 0.7[3] 0.82[30] , 0.95[3] mmol/L
(最适范围) 120[31] μg/L

酸碱缓冲对[编辑]

酸碱缓冲对如果没有特别指定为动脉/经脉血,一般指的是动脉血,而不是静脉血。

酸碱缓冲对中的少数项目在动脉/静脉中差异很大。[32]

项目 动脉/静脉 下限值 上限值 单位 备注
pH 动脉 7.34[2], 7.35[1] 7.44[2], 7.45[1]
静脉 7.31[33] 7.41[33]
[H+] 动脉 36[1] 44[1] nmol/L
3.6 [34] 4.4[34] ng/dL
过剰碱基 动脉和静脉[33] -3[33] +3[33] mEq/L
分圧 (pO2) 动脉 10[1] , 11[35] 13[35] , 14[1] kPa
75[1][2], 83[20] 100[2], 105[1] mmHg 又はtorr
静脉 4.0[35] 5.3[35] kPa
30[33] 40[33] mmHg 又は torr
氧饱和度 动脉 94[33], 95[6], 96[20] 100[6][20]  %
静脉 Approximately 75[6]
二氧化碳分压 (CO2) 动脉 4.4[1], 4.7[35] 5.9[1] , 6.0[35] kPa 指定pCO2
33[1], 35[2] 44[1], 45[2] mmHg 或 torr
23[33] 30[33] mmol/L
100[36] 132[36] mg/dL
静脉 5.5[35] 6.8[35] kPa
41[33] 51[33] mmHg 又は torr
碳酸氢根离子 (HCO3, ) 动脉和静脉 18[20] 23[20] mmol/L
110[37] 140[37] mg/dL
标准碳酸氢根离子(SBCe) 动脉和静脉 21, 22[1] 27, 28[1] mmol/L or mEq/L[1]
134[37] 170[37] mg/dL

肝功能[编辑]

项目 检验者类型 下限值 上限值 单位 备注
总蛋白 60[1], 63[2] 78[1], 82[2], 84[20] g/L 参见低蛋白血症
白蛋白 35[1][38] 48[2], 55[1] g/L 参见低蛋白血症
3.5[2] 4.8[2], 5.5[1] U/L
540[39] 740[39] μmol/L
球蛋白 23[1] 35[1] g/L
总胆红素 1.7[40], 2[1], 3.4[40], 5[3] 17[1][40], 22[40], 25[3] μmol/L
0.1[1], 0.2[2], 0.29[41] 1.0[1][20], 1.3[2], 1.4[41] mg/dL
结合型/直接胆红素 0.0[1] or N/A[3] 5[1] , 7[40][3] μmol/L
0[1][2] 0.3[1][2], 0.4[20] mg/dL
丙氨酸转氨酶(ALT/ALAT[3]) 5[42], 7[2], 8[1] 20[1], 21[6], 56[2] U/L 也被称为血清谷丙转氨酶
(SGPT:serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase)
女性 0.15[3] 0.75[3] µkat/L
男性 0.15[3] 1.1[3]
天冬氨酸氨基转移酶(AST/ASAT[3]) 女性 6[43] 34[43] IU/L 也被称为

血清谷草转氨酶
(SGOT:serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase)

0.25[3] 0.60[3] µkat/L
男性 8[43] 40[43] IU/L
0.25[3] 0.75[3] µkat/L
碱性磷酸酶(ALP) 女性 42[42] 98[42] U/L
男性 53[42] 128[42]
酶活性 0.6[3] 1.8[3] µkat/L
γ-谷氨酰转移酶(GGT) 5[42] , 8[2] 40[42], 78[2] U/L
女性 0.8[44] µkat/L
男性 1.3[44]

心肌酶[编辑]

项目 检验者类型 下限值 上限值 单位 备注
肌酸激酶 (CK) 男性 24[45], 38[2], 60[42] 174[20] , 320[42] U/L
or ng/mL
女性 24[45], 38[2], 96[20] 140[20] , 200[42]
CK-MB 0 3[2], 3.8[3], 5[42] ng/mL or μg/L[3]
脑利钠肽 (BNP) 男性 45-54 岁 4[46] 40[46] pg/mL
55-64 岁 5[46] 52[46]
65-74 岁 7[46] 67[46]
75-83 岁 9[46] 86[46]
女性 45-54 岁 8[46] 73[46]
55-64 岁 10[46] 93[46]
65-74 岁 13[46] 120[46]
75-83 岁 16[46] 155[46]
NT-proBNP 男性 < 45 岁 90[47] pg/mL
45-54 岁 140[47]
55-64 岁 180[47]
65-74 岁 230[47]
> 75 岁 850[47]
女性 < 45 岁 180[47]
45-54 岁 190[47]
55-64 岁 230[47]
65-74 岁 350[47]
> 75 岁 620[47]
肌红蛋白 女性 1[48] 66[48] ng/mL or µg/L
男性 17[48] 106[48]

疼痛开始12小时后肌钙蛋白的值:

项目 下限值 上限值 单位 参考
肌钙蛋白I 0.2[49] ng/mL or μg/L 通常的上限
0.2[49] 1.0[49] ng/mL or μg/L 急性冠脉综合征
0.4[50] 2.0[50] ng/mL or μg/L 平稳上升[50]
1.0[49], 1.5[51] n/a[49][51] ng/mL or μg/L 疑似心肌梗塞
肌钙蛋白T 0.02[49] ng/mL or μg/L 通常的上限
0.02[49] 0.10[49] ng/mL or μg/L 急性冠脉综合征
0.10[49] n/a[49] ng/mL or μg/L 疑似心肌梗塞

肿瘤标志物[编辑]

项目 下限值 上限值 单位 备注
甲胎蛋白 (AFP) 0 44[2] ng/mL
β人绒毛膜促性腺激素 (bHCG) n/a 5[2] IU/l or mU/ml 男性及非孕妇
CA 19-9 n/a 40[2] U/ml
CA-125 n/a 30[52] , 35[53] kU/L or U/mL
癌胚抗原 (CEA)
50岁的非吸烟者
n/a 3.4[3] , 3.6 [54] μg/l
癌胚抗原 (CEA)
70岁的非吸烟者
n/a 4.1[54] μg/l
癌胚抗原 (CEA) - 吸烟者 n/a 5[55] μg/l
前列腺特异抗原 (PSA) n/a 2.5[3] , 4[2] μg/L[2][3] or ng/mL[20] 45岁以下 <2,5 μg/L
前列腺酸性磷酸酶(PAP) 0 3[20] units/dL (Bodansky units)

内分泌[编辑]

甲状腺激素[编辑]

项目 检验者类型 下限值 上限值 单位
促甲状腺激素
(TSH or thyrotropin)
成人 -
通常范围
0.3[3], 0.4[2], 0.5[20], 0.6[56] 4.0[3], 4.5[2], 6.0[20] mIU/L or μIU/mL
成人 -
最适范围
0.3[57] , 0.5[58] 2.0[58] , 3.0[57] mIU/L or μIU/mL
婴儿 1.3[59] 19[59] mIU/L or μIU/mL
游离甲状腺素 (FT4) 通常的成人 0.7[60] ,0.8[2] 1.4[60], 1.5[2] ng/dL
9[61][3], 10[62], 12 [63] 18[3][61] , 23[63] pmol/L
婴儿 0-3日 2.0[60] 5.0[60] ng/dL
26[61] 65[61] pmol/L
婴儿 3-30日 0.9[60] 2.2[60] ng/dL
12[61] 30[61] pmol/L
儿童/青春期
30日 - 18岁
0.8[60] 2.0[60] ng/dL
10[61] 26[61] pmol/L
孕妇 0.5[60] 1.0[60] ng/dL
6.5[61] 13[61] pmol/L
总甲状腺素 60[62][63] 140[62], 160[63] nmol/L
4[62], 5.5[2] 11[62], 12.3[2] μg/dL
游离三碘甲状腺原氨酸 (FT3) 通常的成人 0.2[62] 0.5[62] ng/dL
3.1[64] 7.7[64] pmol/L
儿童 2-16岁 0.1[65] 0.6[65] ng/dL
1.5[64] 9.2[64] pmol/L
总三碘甲状腺原氨酸 0.9[3] , 1.1[62] 2.5[3] , 2.7[62] nmol/L
60[2], 75[62] 175[62], 181[2] ng/dL
甲状腺素结合球蛋白 (TBG) 12[2] 30[2] mg/L
甲状腺球蛋白 (Tg) 1.5[62] 30[62] pmol/L
1[62] 20 [62] μg/L

性激素[编辑]

项目 检验者类型 下限值 上限值 单位
睾丸酮 男性, 整体 8 [66] , 10[67] 27 [66] , 35[67] nmol/L
230 [68] , 300 [69] 780[68] - 1000[69] ng/dL
男性 < 50 岁 10[3] 45[3] nmol/L
290[68] 1300[68] ng/dL
男性 > 50 岁 6.2[3] 26[3] nmol/L
180[68] 740[68] ng/dL
女性 0.7[67] 2.8[67] - 3.0[3] nmol/L
20[69] 80[69] - 85[68] ng/dL
17-羟基孕酮 男性 0.06[20] 3.0[20] mg/L
女性 (卵泡期) 0.2[20] 1.0[20] mg/L
卵泡刺激素 (FSH) 青春期前 <1 [70] 3[70] IU/L
成人男性 1[70] 8 [70]
成人女性 (卵泡期及黄体期) 1[70] 11[70]
成人女性 (排卵) 6[70]
95% PI (standard)
26[70]
95% PI)
5[71]
90% PI (used in diagram)
15[71]
(90% PI)
闭经后女性 30[70] 118[70]
黄体生成素 (LH) 女性, peak 20[71]
90% PI (used in diagram)
75[71]
(90% PI)
IU/L
女性, 闭经后 15[72] 60 [72]
雌二醇 (雌激素的一种) 成人男性 50[73] 200 [73] pmol/L
1.4[74] 5.5[74] ng/dL
成人女性 (卵泡期,5日) 70[73]
95% PI (standard)
500 [73]
95% PI
pmol/L
110[71]
90% PI (used in diagram)
220[71]
90% PI
1.9[74] (95% PI) 14[74] (95% PI) ng/dL
3.0[74] (90% PI) 6.0[74] (90% PI)
成人女性 (排卵前) 400[73] 1500[73] pmol/L
11[74] 41[74] ng/dL
成人女性(黄体期) 70[73] 600[73] pmol/L
1.9[74] 16[74] ng/dL
成人女性 - free (not protein bound) 0.05[75] 0.9[75] ng/dL
1.7[75] 33[75] pmol/L
闭经后女性 N/A [73] < 130[73] pmol/L
N/A[74] < 3.5[74] ng/dL
黄体激素 女性(排卵日) 2.2[71] (90% PI) 9[71] (90% PI) nmol/L
70[76] (90% PI) 280[76] (90% PI) ng/dL
雄烯二酮 成人男性及女性 60[72] 270[72] ng/dL
闭经后女性 < 180[72]
青春期前 < 60[72]

其他激素[编辑]

项目 检验者类型 下限值 上限值 单位
副肾皮质刺激激素 (ACTH) 4.4[77] 18[78] ,22[77] pmol/L
20[2] 80[79] , 100[2] pg/mL
皮质醇 上午09:00 140[80] 700[80] nmol/L
5[81] 25[81] μg/dL
深夜 80[80] 350[80] nmol/L
2.9[81] 13[81] μg/dL
生长激素 (空腹时) 0 5[1] ng/mL
生长激素 (精氨酸刺激) 7[1] n/a ng/mL
催乳素 女性 n/a 20[2] ng/mL or µg/L[3]
男性 15[2]
甲状旁腺激素 (PTH) 10[82] , 17[83] 65[82] , 70[83] pg/mL
1.1[3] , 1.8[84] 6.9[3] , 7.5[84] pmol/L
25-羟胆钙化(固)醇 (维生素D的一种)
- 通常参考值
8[20][85] , 9[85] 40[85] , 80[20] ng/mL
20[86] , 23[87] 95[87] , 150[86] nmol/L
25-羟胆钙化(固)醇
- 治疗时参考值
30[88] , 40[89] 65[89] , 100[88] ng/mL
85[31] , 100[89] 120[31] , 160[89] nmol/L

氨基酸[编辑]

项目 性别 年龄 下限值 上限值 单位 异常上升值 最适值
同型半胱氨酸 女性 12–19 岁 3.3 [90] 7.2[90] μmol/L > 10.4 μmol/L
or
> 140 μg/dl
< 6.3 μmol/L [31]
or
< 85 μg/dL[31]
45[91] 100[91] μg/dL
>60 岁 4.9 [90] 11.6 [90] μmol/L
66[91] 160[91] μg/dL
男性 12–19 岁 4.3 [90] 9.9 [90] μmol/L > 11.4 μmol/L
or
> 150 μg/dL
60[91] 130[91] μg/dL
>60 岁 5.9 [90] 15.3 [90] μmol/L
80[91] 210[91] μg/dL

维生素类[编辑]

项目 检验者类型 标准范围 单位 最适范围
下限值 上限值 下限值 上限值
维生素A 30[20] 65[20] µg/dL
维生素B9
(叶酸/叶酸盐) - 血清
1岁以上 3.0[92] 16[92] ng/mL or μg/L 5 [93]
6.8[94] 36[94] nmol/l 11[94]
维生素B9
(叶酸/叶酸盐) - 红细胞
200[92] 600[92] ng/mL or μg/L
450[94] 1400[94] nmol/L
孕妇 ng/mL or μg/L 400[92]
nmol/L 900[92]
维生素B12 (钴胺素) 130 [95] , 160[96] 700[95] , 950[96] ng/L
100[97] , 120[3] 520[97] , 700[3] pmol/L
维生素C (抗坏血酸) 0.4[20] 1.5[20] mg/dL 0.9[31]
23[98] 85[98] μmol/L 50[31]
25-羟胆钙化(固)醇 (维生素D) 8[20][85] , 9[85] 40[85] , 80[20] ng/mL 30[88] , 40[89] 65[89] , 100[88]
20[86] , 23[87] 95[87] , 150[86] nmol/L 85[31] , 100[89] 120[31] , 160[89]
维生素E μmol/L 28[31]
mg/dL 1.2[31]

有害物质[编辑]

项目 参考种类 参考值 单位
健康的维持 < 20[6] or 40[20] µg/dL
乙醇 酒驾参考 0[99], 0.2[99], 0.8[99] or g/L
17.4[100] mmol/L

血液[编辑]

红细胞[编辑]

项目 检验者类型 下限值 上限值 单位 备注
血红蛋白 (Hb) 男性 2.0[101] , 2.1[1] 2.5[101] , 2.7[1] mmol/L 婴儿高,儿童低。
130[3], 132[2], 135[1] 162[2], 170[3], 175[1] g/L
女性 1.8[101] , 1.9[1] 2.3[101] , 2.5[1][101] mmol/L 成人间性别差异很小。
120[3] [1][2] 150[3], 152[2], 160[1][20] g/L
血浆中血红蛋白 0.16[1] 0.62[1] μmol/L 通常仅存在于小型红细胞内。
1 4 mg/dL
糖化血红蛋白 (HbA1c) < 50 岁 3.6[3] 5.0[3]  % of Hb
> 50 岁 3.9[3] 5.3[3]
结合珠蛋白 < 50 岁 0.35[3] 1.9[3] g/L
> 50 岁 0.47[3] 2.1[3]
红细胞比容 (Hct) 男性 0.39[3], 0.4[2], 0.41[1], 0.45[20] 0.50[3], 0.52[2],0.53[1] , 0.62[20]
女性 0.35[3], 0.36[1],0.37[2][20] 0.46[1][2][3], 0.48[20]
儿童 0.31[2] 0.43[2]
平均红细胞体积 (MCV) 男性 76[20], 82[2] 100[20], 102[2] fL 容积婴儿高,儿童低。
女性 78[2] 101[2] fL
红细胞粒度分布幅(Red blood cell distribution width (RDW)) 11.5[2] 14.5[2]  %
平均红细胞血红蛋白(Mean cell hemoglobin(MCH)) 0.39[1] 0.54[1] fmol/cell
25[1], 27[20][3] 32[20], 33[3], 35[1] pg/cell
平均红细胞血红蛋白浓度(Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration(MCHC)) 31[2], 32[20][3] 35[2], 36[20][3] g/dL
4.8 [102], 5.0[102] 5.4[102] , 5.6[102] mmol/L
红细胞 (RBC) 男性 4.2[20], 4.3[1][2][3] 5.7[3], 5.9[1], 6.2[2], 6.9[20] x1012/L
女性 3.5[1], 3.8[2], 3.9[3] 5.1[3], 5.5[1][2] x1012/L
婴儿/儿童 3.8[2] 5.5[2] x1012/L
网织红细胞 26[3] 130[3] x109/L
成人 0.5[1][2] 1.5[1][2]  % of RBC
新生儿 1.1[2] 4.5[2]  % of RBC
婴儿 0.5[2] 3.1[2]  % of RBC

白细胞[编辑]

项目 检验者类型 下限值 上限值 单位 备注
白细胞数 (WBC) 成人 3.5[3], 3.9[103], 4.1[2], 4.5[1] 9.0[3], 10.0[103], 10.9[2], 11[1]
  • x109/L
  • x103/mm3 or
  • x103/μL
新生儿 9[104] 30[104]
1岁婴儿 6[104] 18[104]
中性粒细胞 (A.K.A. grans, polys, PMNs, or segs) 成人 1.3[3], 1.8[103], 2[104] 5.4[3], 7[103], 8[104] x109/L
45-54[1] 62[1], 74  % of WBC
新生儿 6[104] 26[104] x109/L
杆状单核细胞(中性粒细胞) (Neutrophilic band forms) 成人 0.7[104] x109/L
3[1] 5[1]  % of WBC
淋巴细胞 成人 0.7[3] , 1.0[103][104] 3.5[103], 3.9[3], 4.8[104] x109/L
16-25[1] 33[1], 45  % of WBC
新生儿 2[104] 11[104] x109/L
单核细胞 成人 0.1[3], 0.2[105][95] 0.8[95][104][3] x109/L
3[1], 4.0 7[1], 10  % of WBC
新生儿 0.4[104] 3.1[104] x109/L
单核白细胞(单核细胞+淋巴细胞) 成人 1.5 5 x109/L
20 35  % of WBC
CD4阳性T细胞 成人 0.4 [2] , 0.5[6] 1.5[6] , 1.8[2] x109/L
嗜酸性粒细胞 成人 0.0[3], 0.04[95] 0.44[95], 0.45[104], 0.5[3] x109/L
1[1] 3[1], 7  % of WBC
新生儿 0.02[104] 0.85[104] x109/L
嗜碱性粒细胞 成人 40[103] 100[95][3], 200[104], 900[103] x106/L
0.0 0.75[1], 2  % of WBC
新生儿 0.64 [104] x109/L

凝血・纤溶系统[编辑]

项目 下限值 上限值 单位 备注
血小板/红细胞数 (Plt) 140[2], 150[1][3] 350[20][3], 400[1], 450[2] x109/L
凝血酶原时间 (PT) 10[6], 11[1][106], 12[2] 13[6], 13.5[106], 14[2], 15[1] s 凝血酶原时间受到检测药剂不同的影响。INR可以把它的值标准化
INR 0.9[3] 1.2[3] INR是被检验者的凝血酶原时间的修正。
活化部分凝血活酶时间(Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT)) 18[2] , 30[6][3] 28[2], 42[3], 45[6] s
凝血酶凝固时间 (TCT) 11 18 s
纤维蛋白原 1.7[2], 2.0[3] 3.6[3] , 4.2[2] g/L
抗凝血酶 0.80[3] 1.2[3] kIU/L
出血时间 2 9 min
粘度 1.5[107] 1.72[107] cP

免疫[编辑]

急性期蛋白质[编辑]

项目 检验者 下限值 上限值 单位 参考
红细胞沉降率
(ESR)
男性 0 年龄÷2[108] mm/hr 红细胞沉降率随着年龄的增长,女性往往偏高。[109]
女性 (年龄+10)÷2 [108]
C-反应蛋白 (CRP) n/a 5[110][3], 6[111] mg/L
200[112] , 240[112] nmol/L
α1-抗胰蛋白酶 (AAT) 20[113] , 22[114] 38[114] , 53[113] μmol/L
89[115] , 97[3] 170[3] , 230[115] mg/dL

抗体的种类[编辑]

项目 检验者 下限值 上限值 单位 参考
免疫球蛋白A(IgA) 成人 70[3] , 110[116] 360[3] , 560[116] mg/dL
免疫球蛋白D(IgD) 0.5[116] 3.0[116]
免疫球蛋白E(IgE) 0.01[116] 0.04[116]
免疫球蛋白G(IgG) 800[116] 1800[116]
免疫球蛋白M(IgM) 54[116] 220[116]

自身抗体[编辑]

项目 阴性 疑似阳性 阳性 单位
抗SS-A抗体 (Ro) < 15[117] 15-25[117] > 25[117] Units
per
millilitre
(U/mL)
抗SS-B抗体 (La) < 3[117] 3 – 4[117] > 4[117]
Anti ds-DNA < 40[117] 40 – 60[117] > 60[117]
Anti ss-DNA < 8[117] 8 - 10[117] > 10[117]
Anti-histone antibodies < 25[117] n/a[117] > 25[117]
Cytoplasmic/classical
抗中性粒细胞胞浆抗体 (c-ANCA)
< 20[117] 21 - 30[117] > 30[117]
Perinuclear
anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic
antibodies (p-ANCA)
< 5[117] n/a > 5[117]
抗线粒体抗体 (AMA) < 10 [117] n/a[117] > 10[117]
类风湿因子 (RF) < 20 20 - 30 > 30[2]
抗链球菌溶血素 O titre
(ASOT)
(学龄前)
> 100
ASOT(就学期) > 250[2]
ASOT(成人) > 125[2]
项目 阴性 弱阳性 中阳性 高阳性 单位
抗磷脂 IgG < 20[117] 20 –30[117] 31 – 50[117] > 51[117] GPLU/ml[117]
抗磷脂 IgM < 1.5[117] 1.5 –2.5[117] 2 – 9.9[117] > 10[117] MPL /ml [117]
抗磷脂 IgA < 10[117] 10 -20[117] 21 – 30[117] > 31[117] arb U/ml[117]
抗瓜氨酸蛋白抗体
(Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies)
< 20[117] 20 – 39[117] 40 - 59[117] > 60[117] EU[117]

其他酶及蛋白质[编辑]

项目 下限值 上限值 单位 备注
乳酸脱氢酶 (LDH) 50[20] 150[20] U/L
0.4[42] 1.7[42] μmol/L
LDH (酶的活性) 1.8[3] 3.4[3] µkat/L < 70歳[3]
淀粉 25[1], 30[2], 53[20] 110[2], 120[118], 123[20], 125[1], 190[42] U/L
0.15[3] 1.1[3] µkat/L
200[112] 240[112] nmol/L
D-二聚体 n/a 500[119] ng/mL 妊妇で高い。[120]
0.5[3] mg/L
脂肪酶 7[2], 10[20], 23[42] 60[2], 150[20], 208[42] U/L
血管紧张素转换酶 (ACE) 23[42] 57[42] U/L
酸性磷酸酶 3.0[42] ng/mL
嗜酸性粒细胞阳离子蛋白 (ECP) 2.3[3] 16[3] µg/L

其他电解质及代谢物[编辑]

项目 检验者类型 下限值 上限值 单位 参考
渗透压 275[1], 280[20], 281[3] 295[1], 296[20], 297[3] mOsm/kg 不包含溶质的血浆重量
渗透压 Slightly less than osmolality mOsm/l 包含溶质的血浆容量
尿素 1.2[1], 3.0[121] 3.0[1], 7.0[121] mmol/L 尿素氮(BUN - Blood urea nitrogen)
7[1] 18[1], 21[2] mg/dL
* 尿酸[2] 0.18[1] 0.48[1] mmol/L
女性 2.0[20] 7.0[20] mg/dL
男性 2.1 [20] 8.5[20] mg/dL
肌酐 男性 60[3] , 68[122] 90[3] , 118[122] μmol/L 参见肌酐清除率
0.7[123] , 0.8[123] 1.0[123] , 1.3[123] mg/dL
女性 50[3] , 68[122] 90[3] , 98[122] μmol/L
0.6[123] , 0.8[123] 1.0[123] , 1.1[123] mg/dL
尿素氮/肌酐比 5[20] 35[20] -
血浆血糖值 (空腹时) 3.8[1] , 4.0[3] 6.0[3] , 6.1[124] mmol/L 糖化血红蛋白
65[2], 70[1], 72[125] 100[124], 110[20] mg/dL
总血糖値 (空腹时) 3.3[3] 5.6[3] mmol/L
60[125] 100[125] mg/dL
乳酸 (静脉) 4.5[20] 19.8[20] mg/dL
0.5[126] 2.2[126] mmol/L
乳酸 (动脉) 4.5[20] 14.4[20] mg/dL
0.5[126] 1.6[126] mmol/L
丙酮酸 300[20] 900[20] μg/dL
34 [127] 102[127] μmol/L

脂质[编辑]

项目 检验者类型 下限值 上限值 单位 最适范围
中性脂肪 10 – 39 岁 54[20] 110[20] mg/dL < 100 mg/dL[31]
or 1.1[31] mmol/L
0.61[128] 1.2 [128] mmol/L
40 – 59 岁 70[20] 150[20] mg/dL
0.77[128] 1.7[128] mmol/L
> 60 岁 80[20] 150[20] mg/dL
0.9[128] 1.7[128] mmol/L
胆固醇 3.0[129] , 3.6[1][129] 5.0[3][130], 6.5[1] mmol/L < 3.9 [31]
120[2], 140[1] 200[2], 250[1] mg/dL < 150 [31]
HDL胆固醇 女性 1.0[131], 1.2[3], 1.3[129] 2.2[131] mmol/L > 1.0[131] or 1.6[129]  mmol/L
> 40[132] or 60[133] mg/dL
40[132] , 50[134] 86[132] mg/dL
HDL胆固醇 男性 0.9[131][3] 2.0[131] mmol/L
35[132] 80[132] mg/dL
LDL胆固醇
(中性脂肪 >5.0 mmol/L
的情况下无效)
2.0[131], 2.4[130] 3.0[130][3] , 3.4[131] mmol/L < 2.5 [131]
80[132] , 94[132] 120[132] , 130[132] mg/dL < 100[132]
LDL/HDL比 n/a 5[3] (unitless)

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.000 1.001 1.002 1.003 1.004 1.005 1.006 1.007 1.008 1.009 1.010 1.011 1.012 1.013 1.014 1.015 1.016 1.017 1.018 1.019 1.020 1.021 1.022 1.023 1.024 1.025 1.026 1.027 1.028 1.029 1.030 1.031 1.032 1.033 1.034 1.035 1.036 1.037 1.038 1.039 1.040 1.041 1.042 1.043 1.044 1.045 1.046 1.047 1.048 1.049 1.050 1.051 1.052 1.053 1.054 1.055 1.056 1.057 1.058 1.059 1.060 1.061 1.062 1.063 1.064 1.065 1.066 1.067 1.068 1.069 1.070 1.071 1.072 1.073 1.074 1.075 1.076 1.077 1.078 1.079 1.080 1.081 1.082 1.083 1.084 1.085 1.086 1.087 1.088 1.089 1.090 1.091 1.092 1.093 1.094 1.095 1.096 1.097 1.098 1.099 1.100 1.101 1.102 1.103 1.104 1.105 1.106 1.107 Last page of Deepak A. Rao; Le, Tao; Bhushan, Vikas. First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 2008 (First Aid for the Usmle Step 1). McGraw-Hill Medical. 2007. ISBN 0-07-149868-0. 
  2. ^ 2.000 2.001 2.002 2.003 2.004 2.005 2.006 2.007 2.008 2.009 2.010 2.011 2.012 2.013 2.014 2.015 2.016 2.017 2.018 2.019 2.020 2.021 2.022 2.023 2.024 2.025 2.026 2.027 2.028 2.029 2.030 2.031 2.032 2.033 2.034 2.035 2.036 2.037 2.038 2.039 2.040 2.041 2.042 2.043 2.044 2.045 2.046 2.047 2.048 2.049 2.050 2.051 2.052 2.053 2.054 2.055 2.056 2.057 2.058 2.059 2.060 2.061 2.062 2.063 2.064 2.065 2.066 2.067 2.068 2.069 2.070 2.071 2.072 2.073 2.074 2.075 2.076 2.077 2.078 2.079 2.080 2.081 2.082 2.083 2.084 2.085 2.086 2.087 2.088 2.089 2.090 2.091 2.092 2.093 2.094 2.095 2.096 2.097 2.098 2.099 2.100 2.101 2.102 2.103 2.104 2.105 2.106 Normal Reference Range Table from The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas. Used in Interactive Case Study Companion to Pathologic basis of disease.
  3. ^ 3.000 3.001 3.002 3.003 3.004 3.005 3.006 3.007 3.008 3.009 3.010 3.011 3.012 3.013 3.014 3.015 3.016 3.017 3.018 3.019 3.020 3.021 3.022 3.023 3.024 3.025 3.026 3.027 3.028 3.029 3.030 3.031 3.032 3.033 3.034 3.035 3.036 3.037 3.038 3.039 3.040 3.041 3.042 3.043 3.044 3.045 3.046 3.047 3.048 3.049 3.050 3.051 3.052 3.053 3.054 3.055 3.056 3.057 3.058 3.059 3.060 3.061 3.062 3.063 3.064 3.065 3.066 3.067 3.068 3.069 3.070 3.071 3.072 3.073 3.074 3.075 3.076 3.077 3.078 3.079 3.080 3.081 3.082 3.083 3.084 3.085 3.086 3.087 3.088 3.089 3.090 3.091 3.092 3.093 3.094 3.095 3.096 3.097 3.098 3.099 3.100 3.101 3.102 3.103 3.104 3.105 3.106 3.107 3.108 3.109 3.110 3.111 3.112 3.113 3.114 3.115 3.116 3.117 3.118 3.119 3.120 3.121 3.122 3.123 3.124 3.125 3.126 3.127 Reference range list from Uppsala University Hospital ("Laborationslista"). Artnr 40284 Sj74a. Issued on April 22, 2008
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Derived from molar values using molar mass of 22.99 g·mol−1
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 Derived from molar values using molar mass of 39.10 g·mol−1
  6. ^ 6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 6.11 6.12 MERCK MANUALS > Common Medical Tests > Blood Tests Last full review/revision February 2003
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 Derived from molar values using molar mass of 35.45 g·mol−1
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 Larsson L, Ohman S. Serum ionized calcium and corrected total calcium in borderline hyperparathyroidism. Clin. Chem. 1978.November, 24 (11): 1962–5. PMID 709830. 
  9. ^ 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Derived from molar values using molar mass of 40.08  g·mol−1
  10. ^ 10.00 10.01 10.02 10.03 10.04 10.05 10.06 10.07 10.08 10.09 10.10 10.11 Slon S. Serum Iron. University of Illinois Medical Center. 2006-09-22 [2006-07-06]. 
  11. ^ 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 Diagnostic Chemicals Limited > Serum Iron-SL Assay July 15, 2005
  12. ^ 12.00 12.01 12.02 12.03 12.04 12.05 12.06 12.07 12.08 12.09 12.10 12.11 12.12 Derived from mass values using molar mass of 55.85 g·mol−1
  13. ^ 13.0 13.1 Table 1. Page 133. Clinical Chemistry 45, No. 1, 1999 (stating 1.9–3.3 g/L)
  14. ^ 14.0 14.1 Derived by dividing mass values with molar mass
  15. ^ 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 Ferritin by: Mark Levin, MD, Hematologist and Oncologist, Newark, NJ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network
  16. ^ 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 Derived from mass values using molar mass of 450,000 g·mol−1
  17. ^ 17.0 17.1 Mitchell ML, Filippone MD, Wozniak TF. Metastatic carcinomatous cirrhosis and hepatic hemosiderosis in a patient heterozygous for the H63D genotype. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 2001.August, 125 (8): 1084–7. PMID 11473464. 
  18. ^ 18.0 18.1 Diaz J, Tornel PL, Martinez P. Reference intervals for blood ammonia in healthy subjects, determined by microdiffusion. Clin. Chem. 1995.July, 41 (7): 1048. PMID 7600690. 
  19. ^ 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 Derived from molar values using molar mass of 17.03 g/mol
  20. ^ 20.00 20.01 20.02 20.03 20.04 20.05 20.06 20.07 20.08 20.09 20.10 20.11 20.12 20.13 20.14 20.15 20.16 20.17 20.18 20.19 20.20 20.21 20.22 20.23 20.24 20.25 20.26 20.27 20.28 20.29 20.30 20.31 20.32 20.33 20.34 20.35 20.36 20.37 20.38 20.39 20.40 20.41 20.42 20.43 20.44 20.45 20.46 20.47 20.48 20.49 20.50 20.51 20.52 20.53 20.54 20.55 20.56 20.57 20.58 20.59 20.60 20.61 20.62 20.63 20.64 20.65 20.66 20.67 20.68 20.69 20.70 20.71 20.72 20.73 20.74 20.75 20.76 Blood Test Results - Normal Ranges Bloodbook.Com
  21. ^ 21.0 21.1 Derived from mass values using molar mass of 63.55 g·mol−1
  22. ^ 22.0 22.1 Derived from mass using molar mass of 151kDa
  23. ^ 23.0 23.1 23.2 Derived from mass values using molar mass of 40.08  g·mol−1
  24. ^ Walter F., PhD. Boron. Medical Physiology: A Cellular And Molecular Approaoch. Elsevier/Saunders. 2005. ISBN 1-4160-2328-3.  Page 849
  25. ^ Reference range for copperGPnotebook
  26. ^ 26.0 26.1 http://www.dlolab.com/PDFs/DLO-OCTOBER-2008-LAB-UPDATE.pdf
  27. ^ 27.0 27.1 Derived from molar values using molar mass of 65.38 g/mol
  28. ^ 28.0 28.1 Derived from mass values using molar mass of 65.38 g/mol
  29. ^ 29.0 29.1 Derived from molar values using molar mass of 24.31 g/mol
  30. ^ 30.0 30.1 Derived from mass values using molar mass of 24.31 g/mol
  31. ^ 31.00 31.01 31.02 31.03 31.04 31.05 31.06 31.07 31.08 31.09 31.10 31.11 31.12 31.13 31.14 Adëeva Nutritionals Canada > Optimal blood test values Retrieved on July 9, 2009
  32. ^ Middleton P, Kelly AM, Brown J, Robertson M. Agreement between arterial and central venous values for pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate. Emerg Med J. 2006.August, 23 (8): 622–4. doi:10.1136/emj.2006.035915. PMC 2564165. PMID 16858095. 
  33. ^ 33.00 33.01 33.02 33.03 33.04 33.05 33.06 33.07 33.08 33.09 33.10 33.11 The Medical Education Division of the Brookside Associates--> ABG (Arterial Blood Gas) Retrieved on Dec 6, 2009
  34. ^ 34.0 34.1 Derived from molar values using molar mass of 1.01 g·mol−1
  35. ^ 35.0 35.1 35.2 35.3 35.4 35.5 35.6 35.7 Derived from mmHg values using 0.133322 kPa/mmHg
  36. ^ 36.0 36.1 Derived from molar values using molar mass of 44.010 g/mol
  37. ^ 37.0 37.1 37.2 37.3 Derived from molar values using molar mass of 61 g/mol
  38. ^ Reference range (albumin)GPnotebook
  39. ^ 39.0 39.1 Derived from mass using molecular weight of 65kD
  40. ^ 40.0 40.1 40.2 40.3 40.4 Derived from mass values using molar mass of 585g/mol
  41. ^ 41.0 41.1 Derived from molar values using molar mass of 585g/mol
  42. ^ 42.00 42.01 42.02 42.03 42.04 42.05 42.06 42.07 42.08 42.09 42.10 42.11 42.12 42.13 42.14 42.15 42.16 42.17 42.18 Fachwörterbuch Kompakt Medizin E-D/D-E. Author: Fritz-Jürgen Nöhring. Edition 2. Publisher:Elsevier, Urban&FischerVerlag, 2004. ISBN 3437151207, 9783437151200. Length: 1288 pages
  43. ^ 43.0 43.1 43.2 43.3 GPnotebook > reference range (AST) Retrieved on Dec 7, 2009
  44. ^ 44.0 44.1 Helander A, Vabö E, Levin K, Borg S. Intra- and interindividual variability of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin, gamma-glutamyltransferase, and mean corpuscular volume in teetotalers. Clin. Chem. 1998.October, 44 (10): 2120–5. PMID 9761244. 
  45. ^ 45.0 45.1 Creatine kinaseGPnotebook
  46. ^ 46.00 46.01 46.02 46.03 46.04 46.05 46.06 46.07 46.08 46.09 46.10 46.11 46.12 46.13 46.14 46.15 Saint Francis Hospital Laboratory > BNP reference range change Jay Hupp & Dr. Michel S. Medawar. Effective November, 2002
  47. ^ 47.0 47.1 47.2 47.3 47.4 47.5 47.6 47.7 47.8 47.9 The University of Iowa (UIHC) > Department of Pathology > LABORATORY SERVICES HANDBOOK > N-terminal-pro-BNP Showing 95th percentiles. Epic Lab Code: LAB649. Updated: 10/27/2009
  48. ^ 48.0 48.1 48.2 48.3 Muscle Information and Courses from MediaLab, Inc. > Cardiac Biomarkers Retrieved on April 22, 2010
  49. ^ 49.0 49.1 49.2 49.3 49.4 49.5 49.6 49.7 49.8 49.9 South London Healthcare NHS Trust
  50. ^ 50.0 50.1 50.2 Moderately Elevated Serum Troponin Concentrations Are Associated With Increased Morbidity and Mortality Rates in Surgical Intensive Care Unit Patients Rene P. Relos, MD; Ian K. Hasinoff, MD; Greg J. Beilman, MD. Posted: 12/05/2003; Crit Care Med. 2003;31(11)
  51. ^ 51.0 51.1 Kay SE, Doery J, Sholl D. Clozapine associated pericarditis and elevated troponin I. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2002.February, 36 (1): 143–4. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1614.2002.0988f.x. PMID 11929456. 
  52. ^ GP Notebook > range (reference, ca-125) Retrieved on Jan 5, 2009
  53. ^ ClinLab Navigator > Test Interpretations > CA-125 Retrieved on Jan 5, 2009
  54. ^ 54.0 54.1 Bjerner J, Høgetveit A, Wold Akselberg K, et al.. Reference intervals for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA125, MUC1, Alfa-foeto-protein (AFP), neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and CA19.9 from the NORIP study. Scandinavian journal of clinical and laboratory investigation. 2008.June, 68 (8): 1–12. doi:10.1080/00365510802126836. PMID 18609108. 
  55. ^ Carcinoembryonic Antigen(CEA) at MedicineNet
  56. ^ The TSH Reference Range Wars: What's "Normal?", Who is Wrong, Who is Right... By Mary Shomon, About.com. Updated: June 19, 2006. About.com Health's Disease and Condition
  57. ^ 57.0 57.1 2006 Press releases: Thyroid Imbalance? Target Your Numbers Contacts: Bryan Campbell American] Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  58. ^ 58.0 58.1 The TSH Reference Range Wars: What's "Normal?", Who is Wrong, Who is Right... By Mary Shomon, About.com. Updated: June 19, 2006
  59. ^ 59.0 59.1 Demers, Laurence M.; Carole A. Spencer. LMPG: Laboratory Support for the Diagnosis and Monitoring of Thyroid Disease. en:National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (USA). 2002 [2007-04-13].  - see Section 2. Pre-analytic factors
  60. ^ 60.0 60.1 60.2 60.3 60.4 60.5 60.6 60.7 60.8 60.9 Free T4; Thyroxine, Free; T4, Free UNC Health Care System
  61. ^ 61.0 61.1 61.2 61.3 61.4 61.5 61.6 61.7 61.8 61.9 Derived from mass values using molar mass of 776.87 g/mol
  62. ^ 62.00 62.01 62.02 62.03 62.04 62.05 62.06 62.07 62.08 62.09 62.10 62.11 62.12 62.13 62.14 Table 4: Typical reference ranges for serum assays - Thyroid Disease Manager
  63. ^ 63.0 63.1 63.2 63.3 Euthyroid Patient with Elevated Serum Free Thyroxine George van der Watt1,a, David Haarburger1 and Peter Berman
  64. ^ 64.0 64.1 64.2 64.3 Derived from mass values using molar mass of 650.98 g/mol
  65. ^ 65.0 65.1 Serum concentration of free T3, free T4 and TSH in healthy children Cioffi Michele; Gazzerro Patrizia; Vietri Maria Teresa; Magnetta Rosa; Durante Adriana; D'Auria Annamaria; Puca Giovanni Alfredo; Molinari Anna Maria ;
  66. ^ 66.0 66.1 Andrology Australia: Your Health > Low Testosterone > Diagnosis
  67. ^ 67.0 67.1 67.2 67.3 Derived from mass values using molar mass of 288.42g/mol
  68. ^ 68.0 68.1 68.2 68.3 68.4 68.5 68.6 Derived from molar values using molar mass of 288.42g/mol
  69. ^ 69.0 69.1 69.2 69.3 MedlinePlus > Testosterone Update Date: 3/18/2008. Updated by: Elizabeth H. Holt, MD, PhD, Yale University. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director
  70. ^ 70.0 70.1 70.2 70.3 70.4 70.5 70.6 70.7 70.8 70.9 reference range (FSH) GPnotebook. Retrieved on September 27, 2009
  71. ^ 71.0 71.1 71.2 71.3 71.4 71.5 71.6 71.7 Values taken from day 1 after LH surge in: Establishment of detailed reference values for luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, and progesterone during different phases of the menstrual cycle on the Abbott ARCHITECT analyzer. Reto Stricker, Raphael Eberhart, Marie-Christine Chevailler, Frank A. Quinn, Paul Bischof and Rene´ Stricker. Clin Chem Lab Med 2006;44(7):883–887 PMID: 16776638
  72. ^ 72.0 72.1 72.2 72.3 72.4 72.5 New York Hospital Queens > Services and Facilities > Patient Testing > Pathology > New York Hospital Queens Diagnostic Laboratories > Test Directory > Reference Ranges Retrieved on Nov 8, 2009
  73. ^ 73.0 73.1 73.2 73.3 73.4 73.5 73.6 73.7 73.8 73.9 GPNotebook - reference range (oestradiol) Retrieved on September 27, 2009
  74. ^ 74.00 74.01 74.02 74.03 74.04 74.05 74.06 74.07 74.08 74.09 74.10 74.11 Derived from molar values using molar mass of 272.38g/mol
  75. ^ 75.0 75.1 75.2 75.3 Total amount multiplied by 0.022 according to 2.2% presented in: Wu CH, Motohashi T, Abdel-Rahman HA, Flickinger GL, Mikhail G. Free and protein-bound plasma estradiol-17 beta during the menstrual cycle. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 1976.August, 43 (2): 436–45. doi:10.1210/jcem-43-2-436. PMID 950372. 
  76. ^ 76.0 76.1 Derived from molar values using molar mass of 314.46 g/mol
  77. ^ 77.0 77.1 Derived from mass values using molar mass of 4540g/mol according to PROOPIOMELANOCORTIN; NCBI --> POMC Retrieved on September 28, 2009
  78. ^ Adrenocorticotropic Hormone:Normal. WebMD. 09-03-2006 [2008-11-09]. 
  79. ^ Derived from molar values using molar mass of 4540g/mol according to PROOPIOMELANOCORTIN; NCBI --> POMC Retrieved on September 28, 2009
  80. ^ 80.0 80.1 80.2 80.3 Biochemistry Reference Ranges at Good Hope Hospital Retrieved on Nov 8, 2009
  81. ^ 81.0 81.1 81.2 81.3 Derived from molar values using molar mass of 362 g/mol
  82. ^ 82.0 82.1 Derived from molar values using molar mass of 9.4 kDa
  83. ^ 83.0 83.1 Table 2 in: Aloia JF, Feuerman M, Yeh JK. Reference range for serum parathyroid hormone. Endocr Pract. 2006, 12 (2): 137–44. PMC 1482827. PMID 16690460. 
  84. ^ 84.0 84.1 Derived from mass values using molar mass of 9.4 kDa
  85. ^ 85.0 85.1 85.2 85.3 85.4 85.5 Derived from molar values using molar mass 400.6 g/mol
  86. ^ 86.0 86.1 86.2 86.3 Bender, David A. Vitamin D//Nutritional biochemistry of the vitamins. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2003. ISBN 0-521-80388-8.  Retrieved December 10, 2008 through Google Book Search.
  87. ^ 87.0 87.1 87.2 87.3 Bischoff-Ferrari, H.A., Dietrich, T., Orav, J.E., Hu, F.B., Zhang, Y., Karlson, E., Dawson-Hughes, B. 2004. Higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are associated with better lower extremity function in both active and inactive adults 60+ years of age. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 80:752-758.
  88. ^ 88.0 88.1 88.2 88.3 Reusch J, Ackermann H, Badenhoop K. Cyclic changes of vitamin D and PTH are primarily regulated by solar radiation: 5-year analysis of a German (50 degrees N) population. Horm. Metab. Res. 2009.May, 41 (5): 402–7. doi:10.1055/s-0028-1128131. PMID 19241329. 
  89. ^ 89.0 89.1 89.2 89.3 89.4 89.5 89.6 89.7 Letter: Calcium and vitamin D in preventing fractures. Data are not sufficient to show inefficacy Alex Vasquez, researcher. BMJ 2005;331:108-109 (9 July), doi:10.1136/bmj.331.7508.108-b.
  90. ^ 90.0 90.1 90.2 90.3 90.4 90.5 90.6 90.7 The Doctor's Doctor: Homocysteine
  91. ^ 91.0 91.1 91.2 91.3 91.4 91.5 91.6 91.7 Derived from molar values using molar massof 135 g/mol
  92. ^ 92.0 92.1 92.2 92.3 92.4 92.5 Central Manchester University Hospitals --> Reference ranges Retrieved on July 9, 2009
  93. ^ University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center > Clinical Lab Reference Range Guide Retrieved on April 28, 2009
  94. ^ 94.0 94.1 94.2 94.3 94.4 Derived from mass values using molar mass of 441 mol−1
  95. ^ 95.0 95.1 95.2 95.3 95.4 95.5 95.6 GPnotebook > B12 Retrieved on April 28, 2009
  96. ^ 96.0 96.1 Derived form molar values using molar mass of 1355g/mol
  97. ^ 97.0 97.1 Derived from mass values using molar mass of 1355g/mol
  98. ^ 98.0 98.1 Derived from mass values using molar mass of 176 grams per mol
  99. ^ 99.0 99.1 99.2 For en:Driving under the influence by country, see en:Drunk driving law by country
  100. ^ Derived from mass values using molar mass of 46g/mol
  101. ^ 101.0 101.1 101.2 101.3 101.4 Derived from mass values using 64,500 g/mol, according to Van Beekvelt MC, Colier WN, Wevers RA, Van Engelen BG. Performance of near-infrared spectroscopy in measuring local O2 consumption and blood flow in skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol. 2001, 90 (2): 511–519. PMID 11160049. 
  102. ^ 102.0 102.1 102.2 102.3 Derived from mass concentration, using molar mass of 64,458 g/mol (Van Beekvelt MC, Colier WN, Wevers RA, Van Engelen BG. Performance of near-infrared spectroscopy in measuring local O2 consumption and blood flow in skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol. 2001, 90 (2): 511–519. PMID 11160049. ). 1 g/dL = 0.1551 mmol/L
  103. ^ 103.0 103.1 103.2 103.3 103.4 103.5 103.6 103.7 lymphomation.org > Tests & Imaging > Labs > Complete Blood Count Retrieved on May 14, 2009
  104. ^ 104.00 104.01 104.02 104.03 104.04 104.05 104.06 104.07 104.08 104.09 104.10 104.11 104.12 104.13 104.14 104.15 104.16 104.17 104.18 104.19 104.20 Clinical Laboratory Medicine. By Kenneth D. McClatchey. Page 807.
  105. ^ Determination of monocyte count by hematological analyzers, manual method and flow cytometry in polish population Central European Journal of Immunology 1-2/2006. (Centr Eur J Immunol 2006; 31 (1-2): 1-5) authors: Elżbieta Górska, Urszula Demkow, Roman Pińkowski, Barbara Jakubczak, Dorota Matuszewicz, Jolanta Gawęda, Wioletta Rzeszotarska, Maria Wąsik,
  106. ^ 106.0 106.1 MedlinePlus百科全书 003652
  107. ^ 107.0 107.1 [1] Retrieved on November 20, 2009
  108. ^ 108.0 108.1 Miller A, Green M, Robinson D. Simple rule for calculating normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1983, 286 (6361): 266. doi:10.1136/bmj.286.6361.266. PMC 6402065. PMID 6402065. 
  109. ^ Böttiger LE, Svedberg CA. Normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate and age. Br Med J. 1967, 2 (5544): 85–7. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.5544.85. PMC 6020854. PMID 6020854. 
  110. ^ C-reactive proteinGPnotebook
  111. ^ 2730 Serum C-Reactive Protein values in Diabetics with Periodontal Disease A.R. Choudhury, and S. Rahman, Birdem, Diabetic Association of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh. (the diabetics were not used to determine the reference ranges)
  112. ^ 112.0 112.1 112.2 112.3 Derived from mass using molar mass of 25,106 g/mol
  113. ^ 113.0 113.1 Sipahi T, Kara C, Tavil B, Inci A, Oksal A. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency: an overlooked cause of late hemorrhagic disease of the newborn. J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol. 2003.March, 25 (3): 274–5. doi:10.1097/00043426-200303000-00019. PMID 12621252. 
  114. ^ 114.0 114.1 Derived from mass values using molar mass of 44324.5 g/mol
  115. ^ 115.0 115.1 Derived from molar values using molar mass of 44324.5 g/mol
  116. ^ 116.0 116.1 116.2 116.3 116.4 116.5 116.6 116.7 116.8 116.9 The Society for American Clinical Laboratory Science > Chemistry Tests > Immunoglobulins Retrieved on Nov 26, 2009
  117. ^ 117.00 117.01 117.02 117.03 117.04 117.05 117.06 117.07 117.08 117.09 117.10 117.11 117.12 117.13 117.14 117.15 117.16 117.17 117.18 117.19 117.20 117.21 117.22 117.23 117.24 117.25 117.26 117.27 117.28 117.29 117.30 117.31 117.32 117.33 117.34 117.35 117.36 117.37 117.38 117.39 117.40 117.41 117.42 chronolab.com > Autoantibodies associated with rheumatic diseases > Reference ranges Retrieved on April 29, 2010
  118. ^ Reference range (amylase)GPnotebook
  119. ^ Plasma Measurement of D-Dimer Levels for the Early Diagnosis of Ischemic Stroke Subtypes Walter Ageno, MD; Sergio Finazzi, MD; Luigi Steidl, MD; Maria Grazia Biotti, MD; Valentina Mera, MD; GianVico Melzi d'Eril, MD; Achille Venco, MD. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162:2589-2593.
  120. ^ Kline JA, Williams GW, Hernandez-Nino J. D-dimer concentrations in normal pregnancy: new diagnostic thresholds are needed. Clinical chemistry. 2005.May, 51 (5): 825–9. doi:10.1373/clinchem.2004.044883. PMID 15764641. 
  121. ^ 121.0 121.1 Gardner MD, Scott R. Age- and sex-related reference ranges for eight plasma constituents derived from randomly selected adults in a Scottish new town. J. Clin. Pathol. 1980.April, 33 (4): 380–5. doi:10.1136/jcp.33.4.380. PMC 1146084. PMID 7400337. 
  122. ^ 122.0 122.1 122.2 122.3 Finney H, Newman DJ, Price CP. Adult reference ranges for serum cystatin C, creatinine and predicted creatinine clearance. Ann. Clin. Biochem. 2000.January,. 37 ( Pt 1): 49–59. doi:10.1258/0004563001901524. PMID 10672373. 
  123. ^ 123.0 123.1 123.2 123.3 123.4 123.5 123.6 123.7 Derived from molar values by multiplying with the molar mass of 113.118 g/mol, and divided by 10.000 to adapt from μg/L to mg/dL
  124. ^ 124.0 124.1 MedlinePlus百科全书 Glucose tolerance test
  125. ^ 125.0 125.1 125.2 Derived from molar values using molar mass of 180g/mol
  126. ^ 126.0 126.1 126.2 126.3 Derived from mass values using molar mass of 90.08 g/mol
  127. ^ 127.0 127.1 Derived from mass values using molar mass of 88.06 g/mol
  128. ^ 128.0 128.1 128.2 128.3 128.4 128.5 Derived from values in mg/dl to mmol/l, by dividing by 89, according to faqs.org: What are mg/dl and mmol/l? How to convert? Glucose? Cholesterol? Last Update July 21, 2009. Retrieved on July 21, 2009
  129. ^ 129.0 129.1 129.2 129.3 Derived from values in mg/dl to mmol/l, using molar mass of 386.65 g/mol
  130. ^ 130.0 130.1 130.2 Reference range (cholesterol)GPnotebook
  131. ^ 131.0 131.1 131.2 131.3 131.4 131.5 131.6 131.7 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia; Cholesterol (HDL and LDL) - plasma or serum Last Updated: Monday, 6 August 2007
  132. ^ 132.0 132.1 132.2 132.3 132.4 132.5 132.6 132.7 132.8 132.9 Derived from values in mmol/l, using molar mass of 386.65 g/mol
  133. ^ What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean. American Heart Association. Retrieved on September 12, 2009
  134. ^ American Association for Clinical Chemistry; HDL Cholesterol

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