庫拉索蘆薈

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庫拉索蘆薈
Aloe vera flower inset.png
科學分類
界: 植物界 Plantae
門: 被子植物門 Magnoliophyta
綱: 單子葉植物綱 Liliopsida
目: 天門冬目 Asparagales
科: 獨尾草科 Asphodelaceae
屬: 蘆薈屬 Aloe
種: 庫拉索蘆薈 A. vera
二名法
Aloe vera
(L.) Burm.f.
異名
  • Aloe barbadensis
  • Aloe indica
  • Aloe perfoliata var. vera
  • A. vulgaris

庫拉索蘆薈学名Aloe vera),又名吉拉索蘆薈翠葉蘆薈美國蘆薈,俗稱藥用蘆薈,是可能源自於北非的一種多肉植物。它們在乾旱的氣候下生長,廣泛分佈在非洲及其他乾旱地區。它們有作為草藥,也有很多其用途的研究,但有時卻有所矛盾。[1][2][3][4]雖然如此,但仍有一些初步證據證明它們的抽取物可以幫助治療糖尿病及高血脂肪[3]這種效用是因其含有多糖甘露聚糖蒽醌凝集素[3][5][6]

特徵[编辑]

庫拉索蘆薈沒有莖或其莖非常短,可生長高達60-100厘米。葉子厚而多肉,呈綠色至灰綠色,一些變種的莖上有白邊。[7]葉子邊緣有鋸齒,鋸齒細小而呈白色。夏天會開花,在高90厘米的穗上長出,花朵下垂。花冠呈管狀及黃色,長2-3厘米。[7][8]庫拉索蘆薈與叢枝菌根共生,可以幫助它們吸收土壤內的礦物質[9]

分類及命名[编辑]

庫拉索蘆薈的變種中國蘆薈

庫拉索蘆薈的種小名意思是「真」或「純正」。[10]有些文獻指帶有白點的形態為中國蘆薈Aloe vera var. chinensis[11][12],但是葉子的斑點變化太多[13],也有指帶有斑點的庫拉索蘆薈其實是A. massawana的同一物種[14]庫拉索蘆薈最初是由卡爾·林奈(Carl Linnaeus)於1753年描述及命名為Aloe perfoliata var. vera[15],而於1768年4月6日,Nicolaas Laurens Burman再次描述及命名為Aloe vera;10日後,菲利普·米勒(Philip Miller)則將之命名為Aloe barbadensis[16]

DNA的比較發現,庫拉索蘆薈與也門特有的索科特拉蘆薈較為接近。[17]葉綠素DNA序列比較及內間隔簡單序列重複片段(ISSR)顯示庫拉索蘆薈的近親是A. forbesiiA. inermisA. scobinifolia黃花蘆薈線條蘆薈[18]除了南非的線條蘆薈外,其餘的都是原產於也門的索科特拉島索馬里蘇丹[18]庫拉索蘆薈的天然群落很少有,故有學者指它們可能是從混種來源的。[19]

分佈[编辑]

由於庫拉索蘆薈已廣泛在世界各地都有種植,其天然分佈不詳。有指在北非阿爾及利亞摩洛哥突尼西亞,連同加那利群島馬德拉上有天然的庫拉索蘆薈。[20]它們於17世紀已被引入到中國印度巴基斯坦及其他南歐地區。[21]另外,在澳洲巴巴多斯伯利茲尼日利亞巴拉圭美國溫帶熱帶都有天然的庫拉索蘆薈生長。[13][22]有指它們是源自於南部非洲,其他地方的都是人類種植的。[14]

種植[编辑]

庫拉索蘆薈可以作為觀賞植物。

庫拉索蘆薈被廣泛種植為觀賞植物。它們的肉質可以在低雨量的地區保持生長,故適合種植在假山或低水份的花園。[7]它們可以在8-11度的抗寒區生存,但卻不能忍耐嚴冬或下雪。[8][23]它們也相對的能忍耐害蟲,但水蠟蟲介殼蟲蚜蟲會破壞它們。[24][25]它們需要排水良好的沙質土壤及陽光條件來生長。[26]陶瓦花盆的滲透性高,適合栽種庫拉索蘆薈。[26]在嚴冬或下雪的地區,它們必須留在室內或有暖氣的溫室內。[8]澳洲[27]古巴[28]多明尼加中國墨西哥[29]印度[30]牙買加[31]肯雅南非[32]美國[33]有大規模農產庫拉索蘆薈,以供應化妝品市場。

用途[编辑]

含有庫拉索蘆薈的潤膚膏

藥用[编辑]

庫拉索蘆薈的化妝品及治療功效證據有限,而已有的卻互相矛盾。[1][2]化妝品及藥業一直強調庫拉索蘆薈具有鎮靜、潤膚及治療的功效。[3][34][35][36][37]庫拉索蘆薈凝膠成為了很多商品的成份,包括浮液酸奶飲料及一些甜品[38][39][40]蘆薈汁可以幫助舒緩胃灼熱大腸急躁症消化問題。在化妝品衛生紙潤膚膏肥皂防曬霜剃刀洗髮精等都有加入蘆薈汁或其衍生物。[38]另有指生質燃料內含庫拉索蘆薈的種子[41]庫拉索蘆薈抽取物的其他用途包括在的人工受孕中稀釋精液[42]、食物防腐劑[43]及在細小的農場幫助節約用水[44]

庫拉索蘆薈一直與草藥有關,但何時開始使用在治療上卻不詳。早期紀錄使用庫拉索蘆薈的有前16世紀的《埃伯斯紙草文稿[45]、1世紀中葉迪奧斯科理德的《藥物學》及老普林尼的《博物志[45]、並512年的《朱利安娜·安尼西婭抄本》。[38]庫拉索蘆薈無毒,除去了蘆薈素後已知沒有副作用。吸入過多含有蘆薈素的庫拉索蘆薈會造成很多副作用。[3][4][46]不過,它們在中國日本俄羅斯南非美國牙買加印度仍然被廣泛使用。[3]

有聲稱指庫拉索蘆薈在處理傷口上有效[4],不過其效用的證據也很有限及互相矛盾。[4]一些研究指庫拉索蘆薈可以加速傷口痊癒[47][48],而另一些則指它們會減慢癒合。[49][50]一個較近期的研究支持它們可以治療一至二級燒傷。[51]內服庫拉索蘆薈也與改善糖尿病血糖[52][53]及降低高脂血症病人脂類有關。[54]初期研究指內服庫拉索蘆薈凝膠可以減輕潰瘍性大腸炎的徵狀及發炎情況。[55]從庫拉索蘆薈抽取的化合物可以作為免疫刺激劑,來幫助對抗癌症[5]但是,卻未曾在人類中進行測試。注入庫拉索蘆薈的抽取物來治療癌症,曾導致幾個病人死亡[56]

庫拉索蘆薈可以幫助治療生殖器疱疹牛皮癬[57]但是卻不能阻止因放射性而造成的傷害或是預防太陽灼傷。[58]一個實驗曾讓兩組人分別使用含有庫拉索蘆薈及氟化物牙膏,兩者都在齒齦炎牙垢上有明顯的改變。[59]

庫拉索蘆薈抽取物有抗菌抗真菌的能力,它們可以抑制引起真菌的生長。[60]但是,在皮膚以下的抗真菌能力則有待證實。另外它們可以抑制鏈球菌志賀氏菌的生長。[61]相反,它們卻不能抵抗黃杆菌[62]

禁用[编辑]

於2003年前的美國蘆薈素瀉藥的一般成份。但當蘆薈素被列第三類管制藥物後,其使用已被禁止。[63]含有蘆薈素的蘆薈主要是用作瀉藥,而含量不多的則可以作為消化藥。生產商一般會將蘆薈素除走。

生物活性化合物[编辑]

庫拉索蘆薈含有多種生物活性化合物,當中研究最多的是乙醇化的甘露聚糖蒽醌C苷、蒽酮及蒽醌,並多種凝集素[3][5][6]

參考文獻[编辑]

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外部連結[编辑]