開央不圓唇元音

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开央不圆唇元音
ɑ̈
ɐ̞
国际音标编号 304 415
编码
HTML码 十进制 a​̈
Unicode 十六进制 U+0061 U+0308
X-SAMPA音标 a_"、a_-、A_"、6_o
声音

開央不圓唇元音低央不圓唇元音元音的一种,用于一些口语当中。国际音标没有特定的字母表示介于前音[a]和后音[ɑ]之间的元音,通常以a表示。若要加以严格区分,则使用附加符号标明,诸如央元音化的ä或音位偏后的,但并不通用。

直至最近,字母a仍在非官方场合下用于央元音,并被大量用于现有语音学上的标示。因此常使用[a]表示央元音,并近似开前元音,若有必要,则使用[æ],非正式情况下当作次开元音。此外,汉语言学界会用非官方符号(小型大写字母A)。国际语音学协会2011–2012年投票否决了这个非官方的音标符号。[1]

特徵[编辑]

IPA元音
次前 次後
次閉
半閉
半開
次開

成對的音標分別是不圓唇 • 圓唇元音

  • 圓唇度不圓唇元音,嘴唇自然放鬆,不特別向前突起。

注释[编辑]

参考资料[编辑]

  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim, Catalan, Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 1992, 22 (1–2): 53–56, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618 
  • Cox, Felicity; Palethorpe, Sallyanne, Australian English, Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 2007, 37 (3): 341–350, doi:10.1017/S0025100307003192 
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena, European Portuguese, Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 1995, 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223 
  • Dankovičová, Jana, Czech, Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press: 70–74, 1999 
  • Engstrand, Olle, Swedish, Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 140–142, 1999, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L, French, Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 1993, 23 (2): 73–76, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874 
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos, Dutch, Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 1992, 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X 
  • Hillenbrand, James M., American English: Southern Michigan, Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 2003, 33 (1): 121–126, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001221 
  • Ikekeonwu, Clara, Igbo, Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: 108–110, 1999, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Jassem, Wiktor, Polish, Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 2003, 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191 
  • Keating, Patricia A., IPA Council votes against new IPA symbol, Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 2012, 42 (2): 245, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000114, with only 15 of 30 members voting [by email], the vote was 8 in favor, 7 against. [...] With all 30 members of the Council voting [again six months later], the resolution was defeated: 17 no, 12 yes, 1 abstention. The IPA will therefore not be adding a symbol for this vowel to the alphabet or chart. 
  • Labov, William; Ash, Sharon; Boberg, Charles, The Atlas of North American English, Berlin: Mouton-de Gruyter, 2006, ISBN 3-11-016746-8 
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lončarića, Mijo; Horga, Damir; Škarić, Ivo, Croatian, Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 66–69, 1999, ISBN 0-521-65236-7 
  • Lass, Roger, South African English, (编) Mesthrie, Rajend, Language in South Africa, Cambridge University Press, 2002, ISBN 9780521791052 
  • Laufer, Asher, Hebrew, Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: 96–99, 1999 
  • Lodge, Ken, A Critical Introduction to Phonetics: 167–169, 2009, ISBN 978-0-8264-8873-2 
  • Mangold, Max, Das Aussprachewörterbuch, Duden: 37, 2005, ISBN 9783411040667 
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina, Castilian Spanish, Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 2003, 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373 
  • Okada, Hideo, Japanese, Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 1991, 21 (2): 94–96, doi:10.1017/S002510030000445X 
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana, Italian, Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 2004, 34 (1): 117–121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628 
  • Szende, Tamás, Hungarian, Journal of the International Phonetic Alphabet, 1994, 24 (2): 91–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005090 
  • Vanvik, Arne, Norsk fonetikk, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, 1979, ISBN 82-990584-0-6 
  • Verhoeven, Jo, Belgian Standard Dutch, Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 2005, 35 (2): 245, doi:10.1017/S0025100305002173 
  • Wells, John C., Accents of English 3, Cambridge University Press, 1982, ISBN 0-521-24225-8 
  • Zimmer, Karl; Orgun, Orhan, Turkish, Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 154–158, 1999, ISBN 0-521-65236-7 

延伸阅读[编辑]

  • Barry, William; Trouvain, Jürgen, Do we need a symbol for a central open vowel?, Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 2008, 38 (3): 349–357