挤喉音

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氣流機制
參見

擠喉音(Ejective Consonant、放出音、緊喉音、緊喉輔音)屬於非肺部氣流音,也称“喷音”,是在发出清音后同时关闭声门。在一些语言的音韵中,挤喉音可能区分送气不送气。此外,一些语言中有响亮的伴随着嘎吱响的声音,这个模式包含与其它语言相同的挤喉音并兼有内爆音——这使音韵学家主张设定一个声门化辅音的音韵分类。

拼写[编辑]

国际音标中,挤喉音被写为一个塞音附加一个变音符号[ʼ]。注意,倒撇号[]有时被用于表示送气,像亚美尼亚语中[p‘ t‘ k‘],这种用法在国际音标中己经过时。在一些传统的转写方案中,撇号表示颚化,如// = 国际音标[].

在使用拉丁字母时,国标音标常用撇号来表示挤喉音,但是也有其它约定。在祖鲁语科萨语语中,挤喉现象在不同讲话者间变化,用字母p t k ts tsh kr表示[pʼ tʼ kʼ tsʼ tʃʼ kxʼ]。在海达语Hadza语的转写方案中,使用双写字母来示挤喉音,如用tt kk qq ttl tts表示[tʼ kʼ qʼ tɬʼ tsʼ](海达语),用zz jj dl gg表示[tsʼ tʃʼ c͡ʎ̝̥ʼ kxʼ](Hadza).

挤喉音列表[编辑]

有聲國際音標圖表:非肺部氣流音
搭嘴音
About this sound
About this sound
About this sound
About this sound
About this sound
ʘ͡q
內爆音
About this sound
About this sound
About this sound
About this sound
About this sound
擠喉音
About this sound
About this sound
About this sound
About this sound
About this sound
About this sound
About this sound
About this sound
该表包含标音符号,在某些浏览器上可能不能正确显示。[帮助]

国际音标帮助 ·英语国际音标 ·Loudspeaker.svg 音频帮助 ·图表 ·查看
塞音
擦塞音
擦音

參考文獻[编辑]

  • Beck, David. The emergence of ejective fricatives in Upper Necaxa Totonac. University of Alberta Working Papers in Linguistics. 2006, 1: 1–18. 
  • Campbell, Lyle. 1973. On Glottalic Consonants. International Journal of American Linguistics 39, 44–46. JSTOR 1264659
  • Chirikba, V.A. Aspects of Phonological Typology. Moscow, 1991 (in Russian).
  • Fallon, Paul. 2002. The Synchronic and Diachronic Phonology of Ejectives. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-93800-7, ISBN 978-0-415-93800-6.
  • Hogan, J. T. (1976). "An analysis of the temporal features of ejective consonants." Phonetica 33: 275–284. doi:10.1159/000259776
  • Greenberg, Joseph H., Some generalizations concerning glottalic consonants, especially implosives., International Journal of American Linguistics, 1970, 36: 123–145, doi:10.1086/465105 
  • Ladefoged, Peter, Vowels and Consonants Second, Blackwell, 2005, ISBN 0-631-21411-9 
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian. The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. 1996. ISBN 0-631-19814-8 (英语). 
  • Lindau, M. (1984). "Phonetic differences in glottalic consonants." Journal of Phonetics, 12: 147–155. doi:10.1121/1.2019283
  • Lindsey, Geoffrey; Hayward, Katrina; Haruna, Andrew. Hausa Glottalic Consonants: A Laryngographic Study. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 1992, 55: 511–527. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00003682. 
  • Taddese, Takkele. Are sʼ and tʼ variants of an Amharic variable? A sociolinguistic analysis. Journal of Ethiopian Languages and Literature. 1992, 2: 104–21. 
  • Wright, Richard; Hargus, Sharon; Davis, Katharine. On the categorization of ejectives: data from Witsuwit'en.. Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 2002, 32: 43–77. doi:10.1017/S0025100302000142. 

外部連結[编辑]