果食主义

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果食主义素食主义純素主義的一种,主张植物同样具有不可践踏的生命,因此主义实践者只吃植物的果实。果食主义中关于果的定义来自于植物学而非日常用语,也就是说黄瓜茄子西红柿辣椒等通常不归类于水果的植物学果实是可以食用的。基於各種理由人們選擇採取果食主義,包括道德宗教環保文化健康等等。有些人的當飲食超過75%都是由果實組成便自稱為果食主義者。[1]

定義[编辑]

有些果食主義者只吃會從植物上自然掉落的食物,也就是不用傷害植物就能收割的食物[2][3][4] ,這些食物主要包括水果堅果種子[5]。根據作者Adam Gollner,有些果食主義者只吃已經掉落的果實 [6] 。也有一些不吃榖物的人,他們相信這是不自然的作法 [7]。有些人則認為不應食用會長成植物[6]、堅果、種子[8]及水果之前的一切植物的種子[9] [10] 。還有人相信應該只吃會在被吃掉後散播種子的植物[11]。一些果食主義者採用植物學的定義食用包括豆科植物在內的果實。也有包括生果、果乾蜂蜜橄欄油在內[12],或食用水果、堅果、種子及巧克力的人[13]

動機[编辑]

一些果食主義者為猶太基督徒,根據創世紀第一章二十九節,他們認為果食主義是亞當夏娃,也就是人類最初的飲食模式。同時他們也相信若要回歸一個伊甸園般的樂園,將需要簡單的生活與一個完全接納健康與飲食的方法。[14]有些果食主義者(如耆那教徒)則希望避免殺害包括植物在內的任何生命,而被稱為不害的果食主義者。[15]有些果食主義者主張吃植物的果食實際上是幫了它們一個大忙,因為有肉質的果食是演化成適合被動物所食用,藉此得以繁衍後代。

科學研究[编辑]

生物學研究[编辑]

在1979年,一名約翰·霍普金斯大學古人類學家亞倫‧渥克教授(Professor Allen Walker)回報了一項關於原始人類牙齒琺琅質的初步研究,他發現人類祖先的飲食主要來自於果實。這項發現令他感到非常驚訝。[16]

臨床研究[编辑]

於1971年,一項由B. J. Meyer所主導的短期研究被發表在南非醫學期刊(South African Medical Journal)上[17]。內容提到純果食者其體內的血脂葡萄糖耐受度都有所進步[18]。根據該研究中更進一步的試驗,對於一些過重的試驗者在嘗試果食法之後,其理想體重有下降的趨勢。[19]

著名的果食主義者[编辑]

一些知名的果食主義鼓吹者,或其飲食習慣被認為是果食主義者包括以下人物:

其他像是Ross Horne[25]還有Viktoras Kulvinskas[26] 他們似乎只以果食為主。[27] 有些人像是 Johnny Lovewisdom, 實驗性地嘗試不同飲食方法,包括純果肉飲食,[28]果飲主義(只食用果汁),[29] 生機飲食主義(只飲用水果、蔬菜和生乳品)[30] 以及食氣主義.[31]

歷史人物[编辑]

相關條目[编辑]

註釋[编辑]

  1. ^ Tom Billings. Living and Raw Foods: Types of Raw Food Diets: A Brief Survey. Living and Raw Foods. 
  2. ^ Sins of the Flesh: A History of Ethical Vegetarian Thought, Rod Preece, UBC Press, 2008, "Since plants have life, it is necessary, if one is not to starve, to live from the fruit of the plant in such a manner that the host plant itself does not die."
  3. ^ Nutrition for the recreational athlete, Catherine G. Ratzin Jackson, page 95, “The fruitarian diet usually consists of consuming those parts of the plant that are cast off or dropped from the plant and that do not involve the destruction of the plant itself.”, 249 page, CRC Press, 1995, ISBN 0-8493-7914-8, ISBN 978-0-8493-7914-7
  4. ^ Handbook Of Pediatric Nutrition, Patricia Samour, “A fruitarian diet consists of only fruits. Any plant food that is botanically a fruit or can be obtained without killing or harming the plant is considered a fruit." Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2003, page 143.
  5. ^ The Vegetarian Society UK—Information Sheet—Definitions. Vegsoc.org. 2014-07-22 [2014-08-09]. (原始内容存档于1999-11-28). 
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 'The Fruit Hunters, Adam Leith Gollne, "Some factions eat only fallen fruit. Others refuse to eat any seeds because they contain future plants."
  7. ^ Raw Food Explained. Human Dietetic Character, I—Are We Grain Eaters?. Rawfoodexplained.com. [2014-08-09]. 
  8. ^ The Ascensional Science of Spiritualizing Fruitarian Dietetics, Dr Johnny Lovewisdom, Ecuador: International University of the Natural Vitalogical Sciences, 1999, Introduction: "Nature is betrayed when man ingests the seeds of plants, depriving them of their means of propagating their own species"; chapter: Sugar & Starch-Friends Or Foes? "grains, nuts and other seeds are wrong as food sources"
  9. ^ To Those Considering A Fruitarian Diet. Beyondveg.com. [2014-08-09]. 
  10. ^ "Ascensional Science teaches the damaging effects of chlorophyll leafage, earthly roots and lower passion producing seeds. We are healed by levitational forces in fruit sugars and acids." Introduction to Ascensional Science of Spiritualizing Fruitarian Dietetics, Johnny Lovewisdom, International University of the Natural Vitalogical Sciences, 1999
  11. ^ Living and Raw Foods: Alternative Eating Plans - USA TODAY. Living-foods.com. [2014-08-09]. 
  12. ^ Food, nutrition, and diet therapy: a textbook of nutritional care, Marie V. Krause, "The fruitarian diet consists of only raw or dried fruits, nuts, honey and olive oil." page 343, Saunders, 1984, Original from the University of Michigan, Digitized Aug 19, 2008, ISBN 0-7216-5514-9, ISBN 978-0-7216-5514-7
  13. ^ Handbook of Sunfood Living: Resource Guide for Global Health, John McCabe, North Atlantic Books, 2008, "other fruitarians also consumer cucumbers, olives, tomatoes, peppers, squash, beans, melon, avocadoes, berries, grapes, figs, dates, carob, chocolate, goji berries, nuts and even coconuts."
  14. ^ Berry, Rynn. Satya June/July 03: Raw History. 
  15. ^ "ahim-sa" - "the Hindu and Buddhist doctrine of refraining from harming any living being", Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary, http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/ahinsa
  16. ^ Rensberger, Boyce. Teeth Show Fruit Was The Staple; No Exceptions Found. The New York Times. May 15, 1979: C1 [2009-11-01]. Paid subscription required
  17. ^ "The South African Medical Journal is published by the South African Medical Association, which represents most medical professionals in South Africa.", African Journals Online, http://ajol.info/index.php/samj
  18. ^ B. J. Meyer; E. J. P. de Bruin; D. G. du Plessis; M. van der Merwe; A. C. Meyer. Some biochemical effects on a mainly fruit diet in man (PDF). South African Medical Journal. 1971-03-06, 45 (10): 253–61 [2009-11-11]. PMID 5573330. "The effect of a nut-supplemented fruit diet on glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, plasma proteins and plasma lipids was investigated. The results suggest that, at least for the period covered by the experiment and under the prevailing conditions, the diet was adequate with respect to the parameters investigated, and may even have something to commend it."
  19. ^ Meyer BJ et al. "Some physiological effects of a mainly fruit diet in man". South African Medical Journal, February 20, 1971; vol. 45, pp. 191-5. "An interesting aspect of the diet was the tendency for the weights to level off more or less at the 'theoretically ideal' weight for the subject."
  20. ^ "Failure of a Womanless Eden in the Pacific - Strange Story from the South Seas", The New York Times, October 15, 1905, "For days he lived alone, eating nothing but bread fruit and cocoanuts," "Of the food of choice, he lacked none.", "Weeks of life under the sun in the salt sea, and living upon fruit, had brought him to a state of wonderful physical perfection.", "For nearly two years more he continued to live the 'pure, natural life' but the charm had been completely broken by the death of his two disciples.", "in 1903, came a drought which reduced the fruit crop. The little left of it was wiped out in the Spring of 1904 by a storm. Engelhardt had the alternative of casting in his lot with the natives and eating on hogflesh, or sending a request for succor to Ulu or Herbertshohe. He did neither in his stubbornness, and starvation and thirst did their work."
  21. ^ Arnold Ehret, Mucusless Diet Healing System Mucusless Diet Healing System, ISBN 1-884772-00-5, 75th Anniversary edition, "The next winter I went to Algiers, in northern Africa. The mild climate and the wonderful fruits improved my condition and gave me more faith in Nature's methods and an understanding of them, and I gained courage to try short fasts to assist the cleansing properties of fruit and climate, with such results that one morning of a well feeling day I chanced to notice in my mirror that my face had taken on an entirely new look", p. 15, "Arriving home again.... I gradually took up the ordinary diet.", p. 15, "My experience, tests, and experiments as well as cures, all showed that grape sugar of fruits was the essential material of human food, giving the highest efficiency and endurance, and at the same time was the best eliminator of debris and the most efficient healing agent known for the human body", p. 16, "To test our efficiency at exhaustive labor, we took a trip through northern Italy, walking for 56 hours continuously without sleep or rest or food, only drink. This after a seven-day fast and then only one meal of two pounds of cherries.", p. 17
  22. ^ Raymond W. Bernard, Organic Way To Health Vol. 1-4, Health Research Books, 1996, p. 2, "I have tried non-vegetarian diets, vegetarian diets, raw food diets, fruitarian diets, and many other kinds of diets."
  23. ^ Ron Lagerquist, North American Diet, International Bible Society (1984). "Essie Honiball lived exclusively on fruit and a small amounts of nuts."
  24. ^ Essie Honiball, I Live On Fruit. Macro Books, Pretoria 1981. First edition. p. 9, Chapter 1: "One does not easily cast aside established habits almost overnight.... This is precisely what I did in 1958 when I, after a three day water fast, started living on fresh fruit and nuts. That was twenty years ago.", p. 17, Chapter 1: "Today I still live virtually exclusively on fruit.", p. 18, Chapter 2: "The Diet on which I have lived since 1958 is so simple that it appears almost laughable in a line of complicated diets —I live on fresh fruit and nuts.", p. 19, Chapter 2: "I can live on fruit alone, but not on vegetables."
  25. ^ Horne, Ross (1997) Chapter "Dieting for Health and Longevity", section "The Natural Diet Of Man", in Health and Survival in the 21st Century Harper Collins. Quote: "The study of comparative anatomy and the different natural diets of animals in the wild indicates strongly that the natural diet of early humans consisted predominantly of sweet fruits, and that even though millions of years have passed, the anatomy and digestive apparatus of humans has not changed and is therefore still best suited to fruit as the most suitable food."
  26. ^ Kulvinskas, Viktoras P. (1981) Life in the 21st Century. Twenty First Century Publications. ISBN 978-0-933278-00-4.
  27. ^ Kulvinskas, Viktoras P. (2002) Survival into the 21st Century Arizona: Ihopea Incorporated.
  28. ^ Lovewisdom, Joynny (1999) The Ascensional Science of Spiritualizing Fruitarian Dietetics San Francisco: Paradisian Publications. Quote: "In two years, I was living exclusively on juicy fruits, condemning the use of nuts in the fruit diet which other fruitarians before me had used with adverse results due to the lack of the life-giving living water in nuts, making them the 'Tempters of Satan'" in section 'My Calling To The Carpophagous Conception'"
  29. ^ Lovewisdom, Johnny (1980)Modern Live Juice Fasting Connecticut: O'mangod Press. Chapter 1. Quote: "I found the living blood of fruits and many vegetables a much purer life-giving, naturally prepared directly assimilable blood transfusion than can be expected from tired, worn-out, diseased blood of ordinary civilized humans."; chapter 3 "in 1953-54, I realized the true 6 months 7 day water fast with the purest distilled water usually tinctured with tomato juice"
  30. ^ Lovewisdon, Johnny (1950) Spiritualizing Dietetics: Vitarianism, Loja, Ecuador: International University Of The Natural Vitalogical Sciences. p.82 Quote: "(Vitarianism) advocates live or Vita-foods"
  31. ^ Puented, Miguel A. (June 7, 1949) A Message Of Peace By One Who Lives In A Volcano!, Mundial, Montevideo, Uruguay. Section "His Life In Practice" Quote: "He went on fasts, one of which he recently reached 40 days without taking anything but water with a few drops of lime juice."
  32. ^ Goline, Adam Leith (2013) The Fruit Hunters: A Story of Nature, Adventure, Commerce and Obsession New York: Scribner ISBN 9781476704999. Quote: "Idi Amin, the tyrannical Ugandan dictator, lived his final years in Saudi Arabia as a fruitarian (his affinity for oranges earned him the nickname "Dr. Jaffa")."
  33. ^ Gandhi, Mohandas K., Desai, Valji Govindji (trans.)"Tolstoy Farm III" in Satyagraha in South Africa ~ XXXV. Quote: "[D]uring five years of a purely fruitarian life I never felt weak, nor did I suffer from any disease".
  34. ^ Autobiography: the story of my experiments with truth, Social Sciences Series, Mohandas Gandhi, Gandhi (Mahatma), Mahadev Haribhai Desai, Dover, 1983, p. 318. "Dr. Jivraj Mehta treated me. He pressed me hard to resume milk and cereals, but I was obdurate."
  35. ^ Gokhale's Charity, My Experiments with Truth, M. K. Gandhi.
  36. ^ Berlet, Chip, Vysotsky, Stanislavstated. "Overview of U.S. White Supremacist Groups", Journal of Political and Military Sociology, Summer 2006.
  37. ^ Salubrious Living (Creativity Book Publishers, 1982, and World Church of Creativity, 2003), chapter 'The Fruitarian Diet': "The fruitarian diet is composed of the products of the plant kingdom which are delicious and appealing to our taste in their natural uncooked condition. As fruits, vegetables and nuts are the foods which meet this qualification in an ideal manner they are the primary foods used by the fruitarian."
  38. ^ "Steve Jobs" by Walter Isaacson. "Finally Jobs proposed Apple Computer. 'I was on one of my fruitarian diets,' [Jobs] explained." p. 120. "She just wanted him to be healthy, and [Jobs] would be making weird pronouncements like, 'I'm a fruitarian and I will only eat leaves picked by virgins in the moonlight.'" p. 68.