城市绿地

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城市绿地為城市中用作公園或其他綠地的開放空間[1]世界衛生組織將其定義為「有任何植被覆蓋的城市土地」[2],可能伴隨著遊樂場蓝色空间(水體或水道)等人工設施或自然景觀,有休憩、生態、美觀與健康等用途[2][3]。城市綠地有時為大學校園、社區花園英语Community gardening等私人或機構的用地,但一般均對公眾開放,位於城市範圍以外的州立公園國家公園則不屬於城市绿地。早在一世紀古羅馬即有rus in urbe(意指城市中的鄉村)的概念,將綠地融入城市規劃中[4][5],現代城市綠地則可追溯至十七至十八世紀英國倫敦的城市廣場[6]

城市綠地可減緩地表逕流熱島效應[7],還可降低空氣污染,對周圍社區的居民生理和心理健康有正面影響[8][9]。歷史上以弱勢族群為主的社區通常較缺乏綠地,為政策(如過去美國住宅政策中的紅線制度英语Redlining)與經濟不平等所致[10],近年的綠地規劃開始重視環境正義英语Environmental justice與社區參與[11]。清理污染與增設綠地可提升周圍住宅的價值,即環境縉紳化英语Environmental gentrification[12],但此過程也可能有負面影響,使弱勢族群無力負擔房價而被迫遷出[13][14]

參見[编辑]

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ What is Open Space/Green Space?. United States Environmental Protection Agency. 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Urban green spaces: a brief for action. UN City, Denmark: World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. 2017. 
  3. ^ Jayasinghe, DBC; Hemakumara, GPTS; Hewage, P. GIS-Based Assessment of the Green Space Per Capita in the City of Galle, Sri Lanka (PDF). Sri Lanka Journal of Advanced Social Studies (Sri Lanka: NCAS). 2018, 7 (2): 3–24 [29 December 2020]. 
  4. ^ A brief history of urban green spaces. Urban Rambles. 2015-12-28 [2018-10-25]. 
  5. ^ Giovagnorio, Ilaria; Usai, Daniela; Palmas, Alessandro; Chiri, Giovanni Marco. The environmental elements of foundations in Roman cities: A theory of the architect Gaetano Vinaccia. Sustainable Cities and Society. July 2017, 32: 42–55. doi:10.1016/j.scs.2017.03.002. 
  6. ^ Lawrence, Henry W. The Greening of the Squares of London: Transformation of Urban landscapes and Ideals. Annals of the Association of American Geographers. March 1993, 83 (1): 90–118. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8306.1993.tb01924.x. 
  7. ^ Zhanga, Yujia; Murray, Alan; Turner, B. Optimizing green space locations to reduce daytime and nighttime urban heat island effects in Phoenix, Arizona. Landscape and Urban Planning. Sep 2017, 165: 162–171. doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2017.04.009. 
  8. ^ Shishegar, Nastaran. The Impact of Green Areas on Mitigating Urban Heat Island Effect: A Review. The International Journal of Environmental Sustainability. Jan 2013, 9 (1): 119–130. doi:10.18848/2325-1077/CGP/v09i01/55081. 
  9. ^ Maas, Jolanda; Verheij, Robert A.; Groenewegen, Peter P.; Vries, Sjerp de; Spreeuwenberg, Peter. Green space, urbanity, and health: how strong is the relation?. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. 1 July 2006, 60 (7): 587–592. PMC 2566234. PMID 16790830. doi:10.1136/jech.2005.043125. 
  10. ^ Rigolon, Alessandro; Németh, Jeremy. What Shapes Uneven Access to Urban Amenities? Thick Injustice and the Legacy of Racial Discrimination in Denver's Parks. Journal of Planning Education and Research. 25 July 2018: 0739456X1878925. doi:10.1177/0739456X18789251. 
  11. ^ Ep. 51: Urban Greening with Sandra Albro. Sustainability Defined. [2020-08-21]. 
  12. ^ Banzhaf, H. Spencer; McCormick, Eleanor. Moving beyond cleanup: Identifying the crucibles of environmental gentrification. NCEE Working Paper Series. 2006. 
  13. ^ Dooling, Sarah. Ecological gentrification: A research agenda exploring justice in the city. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research. 2009: 621–639. 
  14. ^ Sieg, Holger; Smith, V. Kerry; Banzhaf, H. Spencer; Walsh, Randall. Estimating the general equilibrium benefits of large changes in spatially delineated public goods. International Economic Review. 2004, 45 (4): 1047–77. doi:10.1111/j.0020-6598.2004.00297.x.