啤酒歷史

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寫有如何製作「最好的」啤酒的泥板。製作於前2500年位在當時蘇美爾的城市烏爾[1]

啤酒是一種世界上最古老的飲料[2][3]啤酒的歷史文獻可以追溯到前6千年,當時美索不達米亞地區的蘇美人已經把啤酒的製作方法用文字記錄起來[4]。此外,當時蘇美神話中也有一位掌管釀酒的女神「寧卡絲」,人們甚至為她寫了一首《寧卡絲的讚歌》,而其內容主要是描述啤酒的製作方法。[5][6]

考古物最早历史則可追溯到公元前10000年前的新石器时代的美索不达比亚[7]

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ World's oldest beer receipt? - Free Online Library. www.thefreelibrary.com. [2010-05-08]. 
  2. ^ Arnold, John P. Origin and History of Beer and Brewing: From Prehistoric Times to the Beginning of Brewing Science and Technology. Cleveland, Ohio: BeerBooks. 2005 [1911]. ISBN 978-0-9662084-1-2. OCLC 71834130. 
  3. ^ Nelson, Max. The barbarian's beverage: a history of beer in ancient Europe. London: Routledge. 2005. 6. ISBN 978-0-415-31121-2. OCLC 58387214. 
  4. ^ Beer. Britannica.com. 
  5. ^ Nin-kasi: Mesopotamian Goddess of Beer. Matrifocus 2006, Johanna Stuckey. [13 May 2008]. 
  6. ^ Black, Jeremy A.; Cunningham, Graham; Robson, Eleanor. The literature of ancient Sumer. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2004. ISBN 0-19-926311-6. 
  7. ^ Life's Little Mysteries.com – When Was Beer Invented?. lifeslittlemysteries.com. [3 May 2011]. 

書籍[编辑]

  • Dumper, Michael; Stanley, Bruce E. Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. 2007. ISBN 9781576079195. .
  • Arnold, John P. 1911. Origin and History of Beer and Brewing: From Prehistoric Times to the Beginning of Brewing Science and Technology. Chicago: Alumni Association of the Wahl-Henius Institute of Fermentology. ISBN 0-9662084-1-2
  • Benn, Charles. 2002. China's Golden Age: Everyday Life in the Tang Dynasty. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517665-0.
  • Death, James. 1887. The Beer of the Bible. London: Trübner. ASIN B000889GP4
  • Eames, Alan D. 1995. Secret Life of Beer: Legends, Lore & Little-Known Facts Pownat, VT: Storey Communications. ISBN 0-88266-807-2
  • Medieval science, technology, and medicine: an encyclopedia (2005) Thomas Glick, Steven J. Livesey, Faith Wallis, editors ISBN 0-415-96930-1
  • Mitchell, Stephen Gilgamesh, a new English version ISBN 0-7432-6164-X
  • Scully, Terence. 1995. The Art of Cookery in the Middle Ages ISBN 0-85115-611-8
  • Smith, Gregg Beer: A History of Suds and Civilization from Mesopotamia to Microbreweries ISBN 0-380-78051-8
  • Tuchman, Barbara A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century ISBN 0345349571 ISBN 978-0345349576
  • Unger, Richard W. 2004. Beer in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-3795-1

外部連結[编辑]

Template:Alcoholic beverages