六角柱

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳转至: 导航搜索
正六角柱
六角柱
正六角柱
類別 柱體
8
18
頂點 12
歐拉特徵數 F=8, E=18, V=12 (χ=2)
面的種類 六邊形×2
正方形×6
面的佈局英语Face configuration 6{4}+2{6}
頂點圖 4.4.6
考克斯特符號英语Coxeter-Dynkin diagram CDel node 1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node.png
CDel node 1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png
施萊夫利符號 t{2,6} or {6}x{}
威佐夫符號英语Wythoff symbol 2 6 | 2
康威表示法 P6
對稱群 D6h, [6,2], (*622), order 24
參考索引 U76(d)
對偶 雙六角錐
特性 , zonohedron
立體圖 Hexagonal prism vertfig.png
4.4.6
頂點圖
Hexagonale bipiramide.png
雙六角錐
(對偶多面體)
Net of hexagonal prism.svg
(展開圖)

幾何學中,六角柱又稱六角稜柱[1],是一種底面為六邊形柱體[2]。所有六角柱都有8個面,18個邊和12個頂點[3]

由於它具有8個面,所以它是一個八面體[4]。然而,“八面體”這個幾何術語,主要是指正八面體,其中有8個三角形面。這個若稱做八面體的話,會和正八面體混淆,所以很少使用“八面體”來表示六角柱。

許多鉛筆在削尖之前的形狀都是六角柱形[5]

性質[编辑]

正六角柱是指底面為正六邊形的六角柱,其每個頂點都是2個正方形和1個正六邊形的公共頂點,因此具有點可遞的性質,又因其所有面都是正多邊形因此是一種半正多面體,且其為以正方形為側面的半正柱體無窮系列中的第4個幾何體。六角柱亦可以視為一種截角六面形,並可以以施萊夫利符號t{2,6}表示。

體積[编辑]

已知底面邊長, 和高正六角柱的體積可以由下面公式計算[6][7]

頂點座標[编辑]

一個幾何中心位於原點邊長為2的正六角柱其頂點座標為[8]

對稱性[编辑]

對稱性英语List_of_spherical_symmetry_groups D6h, [2,6], (*622) C6v, [6], (*66) D3h, [2,3], (*322) D3d, [2+,6], (2*3)
結構 {6}×{}, CDel node 1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node.png t{3}×{}, CDel node 1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png CDel node 1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node f1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node f1.png s2{2,6}, CDel node h.pngCDel 2x.pngCDel node h.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node 1.png
圖像 Hexagonal Prism.svg Hexagonal frustum.png Truncated triangle prism.png Cantic snub hexagonal hosohedron.png
扭曲 Hexagonal frustum2.png Truncated triangle prism2.png Isohedral hexagon prism.png
Isohedral hexagon prism2.png
Cantic snub hexagonal hosohedron2.png

構成多胞形[编辑]

六角柱可以獨立堆砌成堆砌體,也可以跟其他立體共同堆砌密鋪三維空間

六角柱堆砌英语Hexagonal prismatic honeycomb[3]
CDel node 1.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel infin.pngCDel node.png
三角柱-六角柱堆砌英语Triangular-hexagonal prismatic honeycomb
CDel node.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel infin.pngCDel node.png
扭稜六邊形鑲嵌柱堆砌
CDel node h.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node h.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node h.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel infin.pngCDel node.png
大斜方截半六邊形鑲嵌柱堆砌
CDel node 1.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel infin.pngCDel node.png
Hexagonal prismatic honeycomb.png Triangular-hexagonal prismatic honeycomb.png Snub triangular-hexagonal prismatic honeycomb.png Rhombitriangular-hexagonal prismatic honeycomb.png
截角四面體柱體英语truncated tetrahedral prism
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png
截角八面體柱體英语truncated octahedral prism
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png
大斜方截半立方體柱體英语Truncated cuboctahedral prism
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png
截角二十面體柱體英语Truncated icosahedral prism
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 5.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png
大斜方截半二十面體柱體英语Truncated icosidodecahedral prism
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 5.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png
Truncated tetrahedral prism.png Truncated octahedral prism.png Truncated cuboctahedral prism.png Truncated icosahedral prism.png Truncated icosidodecahedral prism.png
柱形斜方截半正五胞體英语runcitruncated 5-cell
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png
大柱形斜方截半正五胞體英语omnitruncated 5-cell
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png
柱形斜方截半正十六胞體英语runcitruncated 16-cell
CDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png
大柱形斜方截半超立方體英语omnitruncated tesseract
CDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png
4-simplex t013.svg 4-simplex t0123.svg 4-cube t023.svg 4-cube t0123.svg
柱形斜方截半正二十四胞體英语runcitruncated 24-cell
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png
大柱形斜方截半正二十四胞體英语omnitruncated 24-cell
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png
柱形斜方截半正六百胞體英语runcitruncated 600-cell
CDel node 1.pngCDel 5.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png
大柱形斜方截半正一百二十胞體英语omnitruncated 120-cell
CDel node 1.pngCDel 5.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png
24-cell t0123 F4.svg 24-cell t013 F4.svg 120-cell t023 H3.png 120-cell t0123 H3.png

相關多面體與鑲嵌[编辑]

半正六邊形二面體球面多面體
對稱群英语List of spherical symmetry groups[6,2], (*622) [6,2]+, (622) [1+,6,2], (322) [6,2+], (2*3)
CDel node 1.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node.png CDel node 1.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node.png CDel node.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node.png CDel node.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png CDel node.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png CDel node 1.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png CDel node 1.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png CDel node h.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node h.pngCDel 2x.pngCDel node h.png CDel node h1.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node.png CDel node.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node h.pngCDel 2x.pngCDel node h.png
Hexagonal dihedron.png Dodecagonal dihedron.png Hexagonal dihedron.png Spherical hexagonal prism.png Spherical hexagonal hosohedron.png Spherical truncated trigonal prism.png Spherical dodecagonal prism2.png Spherical hexagonal antiprism.png Trigonal dihedron.png Spherical trigonal antiprism.png
{6,2} t{6,2} r{6,2} 2t{6,2}=t{2,6} 2r{6,2}={2,6} rr{6,2} tr{6,2} sr{6,2} h{6,2} s{2,6}
半正對偶
CDel node f1.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node.png CDel node f1.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node f1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node.png CDel node.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node f1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node.png CDel node.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node f1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node f1.png CDel node.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node f1.png CDel node f1.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node f1.png CDel node f1.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node f1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node f1.png CDel node fh.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node fh.pngCDel 2x.pngCDel node fh.png CDel node fh.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node.png CDel node.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node fh.pngCDel 2x.pngCDel node fh.png
Spherical hexagonal hosohedron.png Spherical dodecagonal hosohedron.png Spherical hexagonal hosohedron.png Spherical hexagonal bipyramid.png Hexagonal dihedron.png Spherical hexagonal bipyramid.png Spherical dodecagonal bipyramid.png Spherical hexagonal trapezohedron.png Spherical trigonal hosohedron.png Spherical trigonal trapezohedron.png
V62 V122 V62 V4.4.6 V26 V4.4.6 V4.4.12 V3.3.3.6英语Hexagonal trapezohedron V32 V3.3.3.3

大斜方截半變異對稱性[编辑]

*n32的大斜方截半變異對稱性: 4.6.2n
對稱性
*n32英语Orbifold notation
[n,3]英语Coxeter notation
球面英语List_of_spherical_symmetry_groups 平面英语List_of_planar_symmetry_groups 緊湊雙曲 仿緊 非緊雙曲
*232
[2,3]
*332
[3,3]
*432
[4,3]
*532
[5,3]
*632
[6,3]
*732
[7,3]
*832
[8,3]
*∞32
[∞,3]
 
[12i,3]
 
[9i,3]
 
[6i,3]
 
[3i,3]
圖形 Spherical truncated trigonal prism.png Uniform tiling 332-t012.png Uniform tiling 432-t012.png Uniform tiling 532-t012.png Uniform polyhedron-63-t012.png H2 tiling 237-7.png H2 tiling 238-7.png H2 tiling 23i-7.png H2 tiling 23j12-7.png H2 tiling 23j9-7.png H2 tiling 23j6-7.png H2 tiling 23j3-7.png
頂點布局 4.6.4 4.6.6 4.6.8 4.6.10 4.6.12 4.6.14英语Truncated triheptagonal tiling 4.6.16英语Truncated trioctagonal tiling 4.6.∞英语Truncated triapeirogonal tiling 4.6.24i 4.6.18i 4.6.12i 4.6.6i
對偶 Spherical hexagonal bipyramid.png Spherical tetrakis hexahedron.png Spherical disdyakis dodecahedron.png Spherical disdyakis triacontahedron.png Tiling Dual Semiregular V4-6-12 Bisected Hexagonal.svg H2checkers 237.png H2checkers 238.png H2checkers 23i.png H2 checkers 23j12.png H2 checkers 23j9.png H2 checkers 23j6.png H2 checkers 23j3.png
面布局 V4.6.4 V4.6.6 V4.6.8 V4.6.10 V4.6.12 V4.6.14英语Order 3-7 kisrhombille V4.6.16英语Order 3-8 kisrhombille V4.6.∞ V4.6.24i V4.6.18i V4.6.12i V4.6.6i

相關柱體[编辑]

六角柱是正多邊形柱體的一員,其他的正多邊形柱體有:

正多邊形柱體系列
對稱群英语List of spherical symmetry groups 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10英语Decagonal prism 11英语Hendecagonal prism 12英语Dodecagonal prism
[2n,2]
[n,2]
[2n,2+]
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png CDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png
CDel node 1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png
CDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node h.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node h.png
CDel node 1.pngCDel 5.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png CDel node 1.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png
CDel node 1.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node h.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node h.png
CDel node 1.pngCDel 7.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png CDel node 1.pngCDel 8.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png
CDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png
CDel node 1.pngCDel 8.pngCDel node h.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node h.png
CDel node 1.pngCDel 9.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png CDel node 1.pngCDel 10.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png
CDel node 1.pngCDel 5.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png
CDel node 1.pngCDel 10.pngCDel node h.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node h.png
CDel node 1.pngCDel 11.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png CDel node 1.pngCDel 12.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png
CDel node 1.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png
CDel node 1.pngCDel 12.pngCDel node h.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node h.png
圖像 Triangular prism.png Tetragonal prism.png
Uniform polyhedron 222-t012.png
Cube rotorotational symmetry.png
Pentagonal prism.png Hexagonal prism.png
Truncated triangle prism.png
Cantic snub hexagonal hosohedron.png
Prism 7.png Octagonal prism.png
Truncated square prism.png
Cantic snub octagonal hosohedron.png
Prism 9.png Decagonal prism.png Hendecagonal prism.png Dodecagonal prism.png
球面多面體
圖像 Spherical triangular prism.png Spherical square prism.png
Spherical square prism2.png
Spherical pentagonal prism.png Spherical hexagonal prism.png
Spherical hexagonal prism2.png
Spherical heptagonal prism.png Spherical octagonal prism.png
Spherical octagonal prism2.png
Spherical decagonal prism.png
Spherical decagonal prism2.png
柱體形式半正鑲嵌系列:
球面鑲嵌 柱體 歐式鑲嵌
仿緊空間
雙曲鑲嵌
非緊空間
Henagonal hosohedron.png
t{2,1}
CDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png
Spherical digonal hosohedron.PNG
t{2,2}
CDel node 1.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png
Spherical triangular prism.png
t{3,2}
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png
Spherical square prism.png
{4,2}
CDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png
Spherical pentagonal prism.png
t{5,2}
CDel node 1.pngCDel 5.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png
Spherical hexagonal prism.png
t{6,2}
CDel node 1.pngCDel 6.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png
Spherical heptagonal prism.png
t{7,2}
CDel node 1.pngCDel 7.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png
Spherical octagonal prism.png
t{8,2}
CDel node 1.pngCDel 8.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png
...


E2 tiling 22i-6.png
t{2,∞}
CDel node 1.pngCDel infin.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png
H2 tiling 22i-6.png
t{2,iπ/λ}
CDel node 1.pngCDel ultra.pngCDel node.pngCDel 2.pngCDel node 1.png

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ hexagonal prism. 國家教育研究院. [2016-08-17]. (原始内容存档于2016-08-17). 
  2. ^ hexagonal prism. Maths A to Z. School A to Z. [2016-08-17]. (原始内容存档于2016-08-17). 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 Pugh, Anthony, Polyhedra: A Visual Approach, University of California Press: 21, 27, 62, 1976, ISBN 9780520030565 .
  4. ^ MathWorldHexagonal prism的资料,作者:埃里克·韦斯坦因
  5. ^ Simpson, Audrey, Core Mathematics for Cambridge IGCSE, Cambridge University Press: 266–267, 2011, ISBN 9780521727921 .
  6. ^ Jim Reed. Surface Area. 埃德蒙頓公立學校英语Edmonton Public Schools. 1998年7月 [2016-02-23]. (原始内容存档于2009-11-04). 
  7. ^ The volume of a hexagonal prism. 里賈納大學. [2016-08-17]. (原始内容存档于2015-09-23). 
  8. ^ The Hexagonal Prism. eusebeia. 2014-02-28 [2016-08-17]. (原始内容存档于2014-03-02). 

外部連結[编辑]