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美國的工會

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美國的工會受法律認可為代表勞工利益的組織。工會行使集體協商權,為會員談判勞動條件、工資、福利;並監督、糾正雇主違法或違背勞動契約的管理行為,必要時以爭議行為作為談判籌碼。較大的工會還會透過政治遊說或競選,影響美國聯邦政府及各州政治人物的決策。

大多數美國的工會都是兩個大型工會聯盟的會員工會,分別是1955年成立的美國勞工聯合會-產業工會聯合會(AFL-CIO),與2005年自AFL-CIO分家的變革謀勝工會聯合會英语Change to Win Federation。兩者都主張自己代表美國和加拿大勞工的政治利益,積極從事政治遊說工作。其中,AFL-CIO特別關注全球貿易議題。

1983年時,美國的工會共有1,770萬名會員,工會組織率為20.1%;然而2013年卻僅剩1,450萬名會員,工會組織率僅有10.8%[1] 民營事業單位的工會組織率甚至僅有7%[2],創下1932年來的最低紀錄。與其它國家相比,2013年時法國的工會組織率為7.7%、德國為18.1%、加拿大為27.1%,冰島更以85.5%的工會組織率冠居全球。[3]以統計數字而言,美國勞工參與工會的比例顯著偏低。美國的工會組織率與雖大幅滑落,但仍能透過群眾動員或跨領域結盟(例如與移民權益、貿易政策、健康照顧與維生工資等議題團體合作),對美國政治有一定程度的影響力。其中,美國的工會尤其關注各級政府因預算縮減,產生勞工退休金減少或延遲給付等問題。[4] 如有茶黨背景的共和黨籍威斯康辛州州長英语Governor of Wisconsin斯考特·沃克就曾透過刪減預算限制公部門工會的集體協商權。

21世紀的美國工會運動以公部門受僱者,如公務員教師消防員警察、清潔隊員等勞工為主力。此外,工會會員不成比例地以年長、男性勞工居多,且以美國東北部中西部加州勞工為主。[5] 整體而言,一個美國工會若能掌握工作和勞動市場特性,平均而言能讓工會會員比非會員多10-30%工資[6];而在工會組織率較高的州,其勞工比其它州份的勞工有較高的收入和生活水準。國際貨幣基金組織則進一步將美國的收入差距問題,歸因於美國整體的勞工運動與工會組織率衰退所致。[7][8][9][10][11]

歷史[编辑]

19世紀中葉,工業革命對人類經濟、社會帶來巨大變革,勞資關係逐漸受到社會矚目,工會也隨之誕生。美國早期的工會誕生於南北戰爭之後,1880年代的勞動騎士團英语Knights of Labor是美國最具影響力的勞工團體,但因組織鬆散、缺乏有效領導中心和組織目標不一致等因素,並受到資方和政府聯手打壓而解散。

1886年,龔帕斯創立美國勞工聯合會,創立時仍是不同職種的地方工會組成的鬆散團體,透過協調、支持勞工罷工發展茁壯,如今已是美國最具影響力的工會團體。

1930年代,美國第32任總統富蘭克林·德拉諾·羅斯福推行新政,其中《華格納法案英语Wagner Act》保障工會的組織權利,促使美國勞工擴大團結、提升組織率。因此,美國的工會在政治上多傾向民主黨,在羅斯福時期更加入新政聯盟,支持羅斯福勝選連任。

二戰後[编辑]

1946年,親商的保守派政治人物在選舉中大勝,美國國會在1947年通過共和黨籍參議員羅伯特·A·塔夫脫起草的《塔夫特-哈特萊法案英语Taft-Hartley Act》。該法案不只受到共和黨人支持,連多數民主黨人也贊成該法案;即使時任美國第33任總統的哈瑞·杜魯門動用否決權,仍遭跨黨派議員組成的保守聯盟英语Conservative coalition推翻。[12]《塔夫特-哈特萊法案》禁止工會向候選人提供政治獻金、以「危害國家安全」之名提高工會發動罷工的門檻,並強迫工會除名有共產主義傾向的幹部(後美國最高法院裁定該條款違憲,不再適用);因而遭到美國工運圈強力抵制,但仍無力回天。國會在1959年通過《勞資關係報告法英语Landrum Griffin Act of 1959》,要求美國各級工會需向美國勞工部繳交年度報告,以限制有犯罪前科者擔任工會管理職務,從而加強聯邦政府對國際卡車司機工會英语International Brotherhood of Teamsters等工會的行政控制。[13][14]

美國的工會組織率在1954年達到高峰,為35%;而工會會員人數則以1979年最多,達2,100萬人。其後人數因民營部門工會組織不易逐年下滑。

參見[编辑]

  • Labor federation competition in the United States
  • Union affiliation by U.S. state
  • Public-sector trade unions in the United States

歷史

國際

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ Bureau of Labor Statistics, "Union Membership Summary" Jan 24, 2014
  2. ^ Union Members Summary Bureau of Labor Statistics, January 24, 2014 Retrieved: 11 March 2014
  3. ^ See: Trade Union Density.
  4. ^ Alicia H. Munnell. State and Local Pensions: What Now?. Brookings Institution Press. 2012: 4–5. 
  5. ^ Not With a Bang, But a Whimper: The Long, Slow Death Spiral of America's Labor Movement| Richard Yeselson| June 6, 2012
  6. ^ 8-31-2004 Union Membership Trends in the United States Gerald Mayer.
  7. ^ Politics that Work (April 3, 2015).
  8. ^ Politics that Work (April 3, 2015).
  9. ^ Doree Armstrong (February 12, 2014).
  10. ^ Keith Naughton, Lynn Doan and Jeffrey Green (February 20, 2015).
  11. ^ Michael Hiltzik (March 25, 2015).
  12. ^ Benjamin C. Waterhouise, Lobbying in America, (Princeton University Press, 2013) 53.
  13. ^ William H. Holley et al.Jr. The Labor Relations Process, 10th ed.. Cengage Learning. 2011: 85. 
  14. ^ David Scott Witwer. Corruption and Reform in the Teamsters Union. University of Illinois Press. 2003: 131ff. 

參考書目[编辑]

調查報告[编辑]

  • Arnesen, Eric, ed. Encyclopedia of U.S. Labor and Working-Class History (2006), 3 vol; 2064pp; 650 articles by experts excerpt and text search
  • Beard, Mary Ritter. A Short History of the American Labor Movement 1920 - 176 pages online edition
  • Beik, Millie, ed. Labor Relations: Major Issues in American History (2005) over 100 annotated primary documents excerpt and text search
  • Boris, Eileen, and Nelson Lichtenstein, eds. Major Problems In The History Of American Workers: Documents and Essays (2002)
  • Brody, David. In Labor's Cause: Main Themes on the History of the American Worker (1993) excerpt and text search
  • Browne, Waldo Ralph. What's what in the Labor Movement: A Dictionary of Labor Affairs and Labor (1921) 577pp; encyclopedia of labor terms, organizations and history. complete text online
  • Dubofsky, Melvyn, and Foster Rhea Dulles. Labor in America: A History (2004), textbook, based on earlier textbooks by Dulles.
  • Dubofsky, Melvyn, and Warren Van Tine, eds. Labor Leaders in America (1987) biographies of key leaders, written by scholars excerpt and text search
  • LeBlanc, Paul. A Short History of the U.S. Working Class: From Colonial Times to the Twenty-First Century (1999), 160pp excerpt and text search
  • Lichtenstein, Nelson. State of the Union: A Century of American Labor (2003) excerpt and text search
  • Perlman, Selig. A History of Trade Unionism in the United States 1922 - 313 pages online edition
  • Taylor, Paul F. The ABC-CLIO Companion to the American Labor Movement (1993) 237pp; short encyclopedia
  • Zieger, Robert H., and Gilbert J. Gall, American Workers, American Unions: The Twentieth Century(3rd ed. 2002) excerpt and text search
  • Zieger, Robert H. For Jobs and Freedom: Race and Labor in America Since 1865 (2007) excerpt and text search

1900年[编辑]

  • Commons, John R. History of Labour in the United States - vol 1 and Vol. 2 1860-1896 (1918) vol 2 online edition (note spelling of "Labour")
  • Commons, John R. "American Shoemakers, 1648-1895: A Sketch of Industrial Evolution," Quarterly Journal of Economics 24 (November, 1909), 39-83. in JSTOR
  • Commons, John R. ed. Trade Unionism and Labor Problems (1905) articles by experts on unions and working condition online edition
  • Grob, Gerald N. Workers and Utopia: A Study of Ideological Conflict in the American Labor Movement, 1865-1900 (1961) online edition
  • Hall, John P. "The Knights of St. Crispin in Massachusetts, 1869-1878," Journal of Economic History 18 (June, 1958), p 161-175 in JSTOR
  • Laslett, John H. M. Labor and the Left: A Study of Socialist and Radical Influences in the American Labor Movement, 1881-1924 (1970) online edition
  • Mandel, Bernard. Samuel Gompers: A Biography (1963) online edition
  • Orth, Samuel P. The Armies of Labor: A Chronicle of the Organized Wage-Earners (1919) short popular overview online edition
  • Taillon, Paul Michel. Good, Reliable, White Men: Railroad Brotherhoods, 1877-1917 (2009)
  • Taft, Philip Taft and Philip Ross, "American Labor Violence: Its Causes, Character, and Outcome," in The History of Violence in America: A Report to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence, ed. Hugh Davis Graham and Ted Robert Gurr, 1969. online edition
  • Van Tine, Warren R. The Making of the Labor Bureaucrat: Union Leadership in the United States, 1870-1920 (1973) online edition
  • Voss, Kim. The Making of American Exceptionalism: The Knights of Labor and Class Formation in the Nineteenth Century (1993) online edition
  • Weir, Robert E. Beyond Labor's Veil: The Culture of the Knights of Labor (1996) online edition
  • Bibliography of online resources on railway labor in late 19th century

1900年–1932年[编辑]

  • Bernstein, Irving. The Lean Years: A History of the American Worker, 1920-33 (1966)
  • Brody, David. Labor in Crisis: The Steel Strike of 1919 (1965)
  • Dubofsky, Melvyn and Warren Van Tine. John L. Lewis: A Biography (1986)
  • Brody, David. Labor in Crisis: The Steel Strike of 1919 (1965)
  • Faue, Elizabeth. Community of Suffering & Struggle: Women, Men, and the Labor Movement in Minneapolis, 1915-1945 (1991)
  • Fraser, Steve. Labor Will Rule: Sidney Hillman and the Rise of American Labor (1993)
  • Gordon, Colin. New Deals: Business, Labor, and Politics, 1920-1935 (1994)
  • Greene, Julie . Pure and Simple Politics: The American Federation of Labor and Political Activism, 1881-1917 (1998)
  • Hooker, Clarence. Life in the Shadows of the Crystal Palace, 1910-1927: Ford Workers in the Model T Era (1997)
  • Laslett, John H. M. Labor and the Left: A Study of Socialist and Radical Influences in the American Labor Movement, 1881-1924 (1970)
  • Karson, Marc. American Labor Unions and Politics, 1900-1918 (1958)
  • McCartin, Joseph A. Labor's Great War: The Struggle for Industrial Democracy and the Origins of Modern American Labor Relations, 1912-1921 (1997)
  • Mandel, Bernard. Samuel Gompers: A Biography (1963)
  • Meyer, Stephen. The Five Dollar Day: Labor Management and Social Control in the Ford Motor Company, 1908-1921 (1981)
  • Mink, Gwendolyn. Old Labor and New Immigrants in American Political Development: Union, Party, and State, 1875-1920 (1986)
  • Orth, Samuel P. The Armies of Labor: A Chronicle of the Organized Wage-Earners (1919) short overview
  • Quint, Howard H. The Forging of American Socialism: Origins of the Modern Movement (1964)
  • Warne, Colston E. ed. The Steel Strike of 1919 (1963), primary and secondary documents
  • Zieger, Robert. Republicans and Labor, 1919-1929. (1969)

早期文獻[编辑]

  • Gompers, Samuel. Seventy Years of Life and Labor: An Autobiography (1925)

1932年 - 1955年[编辑]

  • Bernstein, Irving. Turbulent Years: A History of the American Worker, 1933-1941 (1970)
  • Boyle, Kevin. The UAW and the Heyday of American Liberalism, 1945-1968 (1995)
  • Campbell, D'Ann. "Sisterhood versus the Brotherhoods: Women in Unions" Women at War With America: Private Lives in a Patriotic Era (1984).
  • Dubofsky, Melvyn and Warren Van Time John L. Lewis (1986).
  • Faue, Elizabeth. Community of Suffering & Struggle: Women, Men, and the Labor Movement in Minneapolis, 1915-1945 (1991), social history
  • Fraser, Steve. Labor Will Rule: Sidney Hillman and the Rise of American Labor (1993).
  • Galenson, Walter. The CIO Challenge to the AFL: A History of the American Labor Movement, 1935-1941 (1960)
  • Gordon, Colin. New Deals: Business, Labor, and Politics, 1920-1935 (1994)
  • Jensen, Richard J. "The Causes and Cures of Unemployment in the Great Depression," Journal of Interdisciplinary History 19 (1989) p. 553-83
  • Kennedy, David M. Freedom From Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929-1945. (1999) recent narrative.
  • Lichtenstein, Nelson. Labor's War at Home: The CIO in World War II (2003)
  • Lichtenstein, Nelson. The Most Dangerous Man in Detroit: Walter Reuther and the Fate of American Labor (1995)
  • Miller, Sally M., and Daniel A. Cornford eds. American Labor in the Era of World War II (1995), essays by historians, mostly on California
  • Seidman; Joel. Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen: The Internal Political Life of a National Union (1962)
  • Vittoz, Stanley. New Deal Labor Policy and the American Industrial Economy (1987)
  • Zieger, Robert H. The CIO, 1935-1955 (1995)

公平就業委員會[编辑]

  • Collins, William J. "Race, Roosevelt, and Wartime Production: Fair Employment in World War II Labor Markets," American Economic Review 91:1 (March 2001), pp. 272–286
  • Kersten, Andrew Edmund. Race, Jobs, and the War: The FEPC in the Midwest, 1941-46 (2000) online review
  • Reed, Merl E. Seedtime for the Modern Civil Rights Movement: The President's Committee on Fair Employment Practice, 1941-1946 (1991)

塔夫特-哈特萊法案與全國勞工關係法[编辑]

  • Abraham, Steven E. "The Impact of the Taft-Hartley Act on the Balance of Power in Industrial Relations" American Business Law Journal Vol. 33, 1996
  • Ballam, Deborah A. "The Impact of the National Labor Relations Act on the U.S. Labor Movement" American Business Law Journal, Vol. 32, 1995
  • Brooks, George W., Milton Derber, David A. McCabe, Philip Taft. Interpreting the Labor Movement (1952)
  • Gall, Gilbert J. The Politics of Right to Work: The Labor Federations as Special Interests, 1943-1979 (1988)
  • Hartley Jr. Fred A., and Robert A. Taft. Our New National Labor Policy: The Taft-Hartley Act and the Next Steps (1948)
  • Lee, R. Alton. Truman and Taft-Hartley: A Question of Mandate (1966)
  • Millis, Harry A., and Emily Clark Brown. From the Wagner Act to Taft-Hartley: A Study of National Labor Policy and Labor Relations (1950)

早期文獻[编辑]

  • Christman, Henry M. ed. Walter P. Reuther: Selected Papers (1961)

1955年至今[编辑]

  • Bennett, James T., and Bruce E. Kaufman. What do unions do?: a twenty-year perspective (2007)
  • Dark; Taylor E. The Unions and the Democrats: An Enduring Alliance (1999)
  • Dine, Philip. State of the Unions: How Labor Can Strengthen the Middle Class, Improve Our Economy, and Regain Political Influence (2007)
  • Fantasia, Rick, and Kim Voss. Hard Work: Remaking the American Labor Movement (2004)
  • Galenson, Walter; The American Labor Movement, 1955-1995 (1996)
  • Goldberg, Arthur J. AFL-CIO, Labor United (1956)
  • Leiter, Robert D. The Teamsters Union: A Study of Its Economic Impact (1957)
  • Lichtenstein, Nelson. "Two Roads Forward for Labor: The AFL–CIO's New Agenda." Dissent 61.1 (2014): 54-58. Online
  • Lipset, Seymour Martin, ed. Unions in Transition: Entering the Second Century (1986)
  • Mort, Jo-Ann, ed. Not Your Father's Union Movement: Inside the AFL-CIO" (2002)
  • Rosenfeld, Jake. What Unions No Longer Do. (Harvard University Press, 2014) ISBN 0674725115
  • Yates, Michael D. Why Unions Matter (2009)

外部連結[编辑]