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對伊斯蘭國的軍事打擊

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對伊斯蘭國的軍事打擊
敘利亞內戰伊拉克內戰利比亞內戰博科聖地叛亂英语Boko Haram insurgency北高加索叛亂摩洛衝突英语Moro conflict西奈半島動亂反恐戰爭的一部分
2014 military intervention against ISIS collage.png
日期 2014年6月13日-至今
(3年6月2天)
地点 敘利亞伊拉克利比亞奈及利亞阿富汗巴基斯坦北高加索東南亞
状态
  • Airstrikes on ISIL and al-Qaeda positions in Iraq, Syria, Libya, Nigeria and Afghanistan
  • Multinational humanitarian efforts
  • Arming and supporting local ground forces
  • Millions of civilians in Iraq and Syria flee their homes sparking a refugee crisis
  • Terrorist attacks in Paris (Jan 2015 and Nov 2015), Brussels (Mar 2016), Nice (Jul 2016) and other places
  • Thousands of civilians executed by ISIL forces in Iraq and Syria
  • ISIL lost 40% of its territory in Iraq[64]
  • ISIL controlled around 50% of Syria by late May 2015[65][66]
  • Emergence of independently-governed Kurdish regions
  • ISIL lost all of its territory in Libya[67][68]
  • Boko Haram loses territory, insurgency continues[69]
参战方

Intervening in Syria and Iraq:
Seal of Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve.svg CJTF–OIR
美國 United States (also intervening in Libya and Cameroon)[1]
 澳大利亚[2][3]
 加拿大 (2014–17)[4]
 比利時 (2014–17)[5]
 丹麥 (2014–16)[6][7]
 瑞典[8]
 法国[9][10]
 德國[11][12][13]
 義大利[14][15]
 土耳其 (2014–17)[16][17]
 荷蘭[18][19]
 约旦[20]
 摩洛哥 (2014–16)[21][22][23][24]
 英國[25][26][27]


 伊朗[28]


Intervening in Syria only:


Support:


RSII coalition:
俄羅斯 Russia (airstrikes)[47][48][49][50][51]
 叙利亚
 伊朗[52]
 伊拉克

Hezbollah[53][54]


Local forces:


Egyptian-led
intervention
:

(in Libya)
 埃及
 利比亞


Nigerian-led
intervention
:

(Boko Haram joined ISIL in 2015)
 奈及利亞
 喀麦隆
 乍得
 尼日尔
 布隆迪
 美國
See also: American military intervention


 阿尔及利亚[57]


Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant


al-Qaeda

Turkistan Islamic Party[62]


指挥官和领导者

Donald Trump
Ashton Carter
James Mattis
Lloyd Austin
Joseph Dunford

Theresa May
Michael Fallon
Nick Houghton
Stuart Peach
Andrew Pulford
Stephen Hillier
Tony Abbott
Malcolm Turnbull
David L. Johnston
Elio Di Rupo
Charles Michel
Steven Vandeput
巴林 Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa
Stephen Harper
Justin Trudeau
Thomas J. Lawson
Jonathan Vance
Helle Thorning-Schmidt (until 2015)
Lars Løkke Rasmussen (from 2015)
Peter Christensen
Peter Bartram
法国 François Hollande[70]
法国 Jean-Yves Le Drian
法国 Pierre de Villiers
Angela Merkel
Ursula von der Leyen
Volker Wieker
Matteo Renzi
Paolo Gentiloni
Claudio Graziano
Roberta Pinotti
King Abdullah II
Abdullah Ensour
摩洛哥 King Mohammed VI
摩洛哥 Abdelilah Benkirane
摩洛哥 Bouchaib Arroub
挪威 Erna Solberg
荷蘭 Mark Rutte
荷蘭 Tom Middendorp
Sander Schnitger
Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa
António Costa
卡達 Tamim Al Thani
沙烏地阿拉伯 King Abdullah
沙烏地阿拉伯 King Salman
西班牙 Mariano Rajoy
西班牙 María Dolores de Cospedal
西班牙 Fernando Alejandre Martínez
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
Binali Yıldırım
Hulusi Akar
阿拉伯聯合大公國 Khalifa Al Nahyan


叙利亚 Bashar al-Assad


伊拉克 Nouri al-Maliki
伊拉克 Fuad Masum
伊拉克 Haider al-Abadi


Masoud Barzani
Jaafar Sheikh Mustafa
Mustafa Said Qadir


伊朗 Ali Khamenei
伊朗 Hasan Rouhani
伊朗 Qasem Soleimani
Hassan Nasrallah


俄羅斯 Vladimir Putin
俄羅斯 Dmitry Medvedev
俄羅斯 Sergey Shoygu
俄羅斯 Viktor Bondarev
俄羅斯 Andrei Kartapolov


黎巴嫩 Michel Aoun
黎巴嫩 Tammam Salam
黎巴嫩 Jean Kahwaji
黎巴嫩 Samir Mouqbel
黎巴嫩 Walid Salman


巴基斯坦 Nawaz Sharif
巴基斯坦 Raheel Sharif
巴基斯坦 Rizwan Akhtar
阿富汗 Ashraf Ghani
阿富汗 Abdullah Abdullah


Qais al-Khazali
22px Hadi al-Amiri


埃及 Abdel Fattah el-Sisi
埃及 Sedki Sobhi
埃及 Younes Hamed
利比亚 Aguila Saleh Issa
利比亚 Khalifa Haftar
利比亚 Saqer al-Joroushi


奈及利亞 Muhammadu Buhari
乍得 Idriss Déby
喀麦隆 Paul Biya
尼日尔 Mahamadou Issoufou
蒲隆地 Pierre Nkurunziza


阿尔及利亚 Abdelaziz Bouteflika
阿尔及利亚 Abdelmalek Sellal
阿尔及利亚 Ahmed Gaid Salah

Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi (WIA) (Leader)[71]
伊拉克和沙姆伊斯兰国 Abu Ali al-Anbari 
(Deputy Leader of ISIL)[72][73]
伊拉克和沙姆伊斯兰国 Abu Mohammad al-Adnani  (Spokesperson)
Abu Ayman al-Iraqi  (Head of Military Shura)[74][75]
Abu Suleiman al-Naser  (Replacement Military Chief)[75]
Abu Muslim al-Turkmani  (Deputy Leader, Iraq)[76]
Akram Qirbash 
(Top ISIL judge)[73]
Abu Omar al-Shishani  (Chief commander in Syria)[77][78][79][80]
Abu Muhammad al-Kadari  (ISIL commander of the North Caucasus)
Abu Sayyaf  (Senior ISIL economic manager)[81]
Abdul Qadr al-Najdi (ISIL commander of North Africa)
Abu Nabil al-Anbari  (former ISIL commander of North Africa)[82]
Muhammand Abdullah (Top ISIL judge in Derna)
Salah Benali [83]
Abu Faruq al-Libi [84]
Ali al-Qarqaa (ISIL Emir of Nofaliya)
Ahmed al-Rouissi [85]
Abubakar Shekau (ISIL Emir of West Africa)[58]

Abu Abdullah al-Filipini (ISIL Emir of the Philippines and Co-Leader of Abu Sayyaf)

Radullan Sahiron (Co-Leader of Abu Sayyaf)


Abu Khayr al-Masri  (al-Qaeda deputy leader)[86][87][88] Abu Jaber (Leader of Tahrir al-Sham)
Abu Mohammad al-Julani (Leader of the al-Nusra Front)
Abu Humam al-Shami 
(al-Nusra Military Chief)[89]
Abu Firas al-Suri  (al-Nusra Spokesman)[90][91]
Abu Muhammed al-Ansari 
(al-Nusra Emir of the Idlib province)
Mohammed Islambouli (Leader of Khorasan)[92]
Muhsin al-Fadhli (Operational Leader) [93][94][95]
Sanafi al-Nasr [96]
David Drugeon [94][97]
Flag of Jund al-Aqsa.svg Said Arif 
(Jund al-Aqsa Military Chief)[59]
Abu Omar al-Turkistani  (TIP and al-Nusra military commander)[62]


Logo of Ahrar al-Sham.svg Abu Jaber
(2014–2015)[98][98]

Logo of Ahrar al-Sham.svg Abu Yahia al-Hamawi
(2015–present)[99]
兵力




ISIL:


al-Qaeda:

  • Tahrir al-Sham: 31,000+[201]
  • Khorasan: 50[202]
  • Jund al-Aqsa: 2,100[60]

Ahrar al-Sham:

伤亡与损失

罗贾瓦 Syrian Kurdistan:

  • 1,636–1,805 fighters killed[205]

伊拉克库尔德斯坦 Iraqi Kurdistan:

  • 1,500+ fighters killed[206]
  • 6,000+ fighters wounded[207]
  • 52 fighters missing[208]

埃及 Egypt:

  • 700 security forces killed[209]

乍得 Chad:

奈及利亞 Nigeria:

伊朗 Iran:

美國 United States:

喀麦隆 Cameroon:

  • 6 servicemen killed[210]

土耳其 Turkey:

尼日尔 Niger:

  • 4 servicemen killed[226]

沙烏地阿拉伯 Saudi Arabia:

  • 3 border guards killed[227]

俄羅斯 Russia:

加拿大 Canada:

  • 1 serviceman killed[232]

约旦 Jordan:

  • 1 serviceman executed[233]

伊拉克和沙姆伊斯兰国 Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant:


al-Qaeda:

Jaysh al-Sunna:


Ahrar al-Sham:

13,568 Iraqi and Syrian civilians killed by ISIL[206][246][247]
2,500 civilians killed by Coalition airstrikes in Iraq and Syria[248][249]
2,142 civilians killed by ISIL in Syria[247]
7 civilians killed by airstrikes in Libya[250]
650+ civilians killed by ISIL outside Iraq and Syria

7,600,000 Syrian civilians displaced[251]
3,300,000 Iraqi civilians displaced[251]


對伊斯蘭國的軍事打擊是指自2014年6月以来,以美國俄罗斯和世界上多达70多个的国家的多國軍事部隊為打擊伊斯蘭國而在伊拉克敘利亞境內實施的軍事行動。

在此之前伊斯蘭國勢力快速奪取了伊拉克敘利亞兩地的大片領土,成為2014年上半年迅速崛起的一股武裝勢力。出於國際社會對其侵犯人權行為的廣泛譴責和擔憂,以及自身懷疑其勢力的崛起可能會進一步加劇中東特別是敘利亞地區的混亂態勢,許多國家紛紛出兵介入伊拉克和敘利亞的局勢,對伊斯蘭國進行監控、干預以及剿滅[252]

2014年6月中旬伊朗根據美國和英國的情報,開始派遣無人駕駛飛機前往伊拉克。據路透社報導,伊朗士兵在伊拉克與伊斯蘭國戰鬥。同時美國政府派出了少量的部隊前往伊拉克,並派遣飛機在伊拉克地區監視伊斯蘭國的行踪。

背景[编辑]

2014年6月,極端伊斯蘭聖戰組織伊斯蘭國由敘利亞入侵伊拉克北部,在短時間內攻陷了伊拉克北部大片地區,控制了敘利亞和伊拉克的大片地區。8月,因應情況惡化,英美聯軍開始對伊拉克北部的伊斯蘭國目標實施空襲,以支援伊拉克對抗伊斯蘭國武裝分子。[253]

9月11日,奧巴馬在對全國電視觀眾發表的直播講話中表示,將擴大空襲行動至伊斯蘭國控制的敘利亞地區。奧巴馬表示任何威脅美國的團伙「都不會有安全的藏身之處」。[254]9月12日,來自巴林埃及約旦科威特黎巴嫩阿曼卡塔爾沙特阿拉伯阿聯酋的外長與美國國務卿克里舉行會談後,同意協助美國共同打擊「伊斯蘭國」。[255]

經過[编辑]

2014年[编辑]

9月22日凌晨,美國與盟國展開對敘利亞境內的伊斯蘭國目標的首輪空襲。美軍戰機和軍艦打擊了數十個目標。沙特阿拉伯卡塔爾約旦巴林阿聯酋亦有參與或支持空襲行動。[256][257]據報,F-22猛禽亦有參與空襲行動,是次是其自服役以來第一次參與的戰鬥任務。[258]

9月24日,美國、沙特阿拉伯阿聯酋的戰鬥機進行新一輪空襲。12座伊斯蘭國控制下的煉油廠在空襲中被破壞。「伊斯蘭國」過往一直靠黑市交易石油以獲得資金。美國此次空襲是為了摧毀為「伊斯蘭國」提供資金的相關設施。[259]9月28日和29日,聯軍再破壞多四個臨時煉油廠。[260][261]

同期,由於阿爾及利亞有效忠伊斯蘭國的武裝組織把其法國人質斬首,法國表示考慮將空襲行動擴大至敘利亞。[262]

10月6日,伊斯蘭國攻入被圍攻多日的土耳其、敘利亞邊境要道科巴尼,伊斯蘭國武裝份子與敍利亞庫爾德人爆發巷戰,並佔據了制高點。[263]10月8日,美國在科巴尼進行了8次空襲,摧毀了伊斯蘭國幾輛裝甲運兵車、武裝車輛及一門火砲。[264]支援科巴尼守軍的空襲仍在持續進行中。

截至2014年10月20日,以美國為首的多國部隊在敘利亞境內發動了231次空襲。[265]「敘利亞人權觀察」在11月22日稱聯軍空襲已造成785名伊斯蘭國武裝分子、72名努斯拉陣線成員及52名平民喪生。[266]

2015年[编辑]

1月27日,在經過聯軍多個月來的空襲,伊斯蘭國被迫主動撤離科巴尼。庫爾德人徹底奪回科巴尼的控制權,結束三個月來的艱苦戰鬥[267]

伊斯蘭國於2月3日上傳約旦飛行員卡薩斯貝被燒死的影片到YouTube。約旦國王阿卜杜拉二世誓言將傾盡全力打擊伊斯蘭國。2月6日,約旦大幅加強空襲力度,作為針對卡薩斯貝被殺一事的報復行動。[268]在3日內,約旦空軍對伊斯蘭國發動了56次空襲。主要的空襲目標集中在伊斯蘭國在敘利亞的據點拉卡[269]約旦盟友阿聯酋亦派出一支F-16戰機中隊前往約旦,支持約旦轟炸伊斯蘭國的行動。[270]

「敘利亞人權觀察」在2015年4月底報告聯軍在敘利亞的空襲已殺死超過1,922名伊斯蘭國武裝分子,另造成66名平民喪生。[271]

2016年[编辑]

2016年8月31日,俄罗斯国防部宣布俄罗斯军队的一架苏-34战斗轰炸机在叙利亚阿勒颇省的一次空袭中打死了伊斯兰国的二号人物阿德纳尼,但美国国防部亦宣布美国军队的一架无人机对阿德纳尼进行了“定点清除”行动,美国国防部的一名官员对于俄罗斯宣布击毙阿德纳尼表示:“考虑到俄罗斯在叙利亚行动的性质,这很可笑”。[272]

國家參與[编辑]

下表總結了每個國家參與針對伊斯蘭國的整體國際干預措施。有幾個涉及軍事行動的國家也提供人道援助

內容:
  •  軍事行動 
  •  軍事援助 
  •  人道援助 
  •  情報支援 
國家 於伊拉克境內 於敘利亞境內 於利比亞境內 於奈及利亞境內[273] 於阿富汗境內
 阿富汗
 阿尔巴尼亚
 澳大利亚
 奥地利
 巴林
 比利時
 波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那
 保加利亚
 喀麦隆
 加拿大
 乍得
 哥伦比亚 [274][275]
 克罗地亚
 捷克
 丹麥
 埃及
 爱沙尼亚
 法国 [276] [277]
 德國
 希臘
 匈牙利
 印尼
 伊朗
 伊拉克
 愛爾蘭
 以色列
 義大利
 日本
 约旦 [278]
 科威特
 黎巴嫩
 利比亞
 卢森堡
 摩洛哥
 荷蘭
 新西蘭
 尼日尔
 奈及利亞
 挪威 [279]
 波蘭
 卡塔尔
 俄羅斯
 沙烏地阿拉伯
 新加坡
 斯洛伐克
 斯洛維尼亞
 韩国
 西班牙
 苏丹
 瑞典
 叙利亚
 馬其頓
 土耳其
 阿联酋
 英國 [280] [281] [282] [283] [284]
 美國

參考[编辑]

  1. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为usairstrike的参考文献提供内容
  2. ^ Australia says it is deploying warplanes to join Iraq campaign. The Daily Telegraph. Yahoo. 22 September 2014 [22 September 2014]. 
  3. ^ Om, Jason. Federal Cabinet gives go ahead to RAAF air strikes on Islamic State in Syria. ABC News. 9 September 2015 [10 October 2015]. 
  4. ^ Minister Sajjan Announces Extension of Canada’s Contribution to the Global Coalition against Da’esh. National Defence. National Defence / Canadian Armed Forces. [1 May 2017]. 
  5. ^ Battling Dutch, Belgium prepare to send forces. MSN. (原始内容存档于29 September 2014). 
  6. ^ Denmark, Isis. The Huffington Post. 9 September 2014. (原始内容存档于27 September 2014). 
  7. ^ Sweden rejects calls for military support to Iraq. The Local. SE. 18 August 2014 [18 August 2014]. 
  8. ^ Sweden to increase support in fight against ISIS. Radio Sweden. 21 July 2016. 
  9. ^ Islamic State: France ready to launch Iraq air strikes. BBC. 18 September 2014 [18 September 2014]. 
  10. ^ France bombs Isis depot in Iraq. The Guardian. 21 September 2014 [19 September 2014]. 
  11. ^ 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 Syria conflict: German MPs vote for anti-IS military mission. BBC News. 4 December 2015. 
  12. ^ Germany joins anti-Isis military campaign. theguardian. 4 December 2015. 
  13. ^ German parliament approves anti-IS Bundeswehr mission in Syria. Deutsche Welle. 4 December 2015. 
  14. ^ Isis, la guerra segreta dell'Italia: forze speciali in Libia e Iraq. Ma il Parlamento è all'oscuro di tutto - Il Fatto Quotidiano. 
  15. ^ Anche l’Italia fa la guerra all’Isis: missioni segrete dei nostri soldati in Iraq e Libia. 
  16. ^ Turkey trains Kurdish peshmerga forces in fight against ISIL. world bulletin.net. [23 November 2014]. 
  17. ^ Turkey bombs Islamic State targets in Syria. BBC News. 24 July 2015 [24 July 2015]. 
  18. ^ Dutch send fighter jets to strike Iraq. Yahoo. (原始内容存档于2014-09-25). 
  19. ^ Young, Sarah. Britain ready to supply Kurds with arms. Reuters. 15 August 2014 [18 August 2014]. 
  20. ^ Jordan carries out air strikes in Iraq, killing 55 IS militants. i24 News. i24 News. 4 February 2015 [4 February 2015]. 
  21. ^ 21.0 21.1 Morocco is the latest Arab nation to respond to an American appeal for more firepower, sending several F-16s to the fight [1]
  22. ^ 22.0 22.1 Morocco is to send F-16s to attack the militants under the US-led operation [2]
  23. ^ 23.0 23.1 Officials said the North African kingdom has agreed to join the U.S.-led coalition air strikes against ISIL positions in Iraq and Syria.[3]
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  28. ^ 28.0 28.1 引用错误:没有为名为bi1的参考文献提供内容
  29. ^ Likmeta, Besar. Albania Starts Shifting Weapons to Iraqi Kurds. Balkan Insight. 27 August 2014. 
  30. ^ Klix.ba. BiH će Iraku donirati više od 15 miliona metaka za borbu protiv IDIL-a. klix.ba(In Bosnian). Bosnia and Herzegovina. [6 January 2015]. 
  31. ^ До 2020 година 1.8 млрд. лв. ще бъдат вложени в армията [1.8 bln. lv will be invested in the military by 2020]. BG: Dir. 20 September 2014 [20 September 2014] (保加利亚语). Shalamanov does not consider the conflict in Ukraine to be the only short-term threat for Bulgarian national security, which is why our country is sending armaments to the opponents of Islamic State... According to him, the events in northern Iraq and Syria represent a growing risk that threatens our national interests. 
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