塞尔柱帝国

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Büyük Selçuklu Devleti
دولت سلجوقیان
Dawlat-i Saljūqiān
大塞尔柱帝国
帝国
1037年-1194年

國旗

大塞尔柱位置图
1092年处于鼎盛时期的大塞尔柱帝国
首都 内沙布尔
(1037–1043)
雷伊
(1043–1051)
伊斯法罕
(1051–1118)
哈马丹西都 (1118–1194)
梅尔夫东都 (1118–1153)
常用語言
政体 君主制
苏丹或沙阿
- 1037–1063 图格鲁勒一世(首)
- 1174–1194 圖格里爾三世(末)[5][6]
歷史
 - 图格鲁勒建国 1037年
 - 花剌子模建国[7] 1194年
面積
- 1080年估计 3,900,000 平方公里
繼承自
繼承國
Ghaznavid Empire 975 - 1187 (AD).PNG 伽色尼王国
Buyids 970.png 白益王朝
SallaridMapHistoryofIran.png Sallarid dynasty
JustinianusI.jpg 拜占庭帝国
KakuyidMapHistoryofIran.png Kakuyids
古尔王朝 Ghurids1200.png
花剌子模 Khwarezmian Empire 1190 - 1220 (AD).PNG
鲁姆苏丹国 Blank.png
阿尤布王朝 Flag of Ayyubid Dynasty.svg
Atabegs of Azerbaijan Blank.png
Burid dynasty Blank.png
赞吉王朝 Blank.png
达尼什曼德王朝 Blank.png
阿尔图格王朝 Blank.png
萨尔图吉王朝 Blank.png
今屬於
系列条目
土耳其历史
土耳其国旗
土耳其主題 土耳其主題首頁
Faravahar background
大伊朗地區歷史
現代國家興起前
現代之前

大塞尔柱帝国现代土耳其语:Büyük Selçuklu Devleti;波斯語دولت سلجوقیان)是中世纪时期的突厥-波斯[8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15]逊尼派伊斯兰帝国,由乌古斯人中的一支发展而来[16],领土范围东至兴都库什山脉,西至东部安纳托利亚,北至中亚,南至波斯湾。塞尔柱人由咸海发迹,随后挺进呼罗珊,再入波斯地区,最终征服东安纳托利亚。

11世纪前半叶,塞尔柱王朝的创立者塞尔柱·贝格为帝国的建立打下了基础。塞尔柱·贝格的父亲为乌古斯叶护国的高官,他本人也是王朝和帝国名称的由来。1037年,图格鲁勒·贝格正式创立帝国。塞尔柱人统一了支离分裂的东部伊斯兰世界,并在第一次第二次十字军东征中扮演了重要的角色。塞尔柱帝国在文化[17][18][19]和语言[10][20][21][22][23]上表现为高度波斯化[10][11][12][13],并在突厥-波斯文化的发展传承上具有十分重要的地位[24],同时还将波斯文化传播至安纳托利亚[25][26]。突厥部落在帝国西北部的战略性定居大大促进了这些地区的突厥化[27]

歷史[编辑]

建立[编辑]

於11世纪由塞尔柱家族统率乌古斯人诸部在西亚建立。

第一次十字軍東征[编辑]

第一次十字军东征之前,塞尔柱帝国分裂為若干小国。基利杰·阿尔斯兰一世英语Kilij Arslan I统治着安纳托利亚的鲁姆苏丹国突突什一世英语Tutush I则执掌叙利亚。突突什一世於1095年死后,其子法赫尔·穆尔克·拉德温英语Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan杜卡克英语Duqaq分别继承了阿勒颇大马士革,其后内部一直分裂并且相互对立。[28]

分裂[编辑]

1092年馬立克沙和尼扎姆·穆勒克相繼逝世後,王室諸子爭位,塞尔柱帝国分裂成许多小王朝,其中存在时间最长的是与东罗马帝国相邻的罗姆苏丹国。1243年,蒙古帝国入侵小亚细亚,在科塞达克將罗姆苏丹国军擊潰,从此罗姆苏丹国沦为蒙古伊儿汗国的藩属。1299年罗姆苏丹国发生分裂,1307年从历史记录上消失。

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Savory, R. M. and Roger Savory, Introduction to Islamic civilisation, (Cambridge University Press, 1976 ), 82.
  2. ^ Black, Edwin, Banking on Baghdad: inside Iraq's 7,000-year history of war, profit and conflict, (John Wiley and sons, 2004), 38.
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 3.2 C.E. Bosworth, "Turkish Expansion towards the west" in UNESCO HISTORY OF HUMANITY, Volume IV, titled "From the Seventh to the Sixteenth Century", UNESCO Publishing / Routledge, p. 391: "While the Arabic language retained its primacy in such spheres as law, theology and science, the culture of the Seljuk court and secular literature within the sultanate became largely Persianized; this is seen in the early adoption of Persian epic names by the Seljuk rulers (Qubād, Kay Khusraw and so on) and in the use of Persian as a literary language (Turkish must have been essentially a vehicle for everyday speech at this time)
  4. ^ Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world, Ed. Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie, (Elsevier Ltd., 2009), 1110;Oghuz Turkic is first represented by Old Anatolian Turkish which was a subordinate written medium until the end of the Seljuk rule.".
  5. ^ A New General Biographical Dictionary, Vol.2, Ed. Hugh James Rose, (London, 1853), 214.
  6. ^ Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (New Brunswick:Rutgers University Press, 1988), 167.
  7. ^ Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (New Brunswick:Rutgers University Press, 1988),159,161; "In 1194, Togrul III would succumb to the onslaught of the Khwarizmian Turks, who were destined at last to succeed the Seljuks to the empire of the Middle East."
  8. ^ Aḥmad of Niǧde's "al-Walad al-Shafīq" and the Seljuk Past, A. C. S. Peacock, Anatolian Studies, Vol. 54, (2004), 97; With the growth of Seljuk power in Rum, a more highly developed Muslim cultural life, based on the Persianate culture of the Great Seljuk court, was able to take root in Anatolia.
  9. ^ Meisami, Julie Scott, Persian Historiography to the End of the Twelfth Century, (Edinburgh University Press, 1999), 143; Nizam al-Mulk also attempted to organise the Saljuq administration according to the Persianate Ghaznavid model..
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 10.2 M.A. Amir-Moezzi, "Shahrbanu", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK): "... here one might bear in mind that non-Persian dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Saljuqs and Ilkhanids were rapidly to adopt the Persian language and have their origins traced back to the ancient kings of Persia rather than to Turkmen heroes or Muslim saints ..."
  11. ^ 11.0 11.1 Josef W. Meri, "Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia", Routledge, 2005, p. 399
  12. ^ 12.0 12.1 Michael Mandelbaum, "Central Asia and the World", Council on Foreign Relations (May 1994), p. 79
  13. ^ 13.0 13.1 Jonathan Dewald, "Europe 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World", Charles Scribner's Sons, 2004, p. 24: "Turcoman armies coming from the East had driven the Byzantines out of much of Asia Minor and established the Persianized sultanate of the Seljuks."
  14. ^ Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 161,164; "..renewed the Seljuk attempt to found a great Turko-Persian empire in eastern Iran..", "It is to be noted that the Seljuks, those Turkomans who became sultans of Persia, did not Turkify Persia-no doubt because they did not wish to do so. On the contrary, it was they who voluntarily became Persians and who, in the manner of the great old Sassanid kings, strove to protect the Iranian populations from the plundering of Ghuzz bands and save Iranian culture from the Turkoman menace."
  15. ^ Possessors and possessed: museums, archaeology, and the visualization of history in the late Ottoman Empire; By Wendy M. K. Shaw; Published by University of California Press, 2003, ISBN 0520233352, 9780520233355; p. 5.
  16. ^
    • Jackson, P. Review: The History of the Seljuq Turkmens: The History of the Seljuq Turkmens. Journal of Islamic Studies (Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies). 2002, 13 (1): 75–76. doi:10.1093/jis/13.1.75. 
    • Bosworth, C. E. (2001). Notes on Some Turkish Names in Abu 'l-Fadl Bayhaqi's Tarikh-i Mas'udi. Oriens, Vol. 36, 2001 (2001), pp. 299-313.
    • Dani, A. H., Masson, V. M. (Eds), Asimova, M. S. (Eds), Litvinsky, B. A. (Eds), Boaworth, C. E. (Eds). (1999). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (Pvt. Ltd).
    • Hancock, I. (2006). ON ROMANI ORIGINS AND IDENTITY. The Romani Archives and Documentation Center. The University of Texas at Austin.
    • Asimov, M. S., Bosworth, C. E. (eds.). (1998). History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol. IV: The Age of Achievement: AD 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century, Part One: The Historical, Social and Economic Setting. Multiple History Series. Paris: UNESCO Publishing.
    • Dani, A. H., Masson, V. M. (Eds), Asimova, M. S. (Eds), Litvinsky, B. A. (Eds), Boaworth, C. E. (Eds). (1999). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (Pvt. Ltd).
  17. ^ C.E. Bosworth, "Turkmen Expansion towards the west" in UNESCO HISTORY OF HUMANITY, Volume IV, titled "From the Seventh to the Sixteenth Century", UNESCO Publishing / Routledge, p. 391.
  18. ^ Mehmed Fuad Koprulu's, "Early Mystics in Turkish Literature", Translated by Gary Leiser and Robert Dankoff , Routledge, 2006, pg 149.
  19. ^ Stephen P. Blake, "Shahjahanabad: The Sovereign City in Mughal India, 1639-1739". Cambridge University Press, 1991. pg 123: "For the Seljuks and Il-Khanids in Iran it was the rulers rather than the conquered who were "Persianized and Islamicized"
  20. ^ O.Özgündenli, "Persian Manuscripts in Ottoman and Modern Turkish Libraries", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK)
  21. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica, "Seljuq", Online Edition, (LINK): "... Because the Turkish Seljuqs had no Islamic tradition or strong literary heritage of their own, they adopted the cultural language of their Persian instructors in Islam. Literary Persian thus spread to the whole of Iran, and the Arabic language disappeared in that country except in works of religious scholarship ..."
  22. ^ M. Ravandi, "The Seljuq court at Konya and the Persianisation of Anatolian Cities", in Mesogeios (Mediterranean Studies), vol. 25-6 (2005), pp. 157-69
  23. ^ F. Daftary, "Sectarian and National Movements in Iran, Khorasan, and Trasoxania during Umayyad and Early Abbasid Times", in History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol 4, pt. 1; edited by M.S. Asimov and C.E. Bosworth; UNESCO Publishing, Institute of Ismaili Studies: "... Not only did the inhabitants of Khurasan not succumb to the language of the nomadic invaders, but they imposed their own tongue on them. The region could even assimilate the Turkic Ghaznavids and Seljuks (eleventh and twelfth centuries), the Timurids (fourteenth–fifteenth centuries), and the Qajars (nineteenth–twentieth centuries) ..."
  24. ^ "The Turko-Persian tradition features Persian culture patronized by Turkic rulers"." See Daniel Pipes: "The Event of Our Era: Former Soviet Muslim Republics Change the Middle East" in Michael Mandelbaum, "Central Asia and the World: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkemenistan and the World", Council on Foreign Relations, p. 79. Exact statement: "In Short, the Turko-Persian tradition featured Persian culture patronized by Turcophone rulers."
  25. ^ Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 574.
  26. ^ Bingham, Woodbridge, Hilary Conroy and Frank William Iklé, History of Asia, Vol.1, (Allyn and Bacon, 1964), 98.
  27. ^
    • Golden, P. B., Harrasowitz, O.(1992) An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples. pg 386.
    • Perry, J. Iran & the Caucasus, Vol. 5, (2001), pp. 193-200. THE HISTORICAL ROLE OF TURKISH IN RELATION TO PERSIAN OF IRAN
    • Bosworth, C.E. Arran in Encyclopedia Iranica
    • According to Fridrik Thordarson, "Iranian influence on Caucasian languages. There is general agreement that Iranian languages predominated in Azerbaijan from the 1st millennium b.c. until the advent of the Turks in a.d. the 11th century (see Menges, pp. 41-42; Camb. Hist. Iran IV, pp. 226-28, and VI, pp. 950-52). The process of Turkicization was essentially complete by the beginning of the 16th century, and today Iranian languages are spoken in only a few scattered settlements in the area."
  28. ^ Holt 1989,第11, 14–15页.