查尔斯·桑德斯·皮尔士

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Charles Sanders Peirce
Charles Sanders Peirce theb3558.jpg
出生 1839年9月10日於劍橋 (麻薩諸塞州)
逝世 1914年4月19日(享壽74歲)於派克縣 (賓夕法尼亞州)
國籍 美國
研究領域 邏輯, 數學,統計學,[1][2] 哲學,計量學,[3] 化學, 實驗心理學[4]經濟學,[5] 語言學,[6]科學史
信仰 美國聖公會[7]

查尔斯·桑德斯·皮尔士Charles Sanders Santiago Peirce,1839年9月10日-1914年4月19日)(大陆通译皮尔斯,实际上读音应该是珀尔斯)是美国通才,生于马萨诸塞州坎布里奇,早年在哈佛大学接受教育,后任教于霍普金斯大学

皮尔士在其一生中被很大程度上忽视了,直到第二次世界大战之后次要的文献都很缺乏。他的很多巨著仍未出版。他是数学研究方法论、科学哲学知识论形而上学领域中的改革者,他自认为首先是逻辑学家。尽管他主要对形式逻辑做出重要贡献,他的"逻辑"所含盖的很多内容现在被称做了科学哲学和知识论。他发现并创建了作为符號學分支的逻辑学,他发现逻辑运算可以用电子开关电路完成,因此预见了电子计算机。

他被威廉·詹姆士認為是美國當代實用主義的奠基人。

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ Hacking, Ian (1990), "A Universe of Chance", The Taming of Chance, pp. 200–215, Cambridge U. Pr.
  2. ^ Stigler, Stephen M. Mathematical statistics in the early States. Annals of Statistics. 1978, 6: 239–265 [248]. doi:10.1214/aos/1176344123. JSTOR 2958876. MR 483118. 
  3. ^ Crease, Robert P. Charles Sanders Peirce and the first absolute measurement standard: In his brilliant but troubled life, Peirce was a pioneer in both metrology and philosophy. Physics Today. 2009, 62 (12): 39–44. doi:10.1063/1.3273015. 
  4. ^ Cadwallader, Thomas C. Charles S. Peirce (1839-1914): The first American experimental psychologist. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences. 1974, 10 (3): 291. doi:10.1002/1520-6696(197407)10:3<291::AID-JHBS2300100304>3.0.CO;2-N. 
  5. ^ Wible, James R. (2008), "The Economic Mind of Charles Sanders Peirce", Contemporary Pragmatism, v. 5, n. 2, December, pp. 39-67
  6. ^ Nöth, Winfried (2000), "Charles Sanders Peirce, Pathfinder in Linguistics", Digital Encyclopedia of Charles S. Peirce.
  7. ^ Joseph Brent. Charles Sanders Peirce: A Life 2. Indiana University Press. 1998: 18. ISBN 9780253211613. Peirce had strong, though unorthodox, religious convictions. Although he was a communicant in the Episcopal church for most of his life, he expressed contempt for the theologies, metaphysics, and practices of established religions. 
  • Anellis, I.H. (1995) "Peirce Rustled, Russell Pierced: How Charles Peirce and Bertrand Russell Viewed Each Other's Work in Logic, and an Assessment of Russell's Accuracy and Role in the Historiography of Logic," Eprint Modern Logic 5: 270–328.
  • Aristotle,"The Categories," Harold P. Cooke (trans.), pp. 1–109 in Aristotle, Volume 1, Loeb Classical Library。London: William Heinemann,1938.
  • Aristotle, "On Interpretation," Harold P. Cooke (trans.), pp. 111–179 in Aristotle, Volume 1, Loeb Classical Library. London: William Heinemann, 1938.
  • Aristotle, "Prior Analytics," Hugh Tredennick (trans.), pp. 181–531 in Aristotle, Volume 1, Loeb Classical Library. London: William Heinemann, 1938.
  • Boole, George (1854) An Investigation of the Laws of Thought on Which are Founded the Mathematical Theories of Logic and Probabilities, Macmillan。Reprinted 1958 with corrections, New York: Dover Publications
  • Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  • Brent, Joseph (1998), Charles Sanders Peirce: A Life. Revised and enlarged edition, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN.
  • Dewey, John (1910) How We Think, Lexington MA: D.C. Heath。Reprinted 1991, Buffalo NY: Prometheus Books.
  • Haack, Susan (1998) Manifesto of a Passionate Moderate. Chicago IL: University of Chicago Press.
  • Houser, Nathan (1989) " The Fortunes and Misfortunes of the Peirce Papers," Fourth Congress of the International Association for Semiotic Studies, Perpignan, France, 1989. Published, pp. 1259–1268 in Signs of Humanity, vol. 3, Michel Balat and Janice Deledalle-Rhodes (eds.), Gérard Deledalle (gen. ed.), Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, Germany, 1992.
  • Liddell, Henry George,and Scott, Robert (1889) An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon, Oxford UK: Oxford University Press。Reprinted 1991.
  • Mac Lane, Saunders (1971) Categories for the Working Mathematician, New York: Springer-Verlag。Second edition, 1998.
  • Peirce, C.S. (1877) "The Fixation of Belief," Popular Science Monthly 12: 1–15. Reprinted CP 5.358-387.
  • Peirce, C.S. (1878) "How to Make Our Ideas Clear," Popular Science Monthly 12: 286–302. Reprinted CP 5.388-410.
  • Peirce, C.S. (1899) " F.R.L. (First Rule of Logic)," unpaginated manuscript. Reprinted CP 1.135–140.
  • Peirce, C.S., "Application of C.S. Peirce to the Executive Committee of the Carnegie Institution, July 15, 1902." Published in Eisele, Carolyn, ed. (1976) "Parts of Carnegie Application (L75)" in The New Elements of Mathematics by Charles S. Peirce, Vol. 4, Mathematical Philosophy. The Hague, Netherlands: Mouton Publishers: 13–73. Eprint version edited by Joseph Ransdell
  • Peirce, C.S. (1992) The Essential Peirce, Selected Philosophical Writings, Vol. 1 (1867–1893), Nathan Houser and Christian Kloesel, eds. Bloomington and Indianapolis, IN: Indiana University Press.
  • Peirce, C.S. (1998) The Essential Peirce, Selected Philosophical Writings, Volume 2 (1893–1913), Peirce Edition Project, eds. Bloomington and Indianapolis, IN: Indiana University Press.
  • Robin, Richard S. (1967) Annotated Catalogue of the Papers of Charles S. Peirce. Amherst MA: University of Massachusetts Press.
  • Taylor, Barry N., ed. (2001) The International System of Units, NIST Special Publication 330. Washington DC: Superintendent of Documents.
  • van Heijenoort, Jean (1967) "Logic as Language and Logic as Calculus," Synthese 17: 324–30.