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  1. ^ Paleontologists often refer to faunal stages rather than geologic (geological) periods. The stage nomenclature is quite complex. For an excellent time-ordered list of faunal stages, see The Paleobiology Database. [2006-03-19]. 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Dates are slightly uncertain with differences of a few percent between various sources being common. This is largely due to uncertainties in radiometric dating and the problem that deposits suitable for radiometric dating seldom occur exactly at the places in the geologic column where they would be most useful. The dates and errors quoted above are according to the International Commission on Stratigraphy 2004 time scale. Dates labeled with a * indicate boundaries where a Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point has been internationally agreed upon: see List of Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Points for a complete list.
  3. ^ References to the "Post-Cambrian Supereon" are not universally accepted, and therefore must be considered unofficial.
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Historically, the Cenozoic has been divided up into the Quaternary and Tertiary sub-eras, as well as the Neogene and Paleogene periods. The 2009 version of the ICS time chart recognizes a slightly extended Quaternary as well as the Paleogene and a truncated Neogene, the Tertiary having been demoted to informal status.
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 For more information on this, see the following articles: Earth's atmosphere, carbon dioxide, Carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere, global warming, climate change, Image:Phanerozoic_Carbon_Dioxide.png, Image:65 Myr Climate Change.png, Image:Five Myr Climate Change.png, and Template:DF temperature
  6. ^ The start time for the Holocene epoch is here given as 11,700 years ago. For further discussion of the dating of this epoch, see Holocene.
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 In North America, the Carboniferous is subdivided into Mississippian and Pennsylvanian Periods.
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 上石炭紀地質在歐美及中國均以盛產煤炭著名,因此便以石炭紀為此時代地層的名稱,但在美國則以密士西必紀作為下石炭紀,另以賓夕法尼亞紀稱上部石炭紀。[1]
  9. ^ The Precambrian is also known as Cryptozoic.
  10. ^ 10.00 10.01 10.02 10.03 10.04 10.05 10.06 10.07 10.08 10.09 10.10 10.11 10.12 10.13 The Proterozoic, Archean and Hadean are often collectively referred to as the Precambrian Time or sometimes, also the Cryptozoic.
  11. ^ 11.00 11.01 11.02 11.03 11.04 11.05 11.06 11.07 11.08 11.09 11.10 11.11 Defined by absolute age (Global Standard Stratigraphic Age).
  12. ^ The age of the oldest measurable craton, or continental crust, is dated to 3600–3800 Ma
  13. ^ Though commonly used, the Hadean is not a formal eon and no lower bound for the Archean and Eoarchean have been agreed upon. The Hadean has also sometimes been called the Priscoan or the Azoic. Sometimes, the Hadean can be found to be subdivided according to the lunar geologic time scale. These eras include the Cryptic and Basin Groups (which are subdivisions of the Pre-Nectarian era), Nectarian, and Early Imbrian units.
  14. ^ 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 These unit names were taken from the Lunar geologic timescale and refer to geologic events that did not occur on Earth. Their use for Earth geology is unofficial.
  15. ^ Bowring, Samuel A.; Williams, Ian S. Priscoan (4.00–4.03 Ga) orthogneisses from northwestern Canada. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology. 1999, 134 (1): 3. Bibcode:1999CoMP..134....3B. doi:10.1007/s004100050465.  The oldest rock on Earth is the Acasta Gneiss, and it dates to 4.03 Ga, located in the Northwest Territories of Canada.
  16. ^ Geology.wisc.edu



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