流亡政府

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流亡政府英语Government in exile)是主張為某國家的合法政府,但因為各種原因不能執行法律權力,而駐在其他國家的临时性政治組織[1]

概論[编辑]

流亡政府經常發生於戰時的佔領,而有時亦是內戰革命軍事政變,或廣泛相信某執政政府為非法的後果。例如,在第二次世界大戰德國的擴張期時,眾多歐洲政府和君主被迫在英國尋求避難而避免被納粹德國所摧毀。流亡政府的效力主要依靠它所能獲得的外國政府支持,及其國家本身的人口。某些流亡政府可以發展成強大的力量,對實際掌握國家的競爭對手構成巨大的挑戰,其它一些則主要維持一種象徵性的姿態,實際作用微小。

流亡政府的現象早於術語產生。在君主政府時期對應的是君主流亡并成立流亡朝廷,如先遭克倫威爾驅逐,后又在光榮革命中遭到驅逐,丧失王权的斯圖亞特王朝,以及在法國大革命拿破崙統治時期的波旁王朝。隨著君主立憲制的發展,流亡政府開始包括君主首相二者。

流亡政府的運作,通常假設有一天將回到它們的國家並重新掌權。例如第二次世界大戰期間设在倫敦的波兰流亡政府。它們與殘存國家(Rump state)的區別是,殘存國家仍控制原先領土的最少一部份[2]。相反地,流亡政府已喪失它的全部領土。例如第二次世界大戰期間,卢森堡全部領土被德國佔據。

現存流亡政府列表[编辑]

流亡政府經常未獲其它國家承認,或僅有極少數國家承認。

现存国家被推翻的前政府[编辑]

名称 开始流亡年份 控制该政府所主张之领土的国家 注释
白俄羅斯 白俄罗斯人民共和国拉达 1920 白俄羅斯 白俄羅斯共和國 总部位於加拿大多倫多[3]
Flag of Persia (1910-1925).svg 卡扎尔王朝 1925 伊朗 伊朗伊斯蘭共和國 总部位于美国得克萨斯州达拉斯
阮朝 1945  越南社会主义共和国 总部位于法国巴黎
Naval flag of Iran 1933-1980.svg 巴列維王朝 1979 伊朗 伊朗伊斯蘭共和國 由目前居住於美國馬里蘭州波托马克的禮薩·巴列維領導。
奎达舒拉 2001  阿富汗伊斯兰共和国 阿富汗伊斯兰酋长国的一个延续;总部位于巴基斯坦奎达

被稱為流亡政府的现政府[编辑]

 中華民國政府不自認為是流亡政府,但被一些臺灣問題議論者稱為流亡政府[4][5][6][7][8]。除了它目前控制的地區(臺灣一些島嶼),中華民國主張擁有其他許多地區的主權,這些地區目前被以下國家所控制: 阿富汗伊斯蘭共和國 不丹王國 中华人民共和国 印度共和國 日本国 蒙古国 緬甸聯邦共和國 巴基斯坦伊斯蘭共和國 俄罗斯联邦 塔吉克斯坦共和國 朝鲜民主主义人民共和国 越南社会主义共和国。雖然中華民國通常被視為前國家或殘存國家(即喪失絕大部份領土的國家)[9],有些論點則表示其為「流亡政府」[4][5][6][7][8][10][11]。虽然常被认为是夸张的说法,但此說法的理論基點是依據第二次世界大戰結束後臺灣主權沒有合法移轉給中華民國[12],據此中華民國政府位於不屬於自己的領土上,所以實際上是流亡政府[13];相較之下,此論點不被中華民國政府支持者接受,這些支持者認為臺灣主權在第二次世界大戰結束後已被合法地歸還給中華民國。目前中華民國政府主張後者觀點。[註 1]

丧失实际管辖权的前地方政府[编辑]

名稱 开始流亡年份 控制該政府所主張之領土的國家 注释
阿布哈兹自治共和国政府 1993 阿布哈兹 阿布哈茲共和國 总部位于格鲁吉亚第比利斯
阿塞拜疆 阿塞拜疆纳戈尔诺-卡拉巴赫共同体 1994 納戈爾諾-卡拉巴赫 纳戈尔诺-卡拉巴赫共和国 总部位于阿塞拜疆巴库
南奥塞梯 南奥塞梯临时行政实体 2008 南奥塞梯 南奧塞梯共和国 总部位于格鲁吉亚第比利斯

意图取代现政府并草创政府架构的组织[编辑]

名稱 开始流亡年份 控制該政府所主張之領土的國家 注释
伊朗 伊朗全國委員會  伊朗伊斯兰共和国 36个伊朗反对派政治组织组成的松散政治联盟,由禮薩·巴列維領導;总部位于美国马里兰州
伊朗 伊朗全国抵抗委员会 1981  伊朗伊斯兰共和国 5个伊朗反对派政治组织组成的松散政治联盟,其中最大的组织是伊朗人民圣战者组织;总部位于法国巴黎
衣索比亞 埃塞俄比亚王冠委员会 1993  埃塞俄比亚联邦民主共和国 总部位于美国华盛顿大都会区。
越南共和国 自由越南临时政府 1995  越南社会主义共和国 总部位于美国加利福尼亚州加登格罗夫得克萨斯州密苏里城
老挝 老挝王家流亡政府 2003 老挝 寮人民民主共和國 总部位於美国俄勒冈州格雷沙姆。
赤道几内亚 赤道几内亚流亡政府 2003  赤道几内亚共和国 总部位于西班牙马德里
叙利亚 叙利亚反对派和革命力量全国联盟 2012  阿拉伯叙利亚共和国 总部位于土耳其伊斯坦布尔

意图另立国家并草创政府架构的分离主义组织[编辑]

名称 开始流亡年份 控制该政府所主张之领土的国家 注释
Flag of the Free City of Danzig.svg 但泽自由市流亡政府 1947  波兰共和国 总部位于澳大利亚[14][15][16][17]
Flag of South Moluccas.svg 南马鲁古共和国 1950  印度尼西亚共和国 总部位于荷兰
西巴布亚流亡政府 1969  印度尼西亚共和国 总部位于荷兰[18][19]
Flag of Cabinda.svg 卡宾达共和国 1975  安哥拉共和国 总部位于刚果共和国黑角
Coptic cross.svg 科普特流亡政府 1992  阿拉伯埃及共和国 [20]
库尔德社群团体 1998  土耳其共和国 [21]
亚巴佐尼亚共和国 1999  喀麦隆共和国 [22]
Flag of Serbian Krajina (1991).svg 塞尔维亚克拉伊纳共和国 2005  克罗地亚共和国 总部位于塞尔维亚贝尔格莱德
Flag of the Shan State.svg 掸联邦临时政府 2005  缅甸联邦共和国 [23]
俾路支斯坦共和国 2006  巴基斯坦伊斯兰共和国
 伊朗伊斯兰共和国
Flag of Biafra.svg 比亚法拉流亡政府 2007  尼日利亚联邦共和国 总部位于美国华盛顿哥伦比亚特区[24]
Flag of Caucasian Emirate.svg 高加索酋长国 2007  俄羅斯聯邦
Flag of Tamil Eelam.svg 泰米尔伊拉姆过渡政府 2010  斯里兰卡民主社会主义共和国 [25]

相關條目[编辑]

註釋[编辑]

  1. ^ 關於更多詳細資料,請看臺灣問題臺灣地位未定論國共內戰

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ Princeton University WordNet
  2. ^ Tir, J. , 2005-02-22 "Keeping the Peace After Secessions: Territorial Conflicts Between Rump and Secessionist States" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Hilton Hawaiian Village, Honolulu, Hawaii Online <.PDF>. 2009-05-25 from http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p72056_index.html
  3. ^ Official website of the Belarusian National Republic
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Tsai blasted for R.O.C. legitimacy remark. China Post. 27 May 2010 [12 June 2010]. 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 Treaty confirmed sovereignty: Ma. Taipei Times. 29 April 2009 [14 June 2010]. 
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 Kerry Dumbaugh (Specialist in Asian Affairs Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division). Taiwan’s Political Status: Historical Background and Ongoing Implications. Congressional Research Service. 23 February 2006 [20 December 2009]. "While on October 1, 1949, in Beijing a victorious Mao proclaimed the creation of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), Chiang Kai-shek re-established a temporary capital for his government in Taipei, Taiwan, declaring the ROC still to be the legitimate Chinese government-in-exile and vowing that he would “retake the mainland” and drive out communist forces." 
  7. ^ 7.0 7.1 John J. Tkacik, Jr.. Taiwan's "Unsettled" International Status: Preserving U.S. Options in the Pacific. Heritage Foundation. 19 June 2008 [20 December 2009]. "Chiang Kai-shek wanted to fight it out on an all-or-nothing basis. There are also reports that Chiang's advisors convinced him that if the ROC mission stayed to represent Taiwan, Chiang would be under pressure to demonstrate in some constitutional way that his Chinese government-in-exile represented the people of Taiwan rather than the vast population of China. Doing so would require Chiang to dismantle his existing regime (which was elected in 1947 on the Chinese mainland and continued to rule in Taiwan under emergency martial law provisions without benefit of elections), adopt an entirely new constitu­tion, and install an entirely new government." 
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 ROC Government in Exile Is Illogical (English transl.). (original source: "「流亡政府」邏輯不通" by NOWnews Network). June 1, 2010 [7 October 2010]. 
  9. ^ Henckaerts, Jean-Marie. The international status of Taiwan in the new world order: legal and political considerations. Kluwer Law International. 1996: 337. ISBN 90-411-0929-3. "p117. "The ROC joined the United Nations in 1945 as a Charter member and was until 1971 one of the five permanent members of the Security Council. The ROC membership in the United Nations continued to exist through 1971 despite the fact that the ROC government lost the Chinese mainland and moved to Taiwan in 1949. The reduction of a huge area under its effective control in 1949 did not eliminate the very existence of the ROC as a sovereign state as defined by international law. In short, the ROC government has continued to exercise its sovereignty over territories under its effective control since 1912. It has never disappeared from the world as a sovereign state."
    p118. "President Harry S. Truman of the United States stated on January 5, 1950 that 'Taiwan was surrendered to ... Chiang Kai-Shek, and for the past four years, the United States and the other Allied Powers have accepted the exercise of the Chinese authority over the island.'"
    p118.-119. "The Republic of China is, by any standard, a political entity, recognized by 29 countries as of today. It has a defined territory, with Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu together with its population of 21 million, under its effective control ever since 1945 or earlier. ...
    The Republic of China indeed is a sovereign state as defined by the Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States of 1933. It also complies with the definition as 'state' defined by current theory of international law, as discussed in the Restatement (Third) of the Foreign Relations Law of the United States of 1987.""
     
  10. ^ TIME magazine, Far Eastern Economic Review, Stanford University, US State Dept., Public Broadcasting Service, BBC, US Congressional Research Service, UK Parliament, UK Foreign Office, Los Angeles Times, New York Times, and numerous law journals have all referred to the Republic of China on Taiwan as a government in exile. However, the ROC is recognised as the legitimate government of China by 21 UN member states and the Holy See. The PRC claims that the ROC government no longer exists. Republic of China government in exile, [2010-02-27] 
  11. ^ Jonathan I. Charney and J. R. V. Prescott, Resolving Cross-Strait Relations Between China and Taiwan, American Journal of International Law, July 2000 [2011-02-28], (原始内容存档于2004-06-22) 
  12. ^ Taipei Times, CIA report shows Taiwan concerns, June 9, 2013 [2013-06-10], "[Quoting from a declassified CIA report on Taiwan written in March 1949] From the legal standpoint, Taiwan is not part of the Republic of China. Pending a Japanese peace treaty, the island remains occupied territory in which the US has proprietary interests." 
  13. ^ Robert I. Starr, Starr Memorandum of the Dept. of State, July 13, 1971 [2012-05-18], "Following World War II, the Republic of China, under the Kuomintang (KMT) became the governing polity on Taiwan. In 1949, after losing control of mainland China following the Chinese civil war, the ROC government under the KMT withdrew to occupied Taiwan and Chiang Kai-shek declared martial law. Japan formally renounced all territorial rights to Taiwan in 1952 in the San Francisco Peace Treaty, but neither in that treaty nor in the peace treaty signed between Japan and China was the territorial sovereignty of Taiwan awarded to the Republic of China." 
  14. ^ Official website of the Government in exile of the Free City of Danzig. danzigfreestate.org. [2013-05-08]. 
  15. ^ Asserting Jurisdiction: International and European Legal Approaches', edited by Patrick Capps, Malcolm Evans and Stratos Konstadinidis, which mentions Danzig on page 25 and has a footnote directly referencing the Danzig Government in exile website in a footnote also on page 25. [2013-05-08]. 
  16. ^ Sydney Morning Herald, November 15th, 1947. [2013-05-08]. 
  17. ^ The Economist, December 20th, 2001. 2001-12-22 [2013-05-08]. 
  18. ^ Saha, Santosh C. Perspectives on Contemporary Ethnic Conflict. Lexington Books. 2006: 63 [20 May 2011]. 
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  20. ^ حكومة الاقباط في المهجر. http://www.cpr-government.de/. [2012-09-20]. 
  21. ^ [1]
  22. ^ Southerncameroonsig.org. Southerncameroonsig.org. 2012-08-20 [2012-09-20]. 
  23. ^ The Transnational Government of Tamil Eelam. Tgte-us.org. [2012-09-20]. 
  24. ^ Biafraland. Biafraland. [2012-09-20]. 
  25. ^ Peacehalle.com. Peacehall.com. [2012-09-20].