Efron, B. Large-Scale Simultaneous Hypothesis Testing. Journal of the American Statistical Association. 2004, 99 (465): 96. doi:10.1198/016214504000000089. The application of significance testing in this paper is an outlier. Tests to find a null hypothesis? Not trying to show significance, but to find interesting cases?
Rice, William R.; Gaines, Steven D. 'Heads I win, tails you lose': testing directional alternative hypotheses in ecological and evolutionary research. TREE. June 1994, 9 (6): 235–237. doi:10.1016/0169-5347(94)90258-5. Directed tests combine the attributes of one-tailed and two-tailed tests. "...directed tests should be used in virtually all applications where one-sided tests have previously been used, excepting those cases where the data can only deviate from H0, in one direction."