咖啡烘焙

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Coffee roasting machine
深色已烘焙的咖啡豆
淺色已烘焙的咖啡豆
深色與淺色的已烘焙咖啡豆

烘焙咖啡使咖啡生豆的化學與物理性質轉變為已烘焙的咖啡製品。烘焙的過程使得生豆膨脹並改變其顏色、口感、氣味與密度,因而產生了咖啡的特殊風味。未烘焙的咖啡豆與已烘焙的含有相似的酸度蛋白質咖啡因,但缺少其美好滋味。過程需要足夠的熱度以加速美拉德反應與其它能添增其風味的化學反應。

由於咖啡生豆較已烘焙咖啡豆穩定許多,烘焙過程多傾向於消費市場附近進行。如此一來減少了已烘焙咖啡豆運送的時間,使咖啡豆的貨架壽命最大化。絕大多數的咖啡豆是以商業化的大規模烘焙,但有些咖啡飲者為了精準掌控新鮮度與口感,會自行烘焙咖啡豆。

烘焙[编辑]

這些圖像描述了從同一批次的樣本豆不同溫度下其主觀烤的名稱和說明。[1]

未經烘焙
75 degrees green coffee.png
22 °C(72 °F) 新豆
綠色的咖啡, They can be stored for approximately 12-18 months in a climate controlled environment before quality loss is noticeable.
330 degrees drying coffee.png
165 °C(329 °F) 乾燥階段
During the drying phase the beans are undergoing an endothermic process until their moisture content is evaporated, signifying first crack.
輕度烘焙
385 degrees cinnamon roast coffee.png
196 °C(385 °F) Cinnamon Roast

A very light roast level which is immediately at first crack. Sweetness is underdeveloped, with prominent toasted grain, grassy flavors, and sharp acidity prominent.

400 degrees new england roast coffee.png
205 °C(401 °F) 極淺度烘焙,又稱「淺烘焙」
表面呈淡肉桂色,具有濃厚的青草味,口感與香氣不足,和銳利的酸度突出。
中度烘焙
410 degrees american roast coffee.png
210 °C(410 °F) American Roast
Medium light brown, developed during first crack. Acidity is slightly muted, but origin character is still preserved.
425 degrees city roast coffee.png
219 °C(426 °F)中深度烘焙,又稱「城市烘焙」
表面呈淺褐色,口感明亮活潑、酸苦平衡間酸質又偏淡,且釋放咖啡中優質的風味,為標準的烘焙程度。
重度烘焙
440 degrees full city roast coffee.png
225 °C(437 °F) 微深度烘焙,即深烘焙,又稱「深城市烘焙」
表面呈褐色,為中南美式烘焙法,多做冰咖啡、黑咖啡使用,二爆的開始。
450 degrees vienna roast coffee.png
230 °C(446 °F) Vienna Roast
Moderate dark brown with light surface oil, more bittersweet, caramel flavor, acidity muted. In the middle of second crack. Any origin characteristics have become eclipsed by roast at this level.
460 degrees french roast coffee.png
240 °C(464 °F) 極深烘焙,即深度烘焙,又稱「法式烘焙」
表面呈深褐色帶黑,口感強勁濃烈、苦味較濃、有光澤油、燒的意味、酸度減弱、帶有濃郁的巧克力與煙燻香氣,二爆的結束。[2]
470 degrees italian roast coffee.png
245 °C(473 °F) 極深度烘焙,即極深烘焙,又稱「義式烘焙」
表面呈近黑而有光澤,口感強烈複雜、苦味強勁、帶有濃厚的煎焙與焦香,酸度幾乎消除了,多為義式咖啡Espresso使用。[3]

畫廊[编辑]

參見[编辑]

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ Glossary of Coffee and Espresso Terms. Coffee Review. [2012-07-28]. 
  2. ^ Glossary of Coffee and Espresso Terms. Coffee Review. [2012-07-28]. 
  3. ^ Glossary of Coffee and Espresso Terms. Coffee Review. [2012-07-28].