復活

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳到导航 跳到搜索

復活(英語:Resurrection 或 anastasis)是死亡生命回復的概念。在許多信仰中存在死而復生的神祇神聖人物,如歐西里斯阿多尼斯耶穌哪吒等。轉世是其他宗教假設的類似過程,它涉及同一個人或神靈回到不同的身體,而不是同一個身體。

死人的復活是亞伯拉罕宗教的標準末世論。作為一個宗教概念,它被用於兩個不同的方面:對當前和正在進行的個體靈魂復活的信仰(基督教理想主義、已實現終末論),或者對死者在末世的單一復活的信仰世界。有些人認為靈魂是人們復活的實際載體。[1]

耶穌的死復活是基督教的中心焦點。基督教神學爭論隨之而來的是關於什麼樣的復活是真實的—是靈體進入天堂的靈性復活,或是人體生命恢復的物質復活。[2] 雖然大多數基督徒相信耶穌從死裡復活和升天是在一個物質身體裡,但有些人相信它是靈性上的。[3][4][5]

該概念的闡釋不一定與不死靈魂的宗教信念相關。

宗教及哲學上的復活[编辑]

古埃及人[编辑]

復活的思想,存在於古今的宗教中。古代埃及人相信,人死後可以復活,但要保存屍體。因此不少古埃及人選擇將自己遺體製成木乃伊,有些還建造金字塔,以便保存遺體,等候復活或復活的可能。

基督教、天主教及猶太教[编辑]

古代猶太教信仰,相信肉身復活。根據《新约聖經》記載,耶穌基督在被釘死後三天復活。相信耶穌死後復活乃基督教的重要教義信仰的根基:

假如死人復活是沒有的事,基督也就沒有復活,假如基督沒有復活,那麼,我們的宣講便是空的,你們的信仰也是空的。(哥林多前書:15,13-14)

現今天主教東正教基督新教相信,人死後靈魂身體都會復活到天堂地獄。各基督教派對復活闡述的細節卻略有不同。在宗教史上,古希臘哲學曾對猶太教對基督宗教所信仰的復活產生影響。[6]

在某些場合下復活和輪迴相似,即沒有涉及復活的對象是否保持同一個身體或靈魂的連續性,如啟示錄的未來世界。

疑似死後復活[编辑]

現時有不少疑似死後復活的例子。一般是因為病者進入深度昏迷 (俗稱假死) 而被誤判為死亡,但在送葬時突然甦醒,像『死後復活』一樣。[7] [8] [9][10][11]在有些情况下,病人会感觉自己像是去了天堂地狱一样,詳見瀕死經驗

科幻及未來學上復活的可能性[编辑]

除了從宗教的角度以外,亦有人認為醫療生物科技最終能使人類和其他生物復活。[12][13][14]

有少數的現代人,選擇以人體冷凍技術化學腦保存遺體保存技術的形式來保存自己的遺體大腦,幻想並等候未來可能出現的先進科技和醫學能使他們復活。 [15][16][17]

參見[编辑]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ Gregory of Nyssa: "On the Soul and the Resurrection:" However far from each other their natural propensity and their inherent forces of repulsion urge them, and debar each from mingling with its opposite, none the less will the soul be near each by its power of recognition, and will persistently cling to the familiar atoms, until their concourse after this division again takes place in the same way, for that fresh formation of the dissolved body which will properly be, and be called, resurrection. Ccel.org. [2021-12-22]. (原始内容存档于2012-10-02). 
  2. ^ As in the Apostles' Creed: "I believe in the Holy Spirit, the holy catholic Church, the communion of saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body, and life everlasting." Catholic Encyclopedia: General Resurrection页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆): "Resurrection is the rising again from the dead, the resumption of life. The Fourth Lateran Council (1215) teaches that all men, whether elect or reprobate, "will rise again with their own bodies which they now bear about with them" (chapter "Firmiter"). In the language of the creeds and professions of faith this return to life is called resurrection of the body (resurrectio carnis, resurrectio mortuoram, anastasis ton nekron) for a double reason: first, since the soul cannot die, it cannot be said to return to life; second the heretical contention of Hymeneus and Philitus that the Scriptures denote by resurrection not the return to life of the body, but the rising of the soul from the death of sin to the life of grace, must be excluded."
  3. ^ Symes, R. C. According to Paul of Tarsus, the resurrection transformed Jesus into the Christ, the Son of God and Savior of the world. Christ's resurrected body was not a resuscitated physical body, but a new body of a spiritual/celestial nature: the natural body comes first and then the spiritual body (1 Cor. 15:46). Paul never says that the earthly body becomes immortal.. religioustolerance.org. [2021-12-22]. (原始内容存档于2012-12-09). 
  4. ^ The Watchtower Society claims that Jesus was not raised in His actual physical human body, but rather was raised as an invisible spirit being—what He was before, the archangel Michael. They believe that Christ's post-Resurrection appearances on earth were on-the-spot manifestations and materializations of flesh and bones, with different forms, that the Apostles did not immediately recognize. Their explanation for the statement "a spirit hath not flesh and bones" is that Christ was saying that he was not a ghostly apparition, but a true materialization in flesh, to be seen and touched, as proof that he was actually raised. But that, in fact, the risen Christ was, in actuality, a divine spirit being, who made himself visible and invisible at will. The Christian Congregation of Jehovah’s Witnesses believes that Christ’s perfect manhood was forever sacrificed at Calvary, and that it was not actually taken back. They state: "...in his resurrection he ‘became a life-giving spirit.’ That was why for most of the time he was invisible to his faithful apostles... He needs no human body any longer... The human body of flesh, which Jesus Christ laid down forever as a ransom sacrifice, was disposed of by God’s power."—Things in Which it is Impossible for God to Lie, pages 332, 354.
  5. ^ Resurrection Theories. Gospel-mysteries.net. [2013-05-04]. (原始内容存档于2012-12-09). 
  6. ^ 《論靈魂和身體復活》,德爾圖良,道風書社,2001年5月版
  7. ^ 死亡少年殡仪馆内突然复活. 搜孤新聞. [2020-05-26]. (原始内容存档于2020-05-26). 
  8. ^ 少女在被火化前复活家人误以为其病亡. 中醫中藥網. [2020-05-26]. (原始内容存档于2012-09-26). 
  9. ^ 重慶少女在被火化前復活家人誤以為其病亡. 新華網. [2020-05-26]. (原始内容存档于2009-01-05). 
  10. ^ 嚇壞法醫!癌末男輕生 死8小時復活. TVBS. [2011-05-25]. (原始内容存档于2011-05-28). 
  11. ^ 智利一名八旬老翁棺材中突然"復活". 人民網. [2019-06-09]. (原始内容存档于2019-06-09). 
  12. ^ 人死復生不再是夢 動物實驗已成功. 人民網. [2005-09-25]. (原始内容存档于2020-05-26). 
  13. ^ 人俄罗斯科学家称人体温降低两度可多活120到150年. 人民網. [2010-01-01]. (原始内容存档于2011-08-09). 
  14. ^ 死而复生动物实验获成功 专家观点激烈碰撞. 新浪網科技時代. [2020-01-01]. (原始内容存档于2020-05-26). 
  15. ^ 复活冷冻人体不再是梦. eNet 中國IT信息與商務門戶. [2007-01-19]. (原始内容存档于2007-09-27). 
  16. ^ 千年古尸能复活吗?. 百拇醫葯. [2020-01-01]. (原始内容存档于2006-01-09). 
  17. ^ 齐齐哈尔木乃伊死因之谜. ido社区. [2010-04-04]. (原始内容存档于2010-04-04). 

外部链接[编辑]