男性气质

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(重定向自男性化
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米開朗基羅的《大衛像》常被人為是西方男子氣的典型代表

男性气质MasculinityManlinessManhood),也称作男子氣男性化男人味,是指通常与男孩或者男子相关的一组特质、行为和角色。男性气质包括生理决定的因素和社会决定的因素[1][2][3],故男性气质与解剖学上的男性不同[4][5] ,男性和女性都可能表现出男性化特质和行为。既有男性气质又有女性气质的人称为双性性格

传统上,男性化特质包括勇氣独立自信[6][7][8],尽管男性气质受到诸多社会和文化因素的影响,在不同的地方和环境会有所变化[9]

过度强调男性自尊和力量(通常与不计后果和责任相联系)称为大男子主義[10]

概念[编辑]

大多數時候摔跤被當做一種男性化的運動

男性化並沒有一個清晰的、可以舉世通用的概念,但許多文化中都有“男性化”概念或成見,比如勇氣、自立、自信、強壯與領導力等。[6][11][12] 雷溫·康奈爾將傳統的男性氣質定義為“霸权男性气概”,在一些文化中,這是社會普遍認識中男性所應該具有的氣質。尤其是在父系社會中,這可以被當做男性統治權的保障,從而使得女性處於從屬地位。[13]

參見[编辑]

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ Marianne van den Wijngaard. Reinventing the sexes: the biomedical construction of femininity and masculinity. Race, gender, and science. Indiana University Press. 1997: 171 pages [June 3, 2011]. ISBN 0-253-21087-9. 
  2. ^ Hale Martin, Stephen Edward Finn. Masculinity and Femininity in the MMPI-2 and MMPI-A. U of Minnesota Press. 2010: 310 pages [June 3, 2011]. ISBN 0-8166-2445-3. 
  3. ^ Richard Dunphy. Sexual politics: an introduction. Edinburgh University Press. 2000: 240 pages [June 3, 2011]. ISBN 0-7486-1247-5. 
  4. ^ Ferrante, Joan. Sociology: A Global Perspective 7th. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth. : 269–272. ISBN 0-8400-3204-8. 
  5. ^ Gender, Women and Health: What do we mean by "sex" and "gender"?', The World Health Organization
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 Vetterling-Braggin, Mary "Femininity," "masculinity," and "androgyny": a modern philosophical discussion
  7. ^ Worell, Judith, Encyclopedia of women and gender: sex similarities and differences and the impact of society on gender, Volume 1 Elsevier, 2001, ISBN 0-12-227246-3, ISBN 978-0-12-227246-2
  8. ^ Thomas, R. Murray. Recent Theories of Human Development. Sage Publications. 2000: 248. ISBN 0761922474. Gender feminists also consider traditional feminine traits (gentleness, modesty, humility, sacrifice, supportiveness, empathy, compassion, tenderness, nurturance, intuitiveness, sensitivity, unselfishness) morally superior to the traditional masculine traits (courage, strong will, ambition, independence, assertiveness, initiative, rationality and emotional control). 
  9. ^ Witt, edited by Charlotte. Feminist Metaphysics: Explorations in the Ontology of Sex, Gender and Identity. Dordrecht: Springer. 2010: 77. ISBN 90-481-3782-9. 
  10. ^ Machismo (exaggerated masculinity) - Encyclopædia Britannica online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. [6 March 2015]. 
  11. ^ George, A., "Reinventing honorable masculinity" Men and Masculinities
  12. ^ Bosson, J. K., & Vandello, J. A. (2011). Precarious manhood and its links to action and aggression. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20, 82-86.
  13. ^ Connell, R.W. Masculinities. Berkeley: University of California Press. 2005: 77 [1995]. 

擴展閱讀[编辑]

  • Beynon, John. Chapter 4: Masculinities and the notion of 'crisis'. Masculinities and culture. Philadelphia: Open University Press. 2002: 75–97. ISBN 978-0-335-19988-4. 
  • Reeser, Todd W. Masculinities in theory: an introduction. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. 2010. ISBN 978-1-4051-6859-5. 
  • Connell, R.W. 3. The Social Organization of Masculinity. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: Polity. 2001. ISBN 978-0-520-24698-0. 
  • Levine, Martin P. (1998). Gay Macho. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-4694-2.
  • Stibbe, Arran. (2004). "Health and the Social Construction of Masculinity in Men's Health Magazine." Men and Masculinities; 7 (1) July, pp. 31–51.
  • Strate, Lance "Beer Commercials: A Manual on Masculinity" Men's Lives Kimmel, Michael S. and Messner, Michael A. ed. Allyn and Bacon. Boston, London: 2001

外部連結[编辑]