性別認同

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性別認同英语:Gender identity)是個人對自己的社會性別的親身經歷。[1] 性別認同可能與出生時的性別指定相關,也可能與其不同。[2]所有社會都有一套性別類別,可以作為與其他社會成員形成一個人的身份認同的基礎。[3]在大多數社會中,社會性別性別指定中的男性和女性之間存在基本的分歧,[4]大多數人堅持着性別二元論,其中包括對生物性別社會性別所有方面的男性氣質和女性氣質的期望:生物性別性別認同性別表達[5]在所有社會中,有些人不認同社會性別的某些(或全部)方面,尤其是基於生物性別性別指定;[6] 其中一些人是跨性別性別酷兒者或非二元人群。有一些社會有第三性別分類。

核心的性別認同通常從三歲形成。[7][8]三歲以後,改變是非常困難的,[7]並試圖維持相同的性別指定可能導致性別不安[9]生物和社會因素都被認為影響性別認同的形成。

形成年齡[编辑]

關於性別認同是如何以及何時形成的,有幾種理論。因為兒童缺乏語言能力,所以研究人員只能從間接證據中做出假設,因此難以研究這一主題。[10]John Money認爲孩子們可能早在年齡18個月到兩年之間就已經意識到並且認爲性別有一定的意義,Lawrence Kohlberg認為,直到三歲時,性別認同才會形成。[10] 專家普遍認為,核心性別認同是在三歲時建立完成的。[7][8][10][11]在三歲時,孩子們可以對他們的性別認同作出堅定的陳述,[10][12]並傾向於選擇適合他們性別的活動和玩具[10](如女孩的娃娃和繪畫,男孩的工具和粗糙的住房),[13]雖然他們還沒有完全理解社會性別的影響。[12]三歲以後,核心的性別認同改變是非常困難的,[7][14]並試圖維持相同的性別指定可能導致性別不安[10][15]性別認同的固化持續到四歲[14]至六歲[10][16],並持續到青春期。[14]

Martin和Ruble將這一發展過程概念化為三個階段:(1)作為幼兒和學齡前兒童,兒童學習認定的性別社會化特徵;(2)年齡在5-7歲左右,性別認同得到鞏固並變得僵化;(3)在這種“僵化高峰”之後,流動性回歸,社會定義的性別角色的認知有所緩和些。[17]Barbara Newmann將其分為四個部分:(1)理解性別概念,(2)學習性別角色標準和刻板印象,(3)與父母一起認同,(4)形成性別偏好。[18]

聯合國機構稱,有關全方位性教育的討論提高了對性和性別認同等主題的認識。[19]

影響形成的因素[编辑]

先天與後天[编辑]

儘管尚未完全理解性別認同的形成,但已提出許多因素被認爲影響其發展。社會化(環境因素)與先天(生物)因素決定性別認同的程度是心理學中持續存在的爭論,被稱為「先天與後天」。這兩個因素都被認為起了影響。影響個體性別認同的生物因素包括產前和產後激素水平。[20]雖然基因的構成也會影響性別認同,[21]但它並不會對其產生不可逆轉的影響。[22]

可能影響性別認同的社會因素包括家庭,權威人物,大眾媒體以及兒童生活中其他具有影響力的人所傳達對性別角色的看法。[23]當孩子由某個堅持嚴格性別角色的人士撫養時,他們更有可能以同樣的方式行事,將他們的性別認同與相應的刻板印象的性別模式相匹配。[24]語言也發揮著作用,兒童在學習語言的同時,學會區別男性和女性特徵,並下意識地將自己的行為調整為這些預定的角色。[25]社會學習理論認為,兒童通過觀察和模仿與性別相關的行為,進而表現出性別認同,然後通過這種行為獲得獎勵或懲罰,[26]因此藉由模仿和追隨周圍人們的性別模式來塑造人格。[27]

先天與後天爭論中一個眾所周知的例子是大衛·利馬,也就是所謂的「約翰/瓊案例」。利馬在嬰兒時,經歷了一次錯誤的割禮,失去了他的男性生殖器。心理學家約翰·曼尼說服利馬的父母將他當作女孩撫養。利馬長大成女孩,穿著女孩衣服,周圍都是女孩玩具,但感覺不像女孩。在他13歲時試圖自殺後,利馬被告知他出生時具有男性生殖器,並進行了重建手術。[28]這違背了曼尼的假設,即性別認同是由養育子女的方式決定的。[29]

生物因素[编辑]

一些產前生理因素,包括基因和激素,可能會影響性別認同。[20][30]性別認同的生物理論表明人們通過這些因素而不是社會化來獲得性別認同。

荷爾蒙的影響也很複雜:決定性別的激素是在胎兒發育的早期階段產生的。[31]如果產前激素的水平發生改變,性表型的發展也可能發生改變,大腦對一種性別的自然傾向可能與胎兒或其外部性器官的遺傳構成不一致。[來源請求][32]

激素可能影響男性和女性的言語和空間能力、記憶力和攻擊性之間的差異。產前激素的暴露影響下視丘調節生命青春期的激素分泌,如女性的性激素通常在月經週期後產生,而男性的性激素不遵循這種模式。[33]

雙性人[编辑]

對1955到2000年的研究文獻進行的一項調查顯示,每100個人中就有一個人可能有一些雙性人特徵。[34]根據聯合國人權事務高級專員辦事處的說法,人類或其他動物的性別特徵包括染色體、性腺、性激素或生殖器的變異導致「不符合男性或女性身體的典型二元概念」。[35]雙性人的變異可能使嬰兒時期的性別指定複雜化,[36]並且該指定可能與孩子未來的性別認同不一致。[37]更改出生性別登記規定必須通過性別重置手術性別轉換療法來更改性別特徵可能会侵犯个人的权利。[38][39]

2005年對以女性身份被撫養長大的雙性人,出生時XY染色體,陰莖發育不全,膀胱洩漏性外翻及陰莖消融的性別認同研究,結果發現78%的研究對像以女性生活,而22%的人決定根據其遺傳染色體為男性而進行性別變更。[40]該研究得出結論:「研究結果清楚地表明,在嬰兒或幼儿期性別指定爲女性後,後來患者發起性別重新登記給男性的機會增加,但與產前接受雄激素就完全確定核心性別認同的概念不相符。」

一份2012年的臨床評論文章發現,有8.5%至20%的雙性人患有性別不安[41]澳大利亞的社會學研究表明,19%出生時具有非典型性別特徵的人最後選擇了「X」或「其他」性別選擇,而52%是女性,23%是男性,6 %不確定。出生時,研究中52%的人被分配到女性,41%被分配到男性。[42][43]

社會和環境因素[编辑]

1955年,約翰·曼尼提出性別認同具有可塑性,並取決於兒童在幼兒時期被扶養為男性還是女性。[44][45]曼尼的假設從此失去了信譽,[45][46]但學者們繼續研究社會因素對性別認同形成的影響。[45]在1960年至1970年,像是父親離世,母親對女兒的願望或父母刻意培養性別認同等因素被認為是社會因素。最近的一些理論認為,父母的精神病理學問題可能影響部分的性別認同的形成只得到了極少的經驗證據,[45]2004年的一篇文章指出「缺乏對出生後社會因素的重要性確鑿證據」。[47]2008年的一項研究發現,除了母親的輕度抑鬱症之外,性別不安兒童的父母沒有表現出任何精神病理學問題的跡象。[45][48]

有人認為,儘管證據很少,但孩子父母的態度可能會影響孩子的性別認同。[49]

非常規性別與跨性別[编辑]

性別認同可能導致不適合二元性別範疇的人士的安全問題。[50]在某些情況下,一個人的性別認同與其外顯生物性別特徵(生殖器和第二性徵)不一致,導致個人穿著或行為的方式被他人視為非内部文化性別規範。這些性別表達可以被描述為非常規性別跨性別性別酷兒(也就是説明那些違抗傳統性別身份的新興詞彙)。[51]並且有這種性別表達的人可能會遭遇到性別不安(傳統上稱為性別認同障礙或GID)。跨性別者在性別轉換之前,之間和之後都受到語言和性別代詞的極大影響。[52]

近幾十年來,通過性別重置手術重新指定性別已成為可能。一些經歷性別不安的人尋求這樣的醫療干預,使他們的生理性別與他們的性別認同相匹配;其他人保留他們出生時的生殖器,但採取與其性別認同一致的性別角色

參見[编辑]

參考文獻[编辑]

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