依賴理論

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依賴理論(Dependency Theory),或稱作依賴學派(Dependency School),是1960年代晚期由拉丁美洲學者所提出的一套國際關係發展經濟學理論。它將世界劃分為先進的中心國家與較落後的邊陲國家,後者在世界體系中的地位使之受到中心國的盤剝,故得不到發展,或產生腐敗等弊病。

基本理路[编辑]

關於中心/邊陲的界定,其間的機制與效應等問題,學界至今沒有定論,不過依賴理論的各流派中仍有共通的幾個命題,簡述如下:

  • 世界分成中心國家邊陲國家伊曼紐·沃勒斯坦還進一步引入半邊陲國家的概念。
  • 中心由工業國家構成,邊陲國家則向中心國家出口原料,並從事勞力密集產業為主。
  • 邊陲之所以為邊陲,並非因為它是工業化浪潮的後進者(這是新古典主義經濟學的主張),而是在世界市場上受到制約所致,外力包括跨國企業、國際組織(例如國際貨幣基金)等等代表中心國家利益的力量。
  • 因此邊陲國家的落後源自上述不平等的依賴關係,中心國家則賴此關係維持較高的工資及貿易利益,並減弱國內的階級矛盾。

準此,依賴理論對窮國開出的藥方是走自主發展之路、節制外資,並根據國民的真正需求調整產業結構(例如許多窮國大量出口農產品,人民卻有營養不足的問題)。部份學者更呼籲以社會革命出離依賴。

簡史[编辑]

依賴理論首先是作為現代化理論的反面在1950-60年代出世的,其提倡者是阿根廷經濟學家Raúl Prebisch。根據古典經濟學,國際貿易會讓各國達到比較優勢,相互得益,但是Prebisch在拉丁美洲經濟委員會研究拉丁美洲的實際發展,引出了相反的結論:窮國財富的減少與著富國財富的增加一致。Paul Baran根據馬克思主義政治經濟學完善了他的理論,此後各家蜂起。德國經濟學家Andre Gunder Frank使之成為馬克思主義的一支,Theotonio Dos Santos考慮邊陲國對內及對外的關係,創建了「新依賴理論」。巴西前總統費爾南多·恩里克·卡多佐在流亡期間曾寫過許多相關論著。伊曼紐·沃勒斯坦則進一步發展其中的馬克思主義面向,稱之為世界體系理論

爭議[编辑]

依賴理論遭到自由市場的鼓吹者反擊,他們主張依賴理論的藥方將造成腐敗及競爭不足等問題,印度亞洲四小龍的崛起也不合乎依賴理論的預測。另一些學者則指出亞洲四小龍都曾實施進口替代政策,美援的因素也不容忽視[1]

依賴發展理論是依賴理論的流派之一,它主張跨國資本能在窮國的內需市場上牟利,所以邊陲也能得到部份的發展,但是這往往是以腐敗或社會兩極分化為代價的。

註記[编辑]

  1. ^ Hartman, John and Pamela B. Walters 1985: Dependence, military assistance and development: a cross national study, Politics and Society 14, 431-58 .

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外部連結[编辑]