實驗哲學

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實驗哲學(Experimental Philosophy)是一種新的哲學流派,旨在結合實證研究與傳統的哲學研究方法。[1][2][3][4][5] 實驗哲學家利用認知科學的方法來了解普通人對於一些基礎哲學問題的想法。[6][7][8][9]

實驗哲學家認為,經由瞭解哲學直覺(philosophical intuitions)的心智背景,他們的實驗結果可以間接影響哲學研究。[10] 這對於實驗結果的依靠被廣泛的認為是反對於一種只依靠於先驗証明的哲學研究方法,有時被稱為"扶手椅"哲学("armchair" philosophy)。[4][5] 哲學家對於實驗哲學的影響有不同的認見,而也有一些哲學家提出對於實驗哲學的批評。[11][12][13]

最早的實驗哲學是專注於關於跨文化差異(cross-cultural difference)[14][15]自由意志 [16],與行動理論 [17][18] 的問題。現在,實驗哲學已被擴大到新的領域。

注释[编辑]

  1. ^ Lackman, Jon. The X-Philes Philosophy meets the real world, Slate, March 2, 2006.
  2. ^ Appiah, Anthony. The New New Philosophy, New York Times, December 9, 2007.
  3. ^ Appiah, Anthony. The 'Next Big Thing' in Ideas, National Public Radio, January 3, 2008.
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Shea, Christopher. Against Intuition, Chronicle of Higher Education, October 3, 2008.
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 Edmonds, David and Warburton, Nigel. Philosophy's great experiment, Prospect, March 1, 2009
  6. ^ The Experimental Philosophy Page.
  7. ^ Prinz, J. Experimental Philosophy, YouTube September 17, 2007.
  8. ^ Knobe, Joshua. What is Experimental Philosophy? The Philosophers' Magazine (28) 2004.
  9. ^ Knobe, Joshua and Nichols, Shaun. An Experimental Philosophy Manifesto, in Knobe & Nichols (eds.) Experimental Philosophy 2008.
  10. ^ Knobe, Joshua and Nichols, Shaun. An Experimental Philosophy Manifesto, in Knobe & Nichols (eds.) Experimental Philosophy, § 2.1. 2008.
  11. ^ Kauppinen, A. (2007). The Rise and Fall of Experimental Philosophy. Philosophical Explorations 10 (2), pp. 95–118.
  12. ^ Ludwig, K. (2007). The Epistemology of Thought Experiments: First vs. Third Person Approaches. Midwest Studies in Philosophy. 31:128-159.
  13. ^ Cullen, S. (forthcoming). Survey-Driven Romanticism. European Review of Philosophy, 9.
  14. ^ Weinberg, J., Nichols, S., & Stich, S. (2001). Normativity and Epistemic Intuitions. Philosophical Topics 29, pp. 429–460.
  15. ^ Machery, E., Mallon, R., Nichols, S., & Stich, S. (2004). Semantics, Cross-Cultural Style. Cognition 92, pp. B1-B12.
  16. ^ Nahmias,E., Morris, S., Nadelhoffer, T. & Turner, J. Surveying Freedom: Folk Intuitions about Free Will and Moral Responsibility. Philosophical Psychology (18) 2005 p.563
  17. ^ Knobe, J. (2003a). Intentional action and side effects in ordinary language, Analysis 63, pp. 190–193.
  18. ^ Shaun Nichols & Joseph Ulatowski (2007). Intuitions and Individual Differences: The Knobe Effect Revisited. Mind & Language 22 (4):346–365.

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