槲皮素

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槲皮素
IUPAC名
2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,5,7-trihydroxy-4H-chromen-4-one
别名 栎精
Sophoretin
Meletin
Quercetine
Xanthaurine
Quercetol
Quercitin
Quertine
Flavin meletin
识别
CAS号 117-39-5
PubChem 5280343
ChemSpider 4444051
SMILES
InChI
InChIKey REFJWTPEDVJJIY-UHFFFAOYAW
KEGG C00389
性质
化学式 C15H10O7
摩尔质量 302.236 g/mol g·mol⁻¹
精确质量 302.042653
密度 1.799 g/cm3
熔点 316 °C
若非注明,所有数据均出自一般条件(25 ℃,100 kPa)下。

槲皮素Quercetin)是一种存在于水果、蔬菜和谷物等植物中的植源性黄酮类化合物

槲皮素广泛存在于自然界中。其英文名“quercetin”最早出现于1857年,其来源于“quercetum”,意为栎树林[1][2]其是一种天然的生长素极性运输抑制剂。[3]

槲皮素含量丰富的食品包括:茶叶(茶树;2000-2500 mg/kg),刺山柑(1800 mg/kg)[4]欧当归(1700 mg/kg),苹果(44 mg/kg),红洋葱(1910 mg/kg,最外层的含量最高[5]),红葡萄柑橘西红柿西兰花及其他绿叶蔬菜。此外还有许多浆果的含量也较高,包括覆盆子歐洲越橘(158 mg/kg,鲜重),越橘(种植74 mg/kg,野生146 mg/kg),蔓越莓(种植83 mg/kg,野生121 mg/kg),沙棘(62 mg/kg),岩高兰(种植53 mg/kg,野生56 mg/kg)[6]仙人掌的果实。2007年一项研究发现,有机种植的西红柿槲皮素含量比传统种植的高出79%。[7]

澳大利亚昆士兰大学的一项研究表明,部分品种的蜂蜜中也存在槲皮素,包括来源于桉树澳洲茶樹的蜂蜜。[8][9]

苷元[编辑]

槲皮素是许多其他类黄酮苷苷元。槲皮素与鼠李糖结合形成槲皮苷;与芸香糖结合形成芦丁;与阿拉伯糖结合形成番石榴苷;与乳糖结合形成金丝桃苷

生理活性[编辑]

大鼠生物利用度的研究显示,当放射性同位素标记的槲皮素-4-葡萄糖苷通过胃肠道后,其被转化为酚酸[10]

槲皮素既尚未被科学的证明其具有任何疗效,也没有得到任何监管机构的批准。美国食品与药品管理局尚未批准任何关于槲皮素的功效说明。[11]

炎症[编辑]

一些实验室的研究表明槲皮素可能具有抗炎特性[12][13],并在研究其潜在的疗效。[13][14]

槲皮素可减轻花粉热的症状。[15]其一种酶改性衍生物被发现具有减轻花粉热眼部症状的作用。[16][17][18]

一项对老鼠的研究表明,槲皮素能有效的减少速释型烟酸的流失,部分途径为减少前列腺素D2的产生。[19]一个四人的试验性临床试验给出的初步数据支持该观点。[20]

癌症[编辑]

实验室体外细胞研究显示,槲皮素也可转变为致癌物,但这项研究并没有报告其会增加动物或人类的患癌风险。[21][22][23]

美国癌症协会说道,虽然槲皮素“已被选为对许多包括癌症的疾病有效的物质”,并且“一些早期的实验结果显示其具有开发前景,但现在还没有可靠的临床证据说明槲皮素可以预防或治疗人类癌症。”充足的水果和蔬菜的摄入可能降低患癌症的风险[24],槲皮素是许多可能的作用源之一受到研究。

在动物实验中,槲皮素被推测有可能降低患某些癌症的风险。[25][26]一项时长8年的研究发现,三种黄酮类化合物——山柰酚、槲皮素和杨梅素——可降低吸烟者患胰腺癌的风险。[27]

通过槲皮素与超声波结合,可抑制体外培养的皮肤癌前列腺癌细胞。[28]

代谢[编辑]

槲皮素已被证明可增加大鼠的能量代谢,但仅限于短期(短于8周)。[12]槲皮素对小鼠运动耐受性的影响与增加线粒体生物合成有关。[13]小鼠口服12.5至25 mg/kg浓度依次增加的槲皮素,可增加线粒体生物标志物的基因表达,并可改善运动耐受性。.[29]

已有有关于槲皮素对结节病哮喘、肥胖与糖尿病的葡萄糖吸收的安全性和有效性的初步研究。[30]

也有学者声称槲皮素可降低高血压患者的血压[31],及可降低肥胖者的低密度脂蛋白胆固醇的水平。[32]

体外研究表明槲皮素和白藜芦醇联合应用可抑制脂肪细胞的产生。[33]

药物相互作用[编辑]

槲皮素有一些抗生素配伍禁忌;其可能影响氟喹诺酮的作用,因槲皮素也具有竞争结合DNA旋转酶的能力。尚未确定其是否能抑制或增强氟奎诺酮的效果。[34]

《AHFS药物信息》(2010年)[35]将槲皮素标记为CYP2C8的抑制剂,并具体的说明其与紫杉醇可能形成有害的相互作用。由于紫杉醇由CYP2C8代谢,其生物利用度可能增加或不可预测,可能导致毒副作用[36][37]

此外,槲皮素还被描述为CYP2C9的抑制剂[38],及CYP3A4的抑制剂[39]和诱导剂[40]。CYP2C9和CPY3A4都是细胞色素P450混合功能氧化酶系统的组分,因此这些酶参与外来物质的代谢。

参考文献[编辑]

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