18世紀起的醫學文獻中就有描述過類似專注力失調或過度活躍症的徵狀。自1970年起，就有出現有關專注力失調或過度活躍症疾病本身、其診斷及治療方式的爭議，爭議和臨床醫師、教師、政策訂定者、家長及媒體有關。爭議焦點包括ADHD的病因，以及是否要用興奮劑來治療ADHD。目前大部份的醫療人員都接受ADHD是兒童及成人的遺傳性疾病，科學界的爭議點則是在其診斷方式及治療方式。此疾病在1980年至1987年的正式名稱是注意力缺失症（attention-deficit disorder，簡稱ADD），在更早期的名稱是兒童過度活躍的反應（hyperkinetic reaction of childhood）。
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^ 7.07.17.27.3CDC. ADHD Symptoms and Diagnosis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2017-08-31 [2018-07-15]. （原始內容存檔於2014-11-07）. Deciding if a child has ADHD is a several-step process. This page gives you an overview of how ADHD is diagnosed. There is no single test to diagnose ADHD, and many other problems, like sleep disorders, anxiety, depression, and certain types of learning disabilities, can have similar symptoms.
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^Racine MB, Majnemer A, Shevell M, Snider L. Handwriting performance in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Journal of Child Neurology. April 2008, 23 (4): 399–406. PMID 18401033. doi:10.1177/0883073807309244.
^F90 Hyperkinetic disorders, International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision, World Health Organisation, 2010 [2014-11-02], （原始內容存檔於2014-11-02）
^McBurnett K, Pfiffner LJ. Treatment of aggressive ADHD in children and adolescents: conceptualization and treatment of comorbid behavior disorders. Postgraduate Medicine. November 2009, 121 (6): 158–65. PMID 19940426. doi:10.3810/pgm.2009.11.2084.
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^ 77.077.1Ertürk E, Wouters S, Imeraj L, Lampo A. Association of ADHD and Celiac Disease: What Is the Evidence? A Systematic Review of the Literature. Journal of Attention Disorders (Review). January 2016: 108705471561149. PMID 26825336. doi:10.1177/1087054715611493. Up till now, there is no conclusive evidence for a relationship between ADHD and CD. Therefore, it is not advised to perform routine screening of CD when assessing ADHD (and vice versa) or to implement GFD as a standard treatment in ADHD. Nevertheless, the possibility of untreated CD predisposing to ADHD-like behavior should be kept in mind. ... It is possible that in untreated patients with CD, neurologic symptoms such as chronic fatigue, inattention, pain, and headache could predispose patients to ADHD-like behavior (mainly symptoms of inattentive type), which may be alleviated after GFD treatment. (CD: celiac disease; GFD: gluten-free diet)
^Faraone, Stephen V.; Ghirardi, Laura; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik. The Familial Co-Aggregation of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Intellectual Disability: A Register-Based Family Study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2017. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2016.11.011.使用|accessdate=需要含有|url= (幫助)
^Hyperactivity: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. MedlinePlus. 2018-07-09 [2018-07-15]. （原始內容存檔於2017-07-15）. Hyperactivity is often considered more of a problem for schools and parents than it is for the child. But many hyperactive children are unhappy, or even depressed. Hyperactive behavior may make a child a target for bullying, or make it harder to connect with other children. Schoolwork may be more difficult. Kids who are hyperactive are frequently punished for their behavior.
Excessive movement (hyperkinetic behavior) often decreases as the child grows older. It may disappear entirely by adolescence.參數|quote=值左起第378位存在換行符 (幫助)
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^Maturation of the brain, as reflected in the age at which a cortex area attains peak thickness, in ADHD (above) and normal development (below). Lighter areas are thinner, darker areas thicker. Light blue in the ADHD sequence corresponds to the same thickness as light purple in the normal development sequence. The darkest areas in the lower part of the brain, which are not associated with ADHD, had either already peaked in thickness by the start of the study, or, for statistical reasons, were not amenable to defining an age of peak cortex thickness. Movie of same data below. Source: NIMH Child Psychiatry Branch
^Berry MD. The potential of trace amines and their receptors for treating neurological and psychiatric diseases. Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials. January 2007, 2 (1): 3–19 [2021-02-06]. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.329.563. PMID 18473983. doi:10.2174/157488707779318107. （原始內容存檔於2017-02-01）. Although there is little direct evidence, changes in trace amines, in particular PE, have been identified as a possible factor for the onset of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). … Further, amphetamines, which have clinical utility in ADHD, are good ligands at trace amine receptors. Of possible relevance in this aspect is modafanil, which has shown beneficial effects in ADHD patients and has been reported to enhance the activity of PE at TAAR1. Conversely, methylphenidate, …showed poor efficacy at the TAAR1 receptor. In this respect it is worth noting that the enhancement of functioning at TAAR1 seen with modafanil was not a result of a direct interaction with TAAR1.
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^Faraone, Stephen V. The pharmacology of amphetamine and methylphenidate: Relevance to the neurobiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and other psychiatric comorbidities. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews (Elsevier BV). 2018, 87: 255–270. ISSN 0149-7634. PMID 29428394. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2018.02.001. Although a substantial amount of research has focused on dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE), ADHD has also been linked to dysfunction in serotonin (5hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]), acetylcholine (ACH), opioid, and glutamate (GLU) pathways (Cortese, 2012; Maltezos et al., 2014; Blum et al., 2008; Potter et al., 2014; Elia et al., 2011). The alterations in these neurotransmitter systems affect the function of brain structures that moderate executive function, working memory, emotional regulation, and reward processing (Fig. 1) (Faraone et al., 2015).
^Cortese S. The neurobiology and genetics of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): what every clinician should know. European Journal of Paediatric Neurology. September 2012, 16 (5): 422–33. PMID 22306277. doi:10.1016/j.ejpn.2012.01.009.
^Lesch KP, Merker S, Reif A, Novak M. Dances with black widow spiders: dysregulation of glutamate signalling enters centre stage in ADHD. European Neuropsychopharmacology. June 2013, 23 (6): 479–91. PMID 22939004. doi:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2012.07.013.
^ 154.0154.1Modesto-Lowe V, Chaplin M, Soovajian V, Meyer A. Are motivation deficits underestimated in patients with ADHD? A review of the literature. Postgraduate Medicine. July 2013, 125 (4): 47–52. PMID 23933893. doi:10.3810/pgm.2013.07.2677. Behavioral studies show altered processing of reinforcement and incentives in children with ADHD. These children respond more impulsively to rewards and choose small, immediate rewards over larger, delayed incentives. Interestingly, a high intensity of reinforcement is effective in improving task performance in children with ADHD. Pharmacotherapy may also improve task persistence in these children. ... Previous studies suggest that a clinical approach using interventions to improve motivational processes in patients with ADHD may improve outcomes as children with ADHD transition into adolescence and adulthood.
^Arns M, de Ridder S, Strehl U, Breteler M, Coenen A. Efficacy of neurofeedback treatment in ADHD: the effects on inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity: a meta-analysis. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience. July 2009, 40 (3): 180–9. PMID 19715181. doi:10.1177/155005940904000311.
^Cortese S, Ferrin M, Brandeis D, Holtmann M, Aggensteiner P, Daley D, Santosh P, Simonoff E, Stevenson J, Stringaris A, Sonuga-Barke EJ. Neurofeedback for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Meta-Analysis of Clinical and Neuropsychological Outcomes From Randomized Controlled Trials. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. June 2016, 55 (6): 444–55. PMID 27238063. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2016.03.007. hdl:1854/LU-8123796.
^Bjornstad G, Montgomery P. Bjornstad GJ , 編. Family therapy for attention-deficit disorder or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. April 2005, (2): CD005042. PMID 15846741. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005042.pub2.
^ 165.0165.1Kamp CF, Sperlich B, Holmberg HC. Exercise reduces the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and improves social behaviour, motor skills, strength and neuropsychological parameters. Acta Paediatrica. July 2014, 103 (7): 709–14. PMID 24612421. doi:10.1111/apa.12628. We may conclude that all different types of exercise ... attenuate the characteristic symptoms of ADHD and improve social behaviour, motor skills, strength and neuropsychological parameters without any undesirable side effects. Available reports do not reveal which type, intensity, duration and frequency of exercise is most effective
^ 168.0168.1Castells X, Ramos-Quiroga JA, Bosch R, Nogueira M, Casas M. Castells X , 編. Amphetamines for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adults. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. June 2011, (6): CD007813. PMID 21678370. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007813.pub2.
^Storebø OJ, Ramstad E, Krogh HB, Nilausen TD, Skoog M, Holmskov M, et al. Methylphenidate for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. November 2015, 11 (11): CD009885. PMID 26599576. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009885.pub2.
^ 171.0171.1Ruiz-Goikoetxea M, Cortese S, Aznarez-Sanado M, Magallón S, Alvarez Zallo N, Luis EO, de Castro-Manglano P, Soutullo C, Arrondo G. Risk of unintentional injuries in children and adolescents with ADHD and the impact of ADHD medications: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. January 2018, 84: 63–71. PMID 29162520. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.11.007.
^Prasad V, Brogan E, Mulvaney C, Grainge M, Stanton W, Sayal K. How effective are drug treatments for children with ADHD at improving on-task behaviour and academic achievement in the school classroom? A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. April 2013, 22 (4): 203–16. PMID 23179416. doi:10.1007/s00787-012-0346-x.
^ 175.0175.1Kiely B, Adesman A. What we do not know about ADHD… yet. Current Opinion in Pediatrics. June 2015, 27 (3): 395–404. PMID 25888152. doi:10.1097/MOP.0000000000000229. In addition, a consensus has not been reached on the optimal diagnostic criteria for ADHD. Moreover, the benefits and long-term effects of medical and complementary therapies for this disorder continue to be debated. These gaps in knowledge hinder the ability of clinicians to effectively recognize and treat ADHD.
^Hazell P. The challenges to demonstrating long-term effects of psychostimulant treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Current Opinion in Psychiatry. July 2011, 24 (4): 286–90. PMID 21519262. doi:10.1097/YCO.0b013e32834742db.
^Frodl T, Skokauskas N. Meta-analysis of structural MRI studies in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder indicates treatment effects. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. February 2012, 125 (2): 114–26. PMID 22118249. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2011.01786.x. Basal ganglia regions like the right globus pallidus, the right putamen, and the nucleus caudatus are structurally affected in children with ADHD. These changes and alterations in limbic regions like ACC and amygdala are more pronounced in non-treated populations and seem to diminish over time from child to adulthood. Treatment seems to have positive effects on brain structure.
^Cortese, Samuele; Adamo, Nicoletta; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Mohr-Jensen, Christina; Hayes, Adrian J; Carucci, Sara; Atkinson, Lauren Z; Tessari, Luca; Banaschewski, Tobias; Coghill, David; Hollis, Chris; Simonoff, Emily; Zuddas, Alessandro; Barbui, Corrado; Purgato, Marianna; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Shokraneh, Farhad; Xia, Jun; Cipriani, Andrea. Comparative efficacy and tolerability of medications for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children, adolescents, and adults: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. The Lancet Psychiatry. September 2018, 5 (9): 727–738. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(18)30269-4.
^Greenhill LL, Posner K, Vaughan BS, Kratochvil CJ. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in preschool children. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America. April 2008, 17 (2): 347–66, ix. PMID 18295150. doi:10.1016/j.chc.2007.11.004.
^Biederman, Joseph. New-Generation Long-Acting Stimulants for the Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Medscape. 2003 [2016-06-19]. （原始內容存檔於2003-12-07）. As most treatment guidelines and prescribing information for stimulant medications relate to experience in school-aged children, prescribed doses for older patients are lacking. Emerging evidence for both methylphenidate and Adderall indicate that when weight-corrected daily doses, equipotent with those used in the treatment of younger patients, are used to treat adults with ADHD, these patients show a very robust clinical response consistent with that observed in pediatric studies. These data suggest that older patients may require a more aggressive approach in terms of dosing, based on the same target dosage ranges that have already been established – for methylphenidate, 1–1.5–2 mg/kg/day, and for D,L-amphetamine, 0.5–0.75–1 mg/kg/day.... In particular, adolescents and adults are vulnerable to underdosing, and are thus at potential risk of failing to receive adequate dosage levels. As with all therapeutic agents, the efficacy and safety of stimulant medications should always guide prescribing behavior: careful dosage titration of the selected stimulant product should help to ensure that each patient with ADHD receives an adequate dose, so that the clinical benefits of therapy can be fully attained.
^ 186.0186.1Storebø OJ, Pedersen N, Ramstad E, Kielsholm ML, Nielsen SS, Krogh HB, Moreira-Maia CR, Magnusson FL, Holmskov M, Gerner T, Skoog M, Rosendal S, Groth C, Gillies D, Buch Rasmussen K, Gauci D, Zwi M, Kirubakaran R, Håkonsen SJ, Aagaard L, Simonsen E, Gluud C. Methylphenidate for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents – assessment of adverse events in non-randomised studies. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. May 2018, 5: CD012069. PMID 29744873. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD012069.pub2.
^ 187.0187.1187.2Shoptaw SJ, Kao U, Ling W. Shoptaw SJ, Ali R , 編. Treatment for amphetamine psychosis. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. January 2009, (1): CD003026. PMID 19160215. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003026.pub3. A minority of individuals who use amphetamines develop full-blown psychosis requiring care at emergency departments or psychiatric hospitals. In such cases, symptoms of amphetamine psychosis commonly include paranoid and persecutory delusions as well as auditory and visual hallucinations in the presence of extreme agitation. More common (about 18%) is for frequent amphetamine users to report psychotic symptoms that are sub-clinical and that do not require high-intensity intervention ... About 5–15% of the users who develop an amphetamine psychosis fail to recover completely (Hofmann 1983) ... Findings from one trial indicate use of antipsychotic medications effectively resolves symptoms of acute amphetamine psychosis.
^Adderall XR Prescribing Information(PDF). United States Food and Drug Administration. Shire US Inc. December 2013 [2013-12-30]. （原始內容存檔(PDF)於2013-12-30）. Treatment-emergent psychotic or manic symptoms, e.g., hallucinations, delusional thinking, or mania in children and adolescents without prior history of psychotic illness or mania can be caused by stimulants at usual doses. ... In a pooled analysis of multiple short-term, placebo controlled studies, such symptoms occurred in about 0.1% (4 patients with events out of 3482 exposed to methylphenidate or amphetamine for several weeks at usual doses) of stimulant-treated patients compared to 0 in placebo-treated patients.
^Mosholder AD, Gelperin K, Hammad TA, Phelan K, Johann-Liang R. Hallucinations and other psychotic symptoms associated with the use of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder drugs in children. Pediatrics. 2009-02, 123 (2): 611–6. PMID 19171629. doi:10.1542/peds.2008-0185.
^Kraemer M, Uekermann J, Wiltfang J, Kis B. Methylphenidate-induced psychosis in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: report of 3 new cases and review of the literature. Clinical Neuropharmacology. July 2010, 33 (4): 204–6. PMID 20571380. doi:10.1097/WNF.0b013e3181e29174.
^van de Loo-Neus GH, Rommelse N, Buitelaar JK. To stop or not to stop? How long should medication treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder be extended?. European Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011-08, 21 (8): 584–99. PMID 21530185. doi:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2011.03.008.
^ 193.0193.1193.2Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE. Sydor A, Brown RY , 編. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience 2nd. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. 2009: 323, 368. ISBN 978-0-07-148127-4. supervised use of stimulants at therapeutic doses may decrease risk of experimentation with drugs to self-medicate symptoms. Second, untreated ADHD may lead to school failure, peer rejection, and subsequent association with deviant peer groups that encourage drug misuse. ... amphetamines and methylphenidate are used in low doses to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and in higher doses to treat narcolepsy (Chapter 12). Despite their clinical uses, these drugs are strongly reinforcing, and their long-term use at high doses is linked with potential addiction
^Krause J. SPECT and PET of the dopamine transporter in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics. April 2008, 8 (4): 611–25. PMID 18416663. doi:10.1586/14737184.108.40.2061. Zinc binds at ... extracellular sites of the DAT , serving as a DAT inhibitor. In this context, controlled double-blind studies in children are of interest, which showed positive effects of zinc [supplementation] on symptoms of ADHD [105,106]. It should be stated that at this time [supplementation] with zinc is not integrated in any ADHD treatment algorithm.
^Approximate Prevalence Distribution of the Subtypes of ADHD as cited by Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adult ADHD. New York, NY: Routledge. 2008.
^Ramsay, J. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for adult ADHD : an integrative psychosocial and medical approach. New York: Routledge. 2015. ISBN 0-415-81591-6. OCLC 876336915.
^Lipkin, Paul H.; Mostofsky, Stewart. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Neurobiology of Disease. Elsevier. 2007: 631–639. ISBN 978-0-12-088592-3. doi:10.1016/b978-012088592-3/50059-1. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common developmental disorder of childhood, affecting approximately 3–9% of schoolchildren [1,2].
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^Palmer ED, Finger S. An early description of ADHD (inattentive subtype): Dr Alexander Crichton and 'Mental restlessness' (1798). Child and Adolescent Mental Health. 2001-05, 6 (2): 66–73. doi:10.1111/1475-3588.00324.
^Barkley, Russell A; Fischer, Mariellen; Smallish, Lori; Fletcher, Kenneth. Young Adult Outcome of Hyperactive Children: Adaptive Functioning in Major Life Activities. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (Elsevier BV). 2006, 45 (2): 192–202. ISSN 0890-8567. PMID 16429090. doi:10.1097/01.chi.0000189134.97436.e2.
^BIEDERMAN, JOSEPH; MONUTEAUX, MICHAEL C.; MICK, ERIC; SPENCER, THOMAS; WILENS, TIMOTHY E.; SILVA, JULIE M.; SNYDER, LINDSEY E.; FARAONE, STEPHEN V. Young adult outcome of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a controlled 10-year follow-up study. Psychological medicine (Cambridge University Press (CUP)). 2006-01-18, 36 (02): 167. ISSN 0033-2917. PMID 16420713. doi:10.1017/s0033291705006410.
^Biederman, Joseph; Mick, Eric; Fried, Ronna; Wilner, Nicole; Spencer, Thomas J.; Faraone, Stephen V. Are stimulants effective in the treatment of executive function deficits? Results from a randomized double blind study of OROS-methylphenidate in adults with ADHD. European neuropsychopharmacology : the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology (Elsevier BV). 2011, 21 (7): 508–515. ISSN 0924-977X. PMID 21303732. doi:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2010.11.005.
^RICHTERS, JOHN E.; ARNOLD, L. EUGENE; JENSEN, PETER S.; ABIKOFF, HOWARD; CONNERS, C. KEITH; GREENHILL, LAURENCE L.; HECHTMAN, LILY; HINSHAW, STEPHEN P.; PELHAM, WILLIAM E.; SWANSON, JAMES M. NIMH Collaborative Multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD: I. Background and Rationale. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (Elsevier BV). 1995, 34 (8): 987–1000. ISSN 0890-8567. PMID 7665456. doi:10.1097/00004583-199508000-00008.
^NIH awards nearly $100 million for Autism Centers of Excellence program. National Institutes of Health (NIH). 2017-09-06 [2017-11-08]. （原始內容存檔於2017-11-09）. Duke University, Durham, North Carolina – Understanding and potentially treating ASD-ADHD combination. An estimated 40 to 60 percent of people with ASD have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which encompasses such symptoms as difficulty paying attention, problems controlling behavior and hyperactivity. Co-investigators Geraldine Dawson, Ph.D., and Scott Kollins, Ph.D., aim to learn how ADHD may influence the diagnosis and treatment of autism and plan to observe children who have ASD alone, ASD and ADHD, and ADHD alone and compare them to typically developing children. They will also test whether the stimulant medication used to treat ADHD will help children with both conditions.