维基百科:格式手册/虚构事物

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳转至: 导航搜索

維基百科收錄了大量虛構相關主題、世界及元素的条目。

當創建條目時,應依據關注度通用指引,確保主題在現實世界有关注度,同時透過獨立可靠第二手來源來支撐關注度——這也確保條目有足夠來源材料而全面且真實準確

接下來,如果主題可以收錄於維基百科,編輯應該考慮寫些什麼內容,並如何將它們最好的表述出來。二者相輔相成,不應彼此獨立的解釋,為了創建一篇有條理的條目,編輯應該同時解決這兩個問題。

本文在英文維基百科是一篇指引,並非中文維基百科的方針或指引,它應受制於常識以及偶然的例外。然而,在本指引中論述的基本理念是改善虛構主題條目一個很好的方式。

現實世界視角[编辑]

快捷方式
WP:現實世界

如同所有維基百科條目,關於虛構內容的條目堅守將現實世界當作主要參考系。做法是站在「現實世界視角」描述主題,無論是虛構作品還是作品中的出版物。這需要同時使用第一手第二手信息

現實世界視角的典型特徵有:

  • 明確區分虛構事物本身作品,與其本身的製作流程出版物,如虛構事物作品現實世界的影響
  • 明確區分敘事時間與虛構時間軸,以及敘事時間和顯示事件的現實時間軸(特別是和電影與電視主題有關)
  • 虛構材料的介紹方式
  • 描述虛構角色,以場所和設備作為敘事對象
  • 常提(注意引用!)作者的意圖

見下方的樣板條目列表,其中的條目採用了一致的現實世界視角。然而現實世界視角並非「可選」的質量標準,而是所有條目都必須的基本要求。

架空世界視角的問題[编辑]

快捷方式
WP:INUNIVERSE
WP:OUTUNIVERSE
WP:IN-U

架空世界視角是指,以架空世界中人物的角度敘事,就好像它是現實的,這同時也忽視了現實世界內容與來源分析。The threshold of what constitutes in-universe writing is making any effort to re-create or uphold the illusion of the original fiction by omitting real-world info.

許多愛好者Wiki和愛好者網站(見下文)採用了這個方法,然而這不應該用在維基百科條目上。架空世界視角會產生誤導,引發不可查證原創研究。最重要的,架空世界視角公然違反了社群我們不希望維基百科變成什麼的共識。

另請參閱合理使用準確與適當的比重模板章節。

常見的不適當架空世界視角有:

  • 忽視虛構事物作品在全部或大部分創作方面的內容
  • 將劇情簡介寫成史料記載
  • 虛構事物編年史 – 條目或虛構角色章節寫的像傳記(比如,不適當的強調頭銜或生日,即使這對於劇情或解釋不重要)。例如「甘道夫是強大的巫師」應改寫為「甘道夫是一個由托爾金創作的強大巫師」。
  • 將虛構地點寫成地理報告;原則同樣適用於包括虛構角色
  • 在敘述時試圖消弭矛盾或填補空白,而非直接的報告事實如此
  • 給主作品和不起眼衍生作品中出現的虛構主題同樣的比重
  • 放置同樣連續的精神續作,正如作品啟發他們那樣
  • 使用需要作品或其前後傳中的劇情或角色知識,才能理解的圈內笑話或參照
  • 使用給現實世界主題使用的資訊框
  • Using captions for film stills, screenshots, or story illustrations in a way which purports to show actual persons or events (John rescues Joan from the well); instead, captions should make it clear that the image is a depiction of fictional persons or events (Humphrey Bogart as John, and Barbra Streisand as Joan, in the well-rescue scene, or simply, The well-rescue scene). [If we caption an image “John rescues Joan from the well”, but the body of the article is written from a real-world perspective, it will be understood to be for purposes of brevity, which is important in captions.]
  • 談及故事中發生的虛構事件或日期,而非虛構作品本身[需要解释]
  • 依照作品虛構編年史排列作品,而非其事實出版日期[需要解释 – 為何不用兩者?]

這些限制應該且適用於《格列佛遊記》和《憨第德》等嚴肅諷刺作品,這些作品中的虛構元素目的在於偽裝嚴肅政治和社會批判。這種情況下,有理由大量研究虛構元素和故事情節設計,以便試圖解讀作者的原意。同樣的例外還可能適用於其它存在虛構/非虛構爭議特殊形式文學,如宗教經文的可能的歷史元素。

第一手与第二手信息[编辑]

快捷方式
WP:PASI

上文關於「視角」的論述中,我們介紹了一篇條目從「現實世界視角」和「架空世界視角」編寫條目的區別,本段我們介紹「信息的結合」。另請參閱相關的第一、第二和第三手來源方針

第一手信息[编辑]

快捷方式
WP:BOOKPLOT
WP:FICTIONPLOT

術語「第一手信息」是指信息源自關於架空世界的第一首來源也就是,虚构作品的原著或相關的虛構事物作品(比如同系列的其他章節)。即使從嚴格的現實世界視角而言,編寫關於虛構事物本身,也總是需要以虛構事物的原著本身為來源。另見合理使用模板WP:PSTS指出,"...a primary source may be used only to make descriptive claims, the accuracy of which is verifiable by a reasonable, educated person without specialist knowledge... Do not make analytic, synthetic, interpretive, explanatory, or evaluative claims about information found in a primary source."

可使用的第一手來源信息如:

  • 虛構角色的生卒日期;
  • 虛構車輛或設備的性能資料或特性;
  • 虛構地點或組織的歷史;
  • 虛構生物的背景信息
  • 劇情本身。

第二手信息[编辑]

The term secondary information describes information external to the fictional universe, and is usually taken from secondary sources about the work of art or the fictional world contained therein, or from primary and secondary sources about the author and the circumstances of creation. Publications affiliated with a particular work of fiction (e.g. fan magazines), are mostly not considered suitable secondary sources about the primary works. However, such publications may be suitable primary or secondary sources in an article about the fan publication itself or other related topics.

The rule of thumb is to use as much secondary information as necessary and useful to give the article a real-world perspective, not more and not less. Another rule of thumb is that if the topic is notable, secondary information should be available and possibly already in the article.

Examples of useful information typically provided by secondary sources about the original work, or primary and secondary sources about information external to the work:

  • the author or creator
  • other key figures of the creation process, e.g., the cinematographer for films or notable translators for novels
  • the film or software company or publishing house
  • the design
  • the development, both before its first appearance and over the course of the narrative
  • real-world factors that have influenced the work or fictional element
  • for a fictional character in a dramatic production, the actor who portrayed the role and their approach to playing that character
  • foreign translations
  • its popularity among the public
  • its sales figures (for commercial offerings)
  • its reception by critics
  • a critical analysis of the subject
  • the influence of the work on later creators and their projects

情境介紹[编辑]

情節梗概[编辑]

快捷方式
WP:MOSPLOT

一般應考慮兩個可能的問題:有關製作的上下文和有關原本虛構事物的上下文。虛構事物本事始終是條目的主題,而全部架空世界外的信息都需要以該虛構事物為背景(如,透過加入劇情概要)。When the article concerns, e.g., a documentary about that original fiction, then it would not necessarily be important to discuss the content of the original source material. 和原小說的上下文中。

Details of creation, development, etc. relating to a particular fictional element are more helpful if the reader understands the role of that element in the story. This often involves providing plot summaries, character descriptions or biographies, or direct quotations. By convention, these synopses should be written in the present tense, as this is the way that the story is experienced as it is read or viewed (see also WP:TENSE). At any particular point in the story there is a 'past' and a 'future', but whether something is 'past' or 'future' changes as the story progresses. It is simplest and conventional to recount the entire description as continuous 'present'.

Presenting fictional material from the original work is fine, provided passages are short, are given the proper context, and do not constitute the main portion of the article. If such passages stray into the realm of interpretation, secondary sources must be provided to avoid original research.

Plot summaries can be written from the real-world perspective by referring to specific works or parts of works ("In the first book", "In Act II") or describing things from the author or creator's perspective ("The author introduces", "The story describes"). This gives the summary a more grounded tone and makes it more accessible to those unfamiliar with the source material. This style of writing should be preferred for plot summaries that encompass multiple works, such as a series of novels. Such conventions are not as important for plot summaries of single works, such as novels that are not part of a series; nevertheless, some real-world language at the beginning of such summaries is often good style. The length of a plot summary should be carefully balanced with the length of the other sections. Strictly avoid creating pages consisting only of a plot summary.

Summary style approach[编辑]

Sometimes, when an article gets long (see Wikipedia:Article size), a section of the article is made into its own article, and the handling of the subject in the main article is condensed to a brief summary. This is completely normal Wikipedia procedure; see for example Wikipedia:Summary style, which explains the technique. The new article is sometimes called a "spinout" or "spinoff" of the main article. For fictional works, these spinout articles are typically lists of characters or other elements that usually rely on the coverage of the parent topic, and may lack demonstration of real-world coverage through sources dedicated specifically to those elements (see Wikipedia:Lists). Very rarely should such spinout articles be about a singular topic (e.g., character, plot item); either that topic has demonstrated its own notability, or should be merged into the main article or existing spinout articles.

The spinout article should concisely provide details of the topic or topics covered in the work – just because the spinout article is given more space to grow does not mean that excessive plot summaries or fictional character biographies are appropriate. As with other fictional works, the spinout article should be written in an "out-of-universe" style. As with all other Wikipedia articles, the spinout article needs to be verifiable, must possess no original research, and must reflect a neutral point of view.

關注度[编辑]

所有條目都應滿足的關注度標準保證了特定主題條目的合理性。如上文所言,有一條經驗法則,如果主題足夠知名,則應有合適且理應用於條目創作的第二手來源

準確與適當的比重[编辑]

對於條目編寫,不但以應中立觀點給主題各方面應有的關注,給予條目中所有元素應有的比重也同樣重要,這包括資訊框與任期框、圖像與文字。我們致力於在最大精確的覆蓋話題,同時這也是反對過長情節梗概與架空世界視角的基本原理。

合理使用[编辑]

因維基百科伺服器位於美國佛羅里達州,故維基百科上的條目必需遵守美國版權法。對於由虛構來源重新講述原創理念,足夠大量使用而沒有加入對該作品信息,或在某种程度上進行分析解釋的情況,過往法庭曾將此類案件裁定為視作派生作品或侵犯著作權。這可能無關於的信息表達方式都適用,無論是以架空視角以內還是以外,或是測試書與“百科全書銀河”等完全不同的形式。

對於具有版權的架空世界和架空題材作品情節,僅能在合理使用要求下列出,並遵守維基百科合理使用準則提倡的最少程度使用。許多虛構題材作品都受到版權保護。一些作品會因過老而版權過期,或放棄了某些權利,GFDL協議發佈,或釋放至公有領域

總結[编辑]

在編寫虛構事物時,請牢記這些內容:

  • 參考的主要框架始終是現實世界的,無論是虛構作品本身還是相關出版物:請從現實世界角度編寫
  • 對於現實世界角度,第一手和第二手來源都是必需的:確保均衡的利用第一手和第二手來源
  • 對條目主題與第一手來源的未出版個人評論與解讀,維基百科不予接受避免原創研究
  • 任何資訊須源自並由可靠來源支持,且可供查證,所有來源(含第一手来源)需在條目中以適當方式引用任何資訊皆需引用,並列明你的來源
  • 條目頁面中的各內容需給予合理的比重,無論是文字、圖像、元素排版乃至條目標題:給予應有的比重
  • 易讀並易懂:將包括虛構世界在內的全部信息融入上下文
  • 在向條目加入圖像之前,先檢查檔案使用守則
  • 避免雜項列表,而是將相關資訊融入條目主體;
  • 維基百科的非自由內容準則版權作品使用越少越好

樣板條目列表[编辑]

這是以現實世界視角描述虛構事物或元素條目的不完全列表,它引導編發現維基百科上的各類虛構主題的優秀示例。其它優秀示例請見維基百科被評為優良特色狀態的主題。

作品
小說
Films
Television series
Television episodes
Comics
Video games
Other
Characters or character lists
Novel characters
Film characters
TV characters
Comic book characters
Cartoon characters
Video game characters
Elements of fictional works

模板[编辑]

{{In-universe}} 
當你發現條目在以架空世界視角描述虛構主題,甚至完全沒有提示主題是虛構的,則可親自將條目或章節重寫,或貼上{{In-universe}}模板讓別人注意這個問題。務必在討論頁解釋您的不同意見。模板效果如下:
{{Primarysources}} 
當你發現條目主要使用第一手來源或附屬於主題的來源,則可自行尋找合適的來源並加入條目,或貼上{{Primarysources}}模板讓別人注意這個問題。模板效果如下:
{{Plot}} 
情節梗概應當簡潔並專注與主要情節。刪減什麼有時很難抉擇。如果您有時間和精力,請考慮壓縮過長過細的情節梗概。或者使用此模板:
{{All plot}} 
當您遇到一篇全是或幾乎全是情節梗概的條目時,可以使用{{All plot}}模板標記問題。這多是條目最終被提報刪除的決定性問題,可考慮自行改善條目。

Template:All plot

{{No plot}} 
相反,{{No plot}}模板可以用於條目缺少情節梗概的非典型情況。如果您認為有能力編寫基本劇情梗概,請動手吧。如何將簡潔的編寫梗概、決定提到哪些元素、如何描述與分配比重,這些都是挑戰,然而這也是一項有益的經驗;多數情況下,情節梗概可以完全出自第一手來源,亦無需在多個來源間繁複交叉閱讀。

資訊框與任期框[编辑]

快捷方式
WP:WAF-INFO

資訊框是通常置於條目右上角,列出條目主題關鍵資料的表格。對於虛構內容,有用的資訊框資料應包括創作者或演員、初次登場、圖像,以及對整個虛構項目上下文理解必不可少的虛構資訊。「必不可少」的條件因作品性質會有不同。如果對象在劇情或系列的不同地方發生了事實改變,則可能根本沒有適合添加的虛構世界信息。與此相反,對於有交戰派系的奇幻作品角色,效忠對象等信息則可能適合加入資訊框。

如同所有資訊框,應當避免雜項細節。現實世界演員的信息框不應收錄「最喜愛的食物」和「愛好」等信息;這類細節無助於讀者理解主題的重要特徵。同樣,虛構事物的資訊框也不應深入探討細節,比如僅在補足性背景故事中帶過的信息。據此,用於現實世界主題的信息框不應用對應的虛構事物上,如在描述現實公司時重要的信息放到虛構公司上可能無足輕重。比如確定微軟的收入很重要,但虛構公司巨極在2463年收入3000億加拉特比克這一事實則可能不重要。

另一個通用模板任期框不應用在虛構類主題條目中描述虛構事物。 Succession boxes assume continuity, which may not exist. Furthermore, they may invite the creation of non-notable articles that fall under the fictional succession. For articles about works of fiction themselves, the story that each work of fiction depicts does not change despite the continuation of stories across serial works or sequels, and as a consequence, the events within one work of fiction are always in the present whenever it is read, watched, or listened to. In-universe temporal designations such as "current" or "previous" are therefore inappropriate. For character articles (which cannot be bound temporally), it may be acceptable to use customized templates to summarize information from the perspective of the real world, such as connections between articles describing the same fictional world. Such templates should not invite the creation of articles about non-notable subjects.

參見[编辑]

相關專題[编辑]

下面列出了一些處理虛構材料的重要專題。它們可能會提供更多您希望瞭解的建議、條目樣板和格式。