苏联红军

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红军郵票
1941年时受阅的红军
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蘇聯政府与政治
系列条目
 

苏联工农红军俄语Рабо́че-крестья́нская Кра́сная а́рмия, РККА,简称Красная армия),通常直接简化为苏联红军,是俄罗斯苏维埃联邦社会主义共和国和之后1922年成立的苏维埃社会主义共和国联盟的陆军和空军武装力量。红军直接起源于1917年十月革命俄国内战期间布尔什维克创立军队反击他们敌人的军事同盟(尤其是以白军之名组成的团体)。1946年2月起,红军与苏联海军组成苏联武装力量,官方名称苏军俄语Советская Армия (СА)/Sovetskaya Armija),直到1991年12月解体。

红军为第二次世界大战欧洲战场同盟国获胜的决定性的地面战争英语land warfare建立功勋。在东部前线的军事行动中,击败了战争中75%–80%的德国地面部队(德意志國防軍武装党卫队)。[1]

起源[编辑]

伏尔铿工厂的赤卫队英语Red Guards (Russia)部队

1917年9月弗拉基米尔·列宁写道“只有一种方式阻止警察的重建,而且那就是创建民兵并与军队结合(正规军被人民的军队取代)。”[2]那时,俄罗斯帝国陆军英语Imperial Russian Army开始瓦解。俄罗斯帝国23%(约190万)的人被调动起来;然而他们当中的大多数没有装备任何武器而且依靠交通线英语line of communication和根据地维持补给。沙俄将领尼古拉·杜霍宁英语Nikolay Dukhonin估计有200万人逃跑,180万人阵亡,500万人负伤,200万人被俘。他估计剩余的部队有1000万。[3]

人民委员会决定于1918年1月28日(旧历1918年1月15日)创建红军。他们预想“由工人阶级最优秀的分子及具有阶级意识的人组成”的实体。所有年满18岁的俄罗斯共和国公民都适宜加入。起作用是维护“苏维埃政权,创建常备军转入武装力量从一个武装起来的国家汲取其力量的基础,并由此建立支持即将到来的欧洲社会主义革命的基础”。征兵条件取决于“保证服从苏维埃政权、党或工会委员会管辖的革命军事委员会,或者2名属于上述组织中的人员”。在整个部队想要加入红军的事件中,“集体保证及全体成员投票同意”会是必要的。[4]

人民委员会自己任命红军的最高将领,授权军事人民委员会及其所属特殊院校指挥和管理军队。[4]尼古拉·基里连科英语Nikolai Krylenko为最高指挥官,亚历山大·米亚斯尼基扬英语Aleksandr Myasnikyan为其副手。[5]尼古拉·波德伏依斯基英语Nikolai Podvoisky成为战争人民委员,帕维尔·德宾科英语Pavel Dybenko为海军人民委员。普罗相、萨摩伊斯基、施坦因伯格也与来自政治局的弗拉基米尔·邦奇-布鲁耶维奇英语Vladimir Bonch-Bruyevich被任命为人民委员。在1918年2月22日布尔什维克左翼社会革命党英语Left Socialist-Revolutionaries的联席会议上,基里连科谈论到:“我们没有军队。士气低落的士兵一看到德国头盔在地平线上出现就恐慌起来,放弃他们的大炮、被护送者及所有军事物资给胜利进军的敌人。红军部队像苍蝇一样被置之不理。我们没有力量阻击敌人;只有立即签订和平条约会使我们从毁灭之中得救。”[4]

在俄罗斯军队被解散的时候,“零散的赤卫队部队和投靠布尔什维克的帝国军队人员非常没有信心去做抵御外敌、保卫新政府的任务变得显而易见”。因此,1918年1月,人民委员会决定工农红军将由来自“劳动人民中最有阶级意识和组织要素”的志愿者组建。这标志着赤卫队的终结和红军的建立。[6]

因为红军主要由农民组成,服务这些人的家属被保障口粮并协助农场工作。[7]一些仍然在家渴望参军的农民,挤满了征兵中心。[8]

历史[编辑]

俄国内战[编辑]

1919–1924年间红军的军徽

The Russian Civil War (1917–23) occurred in two periods:

At the war's start, the Red Army consisted of 299 infantry regiments.[10] Civil war intensified after Lenin dissolved the Russian Constituent Assembly (5–6 January 1918) and the Soviet government signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (3 March 1918) removing Russia from the Great War. Free from international war, the Red Army confronted an internecine war with a loose alliance of anti-Communist forces, comprising the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine, the "Black Army" led by Nestor Makhno, the anti-White and anti-Red Green armies, and others. The 23 February 1918 "Red Army Day" has a twofold, historical significance; the first day of drafting recruits (in Petrograd and Moscow) and the first day of combat against the occupying Imperial German Army.[11][註 1]

On 6 September 1918 the Bolshevik militias consolidated under the supreme command of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic 俄语Revvoyensoviet, Revolyutsionny Voyenny Sovyet, People's Commissar for War (1918–24), Trotsky, Chairman, and Jukums Vācietis, Commander-in-Chief of the Red Army. Soon afterwards Trotsky established the GRU (military intelligence) to provide political and military intelligence to Red Army commanders.[12] Trotsky founded the Red Army with an initial Red Guard organization, and a core soldiery of Red Guard militiamen and Chekist secret police;[13] conscription began in June 1918,[14] and opposition to it was violently suppressed.[15][页码请求] To control the multi-ethnic and multi-cultural Red Army soldiery, the Cheka operated special punitive brigades which suppressed anti-communists, deserters, and "enemies of the state".[12][16] Wartime pragmatism allowed the recruitment of ex-Tsarist officers and sergeants (non-commissioned officers, NCOs) to the Red Army.[17] Lev Glezarov's special commission screened and recruited; by mid-August 1920 the Red Army's former Tsarist personnel included 48,000 officers, 10,300 administrators, and 214,000 NCOs.[18] At the Civil War's start, ex-Tsarists made up 75% of the Red Army officer-corps,[19][页码请求] who were employed as voenspetsy (military specialists, ru:Военный советник),[20] whose loyalty was occasionally enforced with hostage families.[需要解释][19][页码请求] At war's end in 1922, ex-Tsarists constituted 83% of the Red Army's divisional and corps commanders.[20]

The Red Army used special regiments for ethnic minorities, like the Dungan Cavalry Regiment commanded by the Dungan Magaza Masanchi.[21] The Red Army also co-operated with armed Bolshevik Party-oriented volunteer units, the Части особого назначения (ЧОН) [chasti osobogo naznacheniya - special task units or ChON] which functioned from 1919 to 1925.[22]

The slogan "Exhortation, Organization, and Reprisals" expressed the discipline and motivation ensuring the Red Army's tactical and strategic success. On campaign, the attached Cheka Special Punitive Brigades conducted summary field courts-martial and executions of deserters and slackers.[16][23] Under Commissar Jānis K. Bērziņš the Special Punitive Brigades took hostages from the villages of deserters to compel their surrender; one in ten was executed. The same tactic also suppressed peasant rebellions in areas controlled by the Red Army.[24] The Soviets enforced the loyalty of the political, ethnic, and national varieties of men in the Red Army through political commissars attached at the brigade and regiment levels and tasked with spying on commanders for political incorrectness.[25] Despite such coercion, the political commissars whose Chekist detachments retreated or broke in the face of the enemy earned the death penalty.[來源請求] In August 1918, Trotsky authorized General Mikhail Tukhachevsky to place blocking units behind politically unreliable Red Army units, to shoot anyone who retreated without permission.[26] In 1942, during the Great Patriotic War (1941–1945), Joseph Stalin reintroduced the policy, using penal battalions.

波苏战争与前奏[编辑]

1918年苏俄西征英语Soviet westward offensive of 1918–1919发生在苏俄向Ober Ost守备部队放弃的地区进军的同时。这一战卷入了1919–21年的波苏战争,其中红军于1920年攻入波兰中部,但后来在那里遭遇了失败,致使战争结束。出征波兰期间红军投入650万人,多数遭遇了供给困难,约581,000人在西部和西南部前线。约250万人作为后备军的一部分“无法在内部调动”。[27]

1920至1930年代的战术发展[编辑]

After four years of warfare, the Red Army's defeat of Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel in the south[28] allowed the foundation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1922. Historian John Erickson dates 1 February 1924, when Mikhail Frunze became head of the Red Army Staff, as the ascent of the General Staff, which dominated Soviet military planning and operations. By 1 October 1924 the Red Army's strength diminished to 530,000.[29] List of Soviet Union divisions 1917–45 details the formations of the Red Army in that time.

In the late 1920s and throughout the 1930s, Soviet military theoreticians led by Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky developed the Deep operations doctrine,[30] a direct consequence of their Polish-Soviet War and Russian Civil War experience. To achieve victory, deep operations comprehend simultaneous Corps- and Army-size unit maneuvers of simultaneous parallel attacks throughout the depth of the enemy's ground forces, inducing catastrophic defensive failure. The deep battle doctrine relies upon aviation and armor advances in the hope that maneuver warfare offers quick, efficient, and decisive victory. Marshal Tukhachevsky said that aerial warfare must be "employed against targets beyond the range of infantry, artillery, and other arms. For maximum tactical effect aircraft should be employed en masse, concentrated in time and space, against targets of the highest tactical importance."[來源請求]

Soviet tanks in the battle of Khalkhin Gol, August 1939

Red Army Deep Operations were first formally expressed in the 1929 Field Regulations, and codified in the 1936 Provisional Field Regulations (PU-36). The Great Purge of 1937–1939 and Purge of 1940–1942 removed many leading officers from the Red Army, including Tukhachevsky and many of his followers, and the doctrine was abandoned. Thus at the Battle of Lake Khasan, in 1938, and the Battle of Khalkhin Gol, in 1939, major border clashes with the Imperial Japanese Army, the doctrine was not used. It was not until the Second World War that deep operations were to be reused.

中苏战争[编辑]

中东路事件苏联入侵新疆1937年新疆伊斯兰武装叛乱英语Xinjiang War (1937)期间中华民国发动战争反抗苏联和白军。红军达到了他们的目标,维持了对东清铁路的控制,并且最终在新疆安插了亲苏政权。[31]

芬兰冬季战争[编辑]

1940年3月,红军士兵展示缴获的芬兰军旗

The Winter War (芬兰语talvisota, 瑞典語vinterkriget, 俄语Зи́мняя война́)[註 2] was a war between the Soviet Union and Finland. It began with a Soviet offensive on 30 November 1939—three months after the start of World War II and the Soviet invasion of Poland, and ended on 13 March 1940 with the Moscow Peace Treaty. The League of Nations deemed the attack illegal and expelled the Soviet Union on 14 December 1939.[36]

The Soviet forces had three times as many soldiers as the Finns, thirty times as many aircraft, and a hundred times as many tanks. The Red Army, however, had been crippled by Soviet leader Joseph Stalin's Great Purge of 1937, reducing the army's morale and efficiency shortly before the outbreak of the fighting.[37] With over 30,000 of its army officers executed or imprisoned, most of which were of the highest ranks, the Red Army in 1939 had many inexperienced senior officers.[38][39]:56 Because of these factors, and high commitment and morale in the Finnish forces, Finland was able to resist the Soviet invasion for much longer than the Soviets expected; Finnish forces inflicted stunning losses on the Red Army for the first three to four months while suffering very few losses themselves.[39]:79–80

Hostilities ceased in March 1940 with the signing of the Moscow Peace Treaty. Finland ceded 11% of its pre-war territory and 30% of its economic assets to the Soviet Union.[40]:18 Soviet losses on the front were heavy, and the country's international reputation suffered.[40]:272–273 The Soviet forces did not accomplish their objective of the total conquest of Finland but conquered sufficient territory along Lake Ladoga, Petsamo and Salla. The Finns retained their sovereignty and improved their international reputation (which increased the morale in the Continuation War).

第二次世界大战(“伟大的卫国战争”)[编辑]

1941年7月,苏联士兵在敖德萨围困战英语Siege of Odessa (1941)中炮击目标

In accordance with the Soviet-Nazi Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of 23 August 1939, the Red Army invaded Poland on 17 September 1939, after the Nazi invasion on 1 September 1939. On 30 November, the Red Army also attacked Finland, in the Winter War of 1939–40. By autumn 1940, after conquering its portion of Poland, the Third Reich shared an extensive border with USSR, with whom it remained neutrally bound by their non-aggression pact and trade agreements. Another consequence of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact was the Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, carried out by the Southern Front in June–July 1940. This conquest also added to the border the Soviet Union shared with Nazi-controlled areas. For Adolf Hitler, the circumstance was no dilemma, because[41] the Drang nach Osten ("Drive towards the East") policy secretly remained in force, culminating on 18 December 1940 with Directive No. 21, Operation Barbarossa, approved on 3 February 1941, and scheduled for mid-May 1941.

When Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941, in Operation Barbarossa, the Red Army's ground forces had 303 divisions and 22 separate brigades (4.8 million soldiers), including 166 divisions and 9 brigades (2.9 million soldiers) garrisoned in the western military districts. The Axis deployed on the Eastern Front had 181 divisions and 18 brigades (5.5 million soldiers). Three Fronts, the Northwestern, Western, and Southwestern conducted the defense of the western borders of the USSR. In the first weeks of the Great Patriotic War the Wehrmacht defeated many Red Army units. The Red Army lost millions of men as prisoners and lost much of its pre-war matériel. Stalin increased mobilization, and by 1 August 1941, despite 46 divisions lost in combat, the Red Army's strength was 401 divisions.[42]

The unprepared Soviet forces suffered much damage in the field because of mediocre officers, partial mobilization, and an incomplete reorganization.[43][页码请求] The hasty pre-war forces expansion and the over-promotion of inexperienced officers (owing to the purging of experienced officers) favored the Wehrmacht in combat.[43][页码请求] The Axis's numeric superiority rendered the combatants' divisional strength approximately equal.[註 3] A generation of Soviet commanders (notably Georgy Zhukov) learned from the defeats,[45] and Soviet victories in the Battle of Moscow, at Stalingrad, Kursk and later in Operation Bagration proved decisive.

In 1941, the Soviet government raised the bloodied Red Army's esprit de corps with propaganda stressing the defense of Motherland and nation, employing historic exemplars of Russian courage and bravery against foreign aggressors. The anti-Nazi Great Patriotic War, was conflated with the Patriotic War of 1812 against Napoleon, and historical Russian military heroes, such as Alexander Nevski and Mikhail Kutuzov, appeared; repression of the Russian Orthodox Church temporarily ceased, and priests revived the tradition of blessing arms before battle.

To encourage the initiative of Red Army commanders, the CPSU temporarily abolished political commissars, reintroduced formal military ranks and decorations, and the Guards unit concept. Exceptionally heroic or high-performing units earned the Guards title (for example 1st Guards Special Rifle Corps, 6th Guards Tank Army),[46] an elite designation denoting superior training, materiel, and pay. Punishment also was used; slackers and malingerers avoiding combat with self-inflicted wounds[47] cowards, thieves, and deserters were disciplined with beatings, demotions, undesirable/dangerous duties, and summary execution by NKVD punitive detachments.

1945年4月,BM-13“喀秋莎”柏林战役期间开火

In that time, the osobist (NKVD military counter-intelligence officer) became a key Red Army figure with the power to condemn to death and to spare the life of any soldier and (most any) officer of the unit to which he was attached. In 1942, Stalin established the penal battalions composed of gulag inmates, Soviet PoWs, disgraced soldiers, and deserters, for hazardous front-line duty as tramplers clearing Nazi minefields, et cetera.[48][49][页码请求] Given the dangers, the maximum sentence was three months. Likewise, the Soviet treatment of Red Army personnel captured by the Wehrmacht was especially harsh. A 1941 Stalin directive ordered the suicide of every Red Army officer and soldier rather than surrender; Soviet law regarded all captured Red Army soldiers as traitors.[50][页码请求] Soviet PoWs whom the Red Army liberated from enemy captivity usually were sentenced to penal battalions.[50][页码请求]

苏联胜利者在柏林
红军胜利旗,1945年5月在德国国会大厦上升起

During the Great Patriotic War, the Red Army conscripted 29,574,900 men in addition to the 4,826,907 in service at the beginning of the war. Of this total of 34,401,807 it lost 6,329,600 killed in action (KIA), 555,400 deaths by disease and 4,559,000 missing in action (MIA) (most captured). Of these 11,444,000, however, 939,700 rejoined the ranks in the subsequently liberated Soviet territory, and a further 1,836,000 returned from German captivity. Thus the grand total of losses amounted to 8,668,400.[51][页码请求] This is the official total dead, but other estimates give the number of total dead up to almost 11 million men, including 7.7 million killed or missing in action and 2.6 million POW dead (out of 5.2 million total POWs), plus 400,000 paramilitary and Soviet partisan losses.[52] The majority of the losses, excluding POWs, being ethnic Russians (5,756,000), followed by ethnic Ukrainians (1,377,400).[51] However, as many as 8 million of the 34 million mobilized were non-Slavic minority soldiers, and around 45 divisions formed from national minorities served from 1941 to 1943.[53]

The German losses on the Eastern Front consisted of an estimated 3,604,800 KIA within the 1937 borders plus 900,000 ethnic Germans and Austrians outside the 1937 border (included in these numbers are men listed as missing in action or unaccounted for after the war)[54][页码请求] and 3,576,300 men reported captured (total 8,081,100); the losses of the German satellites on the Eastern Front approximated 668,163 KIA/MIA and 799,982 captured (total 1,468,145). Of these 9,549,245, the Soviets released 3,572,600 from captivity after the war, thus the grand total of the Axis losses came to an estimated 5,976,645.[54][页码请求] Regarding prisoners of war, both sides captured large numbers and had many die in captivity – one recent British[55] figure says 3.6 of 6 million Soviet POWs died in German camps, while 300,000 of 3 million German POWs died in Soviet hands.[56] From the fall of East Prussia, Soviet soldiers carried out large-scale rapes in Germany, especially noted in Berlin until the beginning of May 1945.[57][58][页码请求]

弱点[编辑]

1941年德国空军和陆军持续的进攻造成红军后勤支援困难,因为许多仓库,还有苏联大多数工业生产的基础在西部的入侵中受到破坏,迫使他们在乌拉尔山脉东部重建工业设施。直到那时,红军常常被要求临时拼凑或者没有武器、运输工具及其他装备的情况下出征。1941年完全迁移他们的生产设施到乌拉尔山脉的决定使得苏联主要的供应体系处在德军进攻范围之外。[59]

战争后期,红军部署了一些优秀的武器,尤其是大炮和坦克。红军重型坦克KV-1和中型坦克T-34超越了多数德军的装甲装备,[60]但在1941年,多数苏联坦克部队使用旧式坦克。[61]苏联空军虽然装配相对现代的飞机,最初的表现仍逊于德国空军

管理[编辑]

Until the establishment of the Red Army, military administration after the October Revolution was taken over by the People's Commissariat of war and marine affairs headed by a collective committee of Vladimir Antonov-Ovseyenko, Pavel Dybenko, and Nikolai Krylenko. At the same time Nikolay Dukhonin was acting as the Supreme Commander-in-Chief after Alexander Kerensky fled from Russia. On 12 November 1917 the Soviet government appointed Krylenko as the Supreme Commander-in-Chief and because of an "accident" during forceful displacement of commander-in-chief Dukhonin was killed on 20 November 1917. On 28 November 1917 Nikolai Podvoisky was appointed as the Narkom of War Affairs, leaving Dybenko in charge of Narkom of Marine Affairs and Ovseyenko - the expeditionary forces to the Southern Russia. Bolsheviks also sent out their own representative to replace front commanders of the Russian Imperial Army.

After the signing of Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on 3 March 1918, a major reshuffling took place in the Soviet military administration. On 13 March 1918 the Soviet government accepted the official resignation of Krylenko and the post of Supreme Commander-in-Chief was liquidated. On 14 March 1918 Leon Trotsky replaced Podvoisky as the Narkom of War Affairs. On 16 March 1918 Pavel Dybenko was relieved from the office of Narkom of Marine Affairs. On 8 May 1918 there was created the All-Russian Chief Headquarters headed by Nikolai Stogov and later Alexander Svechin.

On 2 September 1918 there was established the Revolutionary Military Council (RMC) as the main military administration that was governed by the Narkom of War Affairs Leon Trotsky. On 6 September 1918 along with already existing chief headquarters, there was created the Field Headquarters of RMC initially headed by Nikolai Rattel. The same day there was created office of the Commander-in-Chief of Armed Forces initially assigned to Jukums Vācietis (since July 1919 - Sergey Kamenev). The Commander-in-Chief of Armed Forces existed until April 1924, the end of Russian Civil War.

After the establishment of the Soviet Union, in November 1923 Russian Narkom of War Affairs was transformed into the Soviet Narkom of War and Marine Affairs.

组织[编辑]

苏联红军非官方军旗,因为苏军地面部队从来就没有过正式的军旗。[62]

At the beginning of its existence, the Red Army functioned as a voluntary formation, without ranks or insignia. Democratic elections selected the officers. However, a decree of 29 May 1918 imposed obligatory military service for men of ages 18 to 40.[63] To service the massive draft, the Bolsheviks formed regional military commissariats (voyennyy komissariat, abbr. voyenkomat), which as of 2006 still exist in Russia in this function and under this name. Military commissariats however should not be confused with the institution of military political commissars.

In the mid-1920s the territorial principle of manning the Red Army was introduced. In each region able-bodied men were called up for a limited period of active duty in territorial units, which constituted about half the army's strength, each year, for five years.[64] The first call-up period was for three months, with one month a year thereafter. A regular cadre provided a stable nucleus. By 1925 this system provided 46 of the 77 infantry divisions and one of the eleven cavalry divisions. The remainder consisted of regular officers and enlisted personnel serving two-year terms. The territorial system was finally abolished, with all remaining formations converted to the other cadre divisions, in 1937–38.[65]

机械化[编辑]

红军BT-7坦克在阅兵式上

The Soviet military received ample funding and was innovative in its technology. An American journalist wrote in 1941:[66]

Even in American terms the Soviet defense budget was large. In 1940 it was the equivalent of $11,000,000,000, and represented one-third of the national expenditure. Measure this against the fact that the infinitely richer United States will approximate the expenditure of that much yearly only in 1942 after two years of our greatest defense effort.

Most of the money spent on the Red Army and Air Force went for machines of war. Twenty-three years ago when the Bolshevik revolution took place there were few machines in Russia. Marx said Communism must come in a highly industrialized society. The Bolsheviks identified their dreams of socialist happiness with machines which would multiply production and reduce hours of labor until everyone would have everything he needed and would work only as much as he wished. Somehow this has not come about, but the Russians still worship machines, and this helped make the Red Army the most highly mechanized in the world, except perhaps the German Army now.

Like Americans, the Russians admire size, bigness, large numbers. They took pride in building a vast army of tanks, some of them the largest in the world, armored cars, airplanes, motorized guns, and every variety of mechanical weapons.[66]

Under Stalin's campaign for mechanization, the army formed its first mechanized unit in 1930. The 1st Mechanized Brigade, consisting of a tank regiment, a motorized infantry regiment, and reconnaissance and artillery battalions.[67] From this humble beginning, the Soviets would go on to create the first operational-level armored formations in history, the 11th and 45th Mechanized Corps, in 1932. These were tank-heavy formations with combat support forces included so they could survive while operating in enemy rear areas without support from a parent front.

Impressed by the German campaign of 1940 against France, the Soviet People's Commissariat of Defence (Defence Ministry, Russian abbreviation NKO) ordered the creation of nine mechanized corps on 6 July 1940. Between February and March 1941 another twenty would be ordered, and all larger than those of Tukhachevsky. Even though the Red Army's 29 mechanized corps had no less than 29,899 tanks on paper by 1941, they proved to be a paper tiger.[68] There were actually only 17,000 tanks available at the time, meaning several of the new mechanized corps were under strength. The pressure placed on factories and military planners to show production numbers also led to a situation where the majority of armored vehicles were obsolescent models, critically lacking in spare parts and support equipment, and nearly three quarters were overdue for major maintenance.[69] By 22 June 1941 there were only 1,475 T-34s and KV series tanks available to the Red Army, and these were too dispersed along the front to provide enough mass for even local success.[68] To put this into perspective, the 3rd Mechanized Corps in Lithuania was formed up of a total of 460 tanks; 109 of these were newer KV-1s and T-34s. This corps would prove to be one of the lucky few with a substantial number of newer tanks. However, the 4th Army was composed of 520 tanks, all of which were the obsolete T-26, as opposed to the authorized strength of 1,031 newer medium tanks.[70] This problem was universal throughout the Red Army. This fact would play a crucial role in the initial defeats of the Red Army in 1941 at the hands of the German armed forces.[71]

战争时期[编辑]

War experience prompted changes to the way frontline forces were organized. After six months of combat against the Germans, the stavka abolished the rifle corps intermediate level between the army and division level because, while useful in theory, in the state of the Red Army in 1941, they proved ineffective in practice.[72] Following the decisive victory in the Battle of Moscow in January 1942, the high command began to reintroduce rifle corps into its most experienced formations. The total number of rifle corps started at 62 on 22 June 1941, dropped to six by 1 January 1942, but then increased to 34 by February 1943, and 161 by New Year's Day 1944. Actual strengths of front-line rifle divisions, authorized to contain 11,000 men in July 1941, were mostly no more than 50% of established strengths during 1941,[73] and divisions were often worn down on continuous operations to hundreds of men or even less.

On the outbreak of war the Red Army deployed mechanized corps and tank divisions whose development has been described above. The German attack caused many, and in the course of 1941 virtually all (barring two in the Transbaikal Military District) were disbanded.[74] It was much easier to coordinate smaller forces, and separate tank brigades and battalions were substituted. It was late 1942 and early 1943 before larger tank formations of corps size were fielded to employ armor in mass again. By mid-1942 these corps were being grouped together into tank armies whose strength by the end of the war could be up to 700 tanks and 50,000 men.

人员[编辑]

The Bolshevik authorities assigned to every unit of the Red Army a political commissar, or politruk, who had the authority to override unit commanders' decisions if they ran counter to the principles of the Communist Party. Although this sometimes resulted in inefficient command according to some American historians[谁?], the Party leadership considered political control over the military absolutely necessary, as the army relied more and more on officers from the pre-revolutionary Imperial period and understandably feared a military coup. This system was abolished in 1925, as there were by that time enough trained Communist officers that counter-signing of all orders was no longer necessary.[75]

军衔及头衔[编辑]

布拉格的苏军纪念碑

The early Red Army abandoned the institution of a professional officer corps as a "heritage of tsarism" in the course of the Revolution. In particular, the Bolsheviks condemned the use of the word officer and used the word commander instead. The Red Army abandoned epaulettes and ranks, using purely functional titles such as "Division Commander", "Corps Commander", and similar titles.[9] But insignia of these functional titles exists, consisting triangles, squares and rhombuses (so-called "diamonds").

In 1924 (2 October) "personal" or "service" categories introduced, from K1 (section leader, assistant squad leader, senior rifleman, etc.) to K14 (field commander, army commander, military district commander, army commisar and equal). Service kategories insignia also consists triangles, squares and rhombuses, but also rectangles (1 - 3, for categories from K7 to K9).

On 22 September 1935 the Red Army abandoned service categories[需要解释] and introduced personal ranks. These ranks, however, used a unique mix of functional titles and traditional ranks. For example, the ranks included "Lieutenant" and "Comdiv" (Комдив, Division Commander). Further complications ensued from the functional and categorical ranks for political officers (e.g., "brigade commissar", "army commissar 2nd rank"), for technical corps (e.g., "engineer 3rd rank", "division engineer"), for administrative, medical and other non-combatant branches.

The Marshal of the Soviet Union (Маршал Советского Союза) rank was introduced on 22 September 1935. On 7 May 1940 further modifications to rationalise the ranks system were made on the proposal by Marshal Voroshilov: the ranks of "General" and "Admiral" replaced the senior functional ranks of Combrig, Comdiv, Comcor, Comandarm in the RKKA and Flagman 1st rank etc. in the Red Navy; the other senior functional ranks ("division commissar", "division engineer", etc.) remained unaffected. The arm or service distinctions remained (e.g. general of cavalry, marshal of armoured troops).[76][页码请求] For the most part the new system restored that used by the Imperial Russian Army at the conclusion of its participation in World War I.

In early 1943 a unification of the system saw the abolition of all the remaining functional ranks. The word "officer" became officially endorsed, together with the epaulettes that superseded the previous rank insignia. The ranks and insignia of 1943 did not change much until the last days of the USSR; the contemporary Russian Army uses largely the same system.

军事教育[编辑]

内战期间指挥骨干是在帝俄尼古拉斯综合军事学院英语Nicholas General Staff Academy(1920年代成为伏龙芝军事学院)受训。中高级指挥官接受高等军事学术课程培训,1925年改称统帅部高级课程;1931年伏龙芝军事学院设立作战系增添这类课程。综合军事学院英语General Staff Academy (Soviet)于1936年4月2日恢复,并成为红军中、高级指挥官的主要军事学院。[8]

清洗[编辑]

The late 1930s saw the purges of the Red Army leadership which occurred concurrently with Stalin's Great Purge of Soviet society. In 1936 and 1937, at the orders of Stalin, thousands of Red Army senior officers were dismissed from their commands. The purges had the objective of cleansing the Red Army of the "politically unreliable elements", mainly among higher-ranking officers. This inevitably provided a convenient pretext for the settling of personal vendettas or to eliminate competition by officers seeking the same command. Many army, corps, and divisional commanders were sacked, most were imprisoned or sent to labor camps; others were executed. Among the victims was the Red Army's primary military theorist, Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky, perceived by Stalin as a potential political rival[來源請求]. Officers who remained soon found all of their decisions being closely examined by political officers, even in mundane matters such as record-keeping and field training exercises.[77] An atmosphere of fear and unwillingness to take the initiative soon pervaded the Red Army; suicide rates among junior officers rose to record levels.[77] The purges significantly impaired the combat capabilities of the Red Army. Hoyt concludes "the Soviet defense system was damaged to the point of incompetence" and stresses "the fear in which high officers lived."[78] Clark says, " Stalin not only cut the heart out of the army, he also gave it brain damage."[79] Lewin identifies three serious results: The loss of experienced and well-trained senior officers; the distrust it caused among potential allies especially France; and the encouragement it gave Germany.[80][81]

Stalin with marshal Blyukher among Red Army military personnel
红军将领米哈伊尔·图哈切夫斯基,1937年6月大清洗期间被处决

Recently declassified data indicate that in 1937, at the height of the Purges, the Red Army had 114,300 officers, of whom 11,034 were dismissed. In 1938, the Red Army had 179,000 officers, 56% more than in 1937, of whom a further 6,742 were sacked. In the highest echelons of the Red Army the Purges removed 3 of 5 marshals, 13 of 15 army generals, 8 of 9 admirals, 50 of 57 army corps generals, 154 out of 186 division generals, all 16 army commissars, and 25 of 28 army corps commissars.[82]

The result was that the Red Army officer corps in 1941 had many inexperienced senior officers. While 60% of regimental commanders had two years or more of command experience in June 1941, and almost 80% of rifle division commanders, only 20% of corps commanders, and 5% or fewer army and military district commanders, had the same level of experience.[83]

The significant growth of the Red Army during the high point of the purges may have worsened matters. In 1937, the Red Army numbered around 1.3 million, increasing to almost three times that number by June 1941. The rapid growth of the army necessitated in turn the rapid promotion of officers regardless of experience or training.[77] Junior officers were appointed to fill the ranks of the senior leadership, many of whom lacked broad experience.[77] This action in turn resulted in many openings at the lower level of the officer corps, which were filled by new graduates from the service academies. In 1937, the entire junior class of one academy was graduated a year early to fill vacancies in the Red Army.[77] Hamstrung by inexperience and fear of reprisals, many of these new officers failed to impress the large numbers of incoming draftees to the ranks; complaints of insubordination rose to the top of offenses punished in 1941,[77] and may have exacerbated instances of Red Army soldiers deserting their units during the initial phases of the German offensive of that year.[77]

By 1940, Stalin began to relent, restoring approximately one-third of previously dismissed officers to duty.[77] However, the effect of the purges would soon manifest itself in the Winter War of 1940, where Red Army forces generally performed poorly against the much smaller Finnish Army, and later during the German invasion of 1941, in which the German were able to rout the Russians defenders partially due to inexperience amongst the Russian officers.[來源請求]

武器装备[编辑]

苏联扩大了其军事工业作为1920至1930年代斯大林工业化运动的一部分。

注释[编辑]

  1. ^ 8 February became "Soviet Army Day", a national holiday in the USSR.
  2. ^ The names "Soviet–Finnish War 1939–1940" (俄语Сове́тско-финская война́ 1939–1940) and "Soviet–Finland War 1939–1940" (俄语Сове́тско-финляндская война́ 1939–1940) are often used in Russian historiography.[32][33][34][35]
  3. ^ The Axis forces possessed a 1:1.7 superiority in personnel, despite the Red Army's 174 divisions against the Axis's 164 divisions, a 1.1:1 ratio.[44]

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ Davies, Norman, Sunday Times, 05/11 2006, "Since 75%–80% of all German losses were inflicted on the eastern front it follows that the efforts of the western allies accounted for only 20%–25%"  .
  2. ^ Lenin, Vladmir Ilich, Tasks of the Proletariat in our Revolution, Collected Works, Marx 2 Mao, 55–91, [29 May 2010] .
  3. ^ Wollenberg, Erich, The Red Army, Marxists FR, [28 May 2010] .
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 Appendix 1 – The Scheme For A Socialist Army, The Red Army, decree, The Council of People's Commissars, 15 January 1918 [28 May 2010] .
  5. ^ Bonch-Bruyevich, Mikhail, From Tsarist General to Red Army Commander, Vezey, Vladimir transl, Progress Publishers, 232, 1966 .
  6. ^ Seventeen Moments, Soviet History .
  7. ^ Siegelbaum, Lewis. 1917: Red Guard into Army. Seventeen Moments in Soviet History. [2014-01-21]. "The Red Army's soldiers, overwhelmingly peasant in origin, received pay but more importantly, their families were guaranteed rations and assistance with farm work." 
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 Shaw 1979,第86–87页.
  9. ^ 9.0 9.1 Erickson 1962,第72–3页.
  10. ^ Krasnov, RU: FST Anitsa (Russian) .
  11. ^ Lototskiy, SS, The Soviet Army, Moscow: Progress Publishers, 25, 1971  cited in Scott & Scott 1979,第3页.
  12. ^ 12.0 12.1 Suvorov, Viktor, Inside Soviet Military Intelligence, New York: Macmillan, 1984 .
  13. ^ Scott & Scott 1979, p. 8.
  14. ^ Read, Christopher, From Tsar to Soviets, Oxford University Press, 137, 1996, "By 1920, 77 per cent the enlisted ranks were peasants." 
  15. ^ Williams 1987: ‘Conscription-age (17–40) villagers hid from Red Army draft units; summary hostage executions brought the men out of hiding.’
  16. ^ 16.0 16.1 Chamberlain 1957, p. 131.
  17. ^ Erickson 1962, pp. 31–34.
  18. ^ Efimov, N, Grazhdanskaya Voina 1918–21 [The Civil War 1918–21], Moscow, 95, c. 1928 (Russian) , cited in Erickson 1962,第33页.
  19. ^ 19.0 19.1 Williams 1987.
  20. ^ 20.0 20.1 Overy 2004, p. 446: ‘at the end of the civil war, one-third of Red Army officers were ex-Tsarist voenspetsy.’
  21. ^ Situating Central Asian review. London; Oxford: The Central Asian Research Centre in association with the Soviet Affairs Study Group, St. Antony's College. 1968: 250 [1 January 2011]. 
  22. ^ Khvostov, Mikhail. The Russian Civil War (1): The Red Army. Men-at-arms series. Osprey Publishing. 1995: 15-16 [2014-10-27]. ISBN 9781855326088. "Only volunteers could join, thay had to be aged between 14 and 55 and of fanatic loyaly - communists, idealistic workers and peasants, trade union members and members of the Young Comm[...]unist League (Komsomol). ChON units fought in close co-operation with the Cheka and played an important part in the establishment of Soviet rule and the defeat of counter-revolution. They were always present at the most dangerous points on the battlefield, and were usually the last to withdraw. When retreat was the only option, many Chonovtsi stayed behind in occupied areas to form clandestine networks and partisan detachments."  Compare spetsnaz.
  23. ^ Daniels, Robert V, A Documentary History of Communism in Russia: From Lenin to Gorbachev, UPNE, 70, 1993, ISBN 978-0-87451-616-6, "The Cheka Special Punitive Brigades also were charged with detecting sabotage and counter-revolution among Red Army soldiers and commanders." 
  24. ^ Brovkin, Vladimire, Workers' Unrest and the Bolsheviks' Response in 1919, Slavic Review, Autumn 1990, 49 (3): 350–73, doi:10.2307/2499983 .
  25. ^ Erickson 1962, pp. 38–9.
  26. ^ Volkogonov, Dmitri, Shukman, Harold, 编, Trotsky: The Eternal Revolutionary, London: HarperCollins, 180, 1996 .
  27. ^ Erickson 1962, p. 101.
  28. ^ Erickson 1962, pp. 102–7.
  29. ^ Erickson 1962, p. 167.
  30. ^ Habeck, Mary R, Storm of Steel: The Development of Armor Doctrine in Germany and the Soviet Union, 1919–1939, Cornell University Press, 2003, ISBN 0-8014-4074-2 .
  31. ^ Lin, Hsiao-ting, Modern China's Ethnic Frontiers: A Journey to the West, 58, 2010 .
  32. ^ Барышников, ВН; Саломаа, Э. Военная Литература http://militera.lib.ru/h/sb_crusade_in_rossia/02.html. 2005 [3 November 2009] (Russian).  已忽略未知参数|script-title= (帮助); 缺少或|title=为空 (帮助)
  33. ^ Ковалев, Эрик. Военная Литература http://militera.lib.ru/h/kovalev_ea2/07.html. 2006 [3 November 2009] (Russian).  已忽略未知参数|script-title= (帮助); 缺少或|title=为空 (帮助)
  34. ^ М. Коломиец. [Фронтовая иллюстрация] 使用|trans-title=需要含有|title= (帮助). 2001 [3 November 2009] (Russian).  已忽略未知参数|script-title= (帮助)
  35. ^ Александр Широкорад. [Предыстория Зимней войны] 使用|trans-title=需要含有|title= (帮助). Военная Литература. 2001 [3 November 2009] (Russian).  已忽略未知参数|script-title= (帮助)
  36. ^ Expulsion of the U.S.S.R.. League of Nations. 14 December 1939 [24 July 2009]. 
  37. ^ Bullock (1993). p. 489.
  38. ^ Glanz (1998). p. 58.
  39. ^ 39.0 39.1 Ries (1988)
  40. ^ 40.0 40.1 Edwards 2006.
  41. ^ Hitler, Adolf, Mein Kampf, Boston, 654, 1943 , cited in Shirer, William L, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, London: The Reprint Society, 796, 1962 .
  42. ^ Glantz 1998, p. 15.
  43. ^ 43.0 43.1 Glantz 1998.
  44. ^ Glantz 1998, pp. 292–95.
  45. ^ Glantz 2005, pp. 61–62.
  46. ^ Glantz 2005, p. 181.
  47. ^ Merridale 2006, p. 157: ‘Red Army soldiers who shot or injured themselves to avoid combat usually were summarily executed, to save the time and money of medical treatment and a court martial’.
  48. ^ Toppe, Alfred, Night Combat, Diane, 28, 1998, ISBN 978-0-7881-7080-5, "The Wehrmacht and the Soviet Army documented penal battalions tramplers clearing minefields; on 28 December 1942, Wehrmacht forces on the Kerch peninsula observed a Soviet penal battalion running through a minefield, detonating the mines and clearing a path for the Red Army." 
  49. ^ Tolstoy 1981: ‘Stalin's Directive 227, about the Nazi use of the death penalty and penal units as punishment, ordered Soviet penal battalions established.’
  50. ^ 50.0 50.1 Tolstoy 1981.
  51. ^ 51.0 51.1 Кривошеев, ГФ [Krivosheev, GF], Россия и СССР в войнах XX века: потери вооруженных сил. Статистическое исследование [Russia and the USSR in the wars of the 20th century: losses of the Armed Forces. A Statistical Study] (Russian) .
  52. ^ Erlikman, Vadim, Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke: spravochnik, Moscow, 2004, ISBN 5-93165-107-1 (Russian) .
  53. ^ Glantz 2005, pp. 600–2.
  54. ^ 54.0 54.1 Overmans 2000: ‘It seems entirely plausible, while not provable, that one half of the missing were killed in action, the other half however in fact died in Soviet custody.’
  55. ^ Overy, Richard, Stalin's Russia, Hitlers Germany .[页码请求]
  56. ^ German-Russian Berlin-Karlhorst museum, Science, News from Russia, 2003-06-13 .
  57. ^ Bessel, Richard, Germany 1945: From War to Peace, Pocket Books, 116–18, 2010, ISBN 978-1-41652-619-3 .
  58. ^ Beevor, Antony, Berlin .
  59. ^ Taylor, G. Don. Introduction to Logistics Engineering. CRC Press. 2010: 1–6. 
  60. ^ Zaloga, Steven. IS-2 Heavy Tank 1944-73. Osprey Publishing. 2011: 3–12. 
  61. ^ Stolfi, Russel HS. Hitler's Panzers East: World War II Reinterpreted. 俄克拉荷马大学出版社. 1993: 161–62. 
  62. ^ [The flag Hoax] 使用|trans-title=需要含有|title= (帮助). RU: Vexillographia. [11 September 2010] (Russian).  已忽略未知参数|script-title= (帮助)
  63. ^ Scott & Scott 1979, p. 5.
  64. ^ Scott & Scott 1979, p. 12.
  65. ^ Glantz 2005, p. 717 note 5.
  66. ^ 66.0 66.1 Knickerbocker, HR. Is Tomorrow Hitler's? 200 Questions On the Battle of Mankind. Reynal & Hitchcock. 1941: 93. 
  67. ^ Sharp, Charles, Soviet Tank, Mechanized, Motorized Divisions and Tank Brigades of 1940–1942, Soviet Order of Battle World War II, George Nafziger, 2–3, 1995 , cited at Red army studies .[失效連結]
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  69. ^ Zaloga 1984, p. 126.
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  73. ^ Glantz 2005, p. 189.
  74. ^ Glantz 2005, p. 217–30.
  75. ^ Scott & Scott 1979, p. 13.
  76. ^ Erickson 1962.
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  78. ^ Edwin P. Hoyt. 199 Days: The Battle for Stalingrad (1999) p 20
  79. ^ Lloyd Clark. The Battle of the Tanks: Kursk, 1943. Grove/Atlantic, Incorporated. 2011: 55. 
  80. ^ Eyal Lewin. National Resilience During War: Refining the Decision-making Model. Lexington Books. 2012: 259–60. 
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  83. ^ Glantz 1998, p. 58.

书目[编辑]

  • Carrere D'Encausse, Helene. The End of the Soviet Empire: The Triumph of the Nations, Basic Books, 1992, ISBN 0-465-09818-5.
  • Chamberlain, William Henry, The Russian Revolution: 1917–1921, New York: Macmillan, 1957 .
  • Erickson, John, The Soviet High Command 1918–41 – A Military-Political History, London: MacMillan, 1962, OCLC 569056 .
  • Glantz, David M, Stumbling Colossus: The Red Army on the Eve of World War, 堪萨斯大学出版社, 1998, ISBN 978-0-7006-0879-9 .
  • ———, Colossus Reborn, 堪萨斯大学出版社, 2005, ISBN 978-0-7006-1353-3 .
  • Harrison, Richard W. The Russian Way of War: Operational Art, 1904-1940 (堪萨斯大学出版社, 2001)
  • House, Jonathan M, Toward Combined Arms Warfare: A Survey of 20th Century Tactics, Doctrine, and Organization (PDF), Fort Leavenworth, KS: US Army Command and General Staff College, 1984, OCLC 11650157, 66027–6900 .
  • Isby, David C. Weapons and Tactics of the Soviet Army, Jane's, 1988, ISBN 978-0-7106-0352-4.
  • Merridale, Catherine, Ivan's War: Life and Death in the Red Army, 1939–1945, New York: Macmillan, 2006, ISBN 978-0-8050-7455-0 .
  • ———, Ivan's War: Life and Death in the Red Army, 1939–1945, New York: Macmillan, 2007 [2006], ISBN 978-0-312-42652-1 .
  • Moynahan, Brian. Claws of the Bear: The History of the Red Army from the Revolution to the Present (1989).
  • Odom, William E. The Collapse of the Soviet Military, Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 1998, ISBN 978-0-300-07469-7.
  • Overy, RJ, The Dictators: Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Russia, WW Norton, 2004, ISBN 978-0-393-02030-4 .
  • Overmans, Rüdiger, Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg, Oldenbourg, 2000, ISBN 3-486-56531-1 (German) .
  • Reese, Roger R. Why Stalin's Soldiers Fought: The Red Army's Military Effectiveness in World War II (堪萨斯大学出版社; 2011) 400 pp. excerpt and text search
  • Reese, Roger R. Red Commanders: A Social History of the Soviet Army Officer Corps, 1918-1991 (2005) excerpt and text search
  • Reese, Roger R. Stalin's Reluctant Soldiers: A Social History of the Red Army, 1925-1941 (1996)
  • Reese, Roger R. The Soviet Military Experience: A History of the Soviet Army, 1917-1991 (2000) excerpt and text search
  • Schofield, Carey, Inside the Soviet Army, London: Headline, 1991, ISBN 978-0-7472-0418-3 .
  • Scott, Harriet Fast; Scott, William F, The Armed Forces of the USSR 3rd, Boulder, CO: Westview, 1984, ISBN 0-86531-792-5 .
  • Shaw, John, Red Army Resurgent, Alexandria, VA: Time-Life, 1979, ISBN 0-8094-2520-3 .
  • Tolstoy, Nikolai, Stalin's Secret War, New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1981, ISBN 0-03-047266-0 .
  • Williams, Beryl, The Russian Revolution 1917–1921, Blackwell, 1987, ISBN 978-0-631-15083-1 .
  • Zaloga, Steven; Grandsen, James, Soviet Tanks and Combat Vehicles of World War Two, London: Arms & Armour, 1984 .

外部链接[编辑]