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密特拉教

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密特拉信仰的兩種形象。羅馬,西元二世紀到三世紀。(羅浮宮博物館

密特拉教(Mithraism),也被稱為密特拉密教(Mithraic mysteries),是一支以主神密特拉斯(Mithras)為信仰中心的秘密宗教,大約西元一世紀至西元四世紀盛行於羅馬帝國境內。宗教靈感來自波斯人對主神密特拉Mithra英语Mithra原始印度-伊朗語寫法為Mitra)的敬拜,雖然希臘的密特拉斯(Mithras)是與一個新的和獨特的(宗教)形象/意象聯繫著,並且在波斯與希腊、罗马之間信仰傳播階段的连续性是被(學者)所讨论著。[1]這支秘密宗教在羅馬軍隊英语Imperial Roman army中很受到歡迎。[2]也因此這支信仰的教徒全部都是男性。

密特拉斯的崇拜者有一套(深奧)難解的七等級啟蒙英语initiation與公共儀式的膳食制度體系。(密特拉教的)教徒/入教者(Initiates)稱他們自己為syndexioi(音譯:辛德希歐耶),意即“藉著握手/交握而團結(united by the handshake)”。[3]他們的集會是在地下的神廟英语Roman temple進行著,乃名為密特拉寺英语mithraeumMithraeum,拉丁文複數寫作Mithraea),也被翻譯作“太陽式洞”;密特拉寺是與其他希臘羅馬神廟有所不同的,由於密特拉斯是在岩石洞穴中受信徒崇拜著,所以密特拉寺是仿造這個洞穴,密特拉斯是在這洞穴內屠殺公牛的,[4]而且經過漫漫的歷史歲月後今日依然有許多座的密特拉寺都有被留存著。這支宗教信仰英语Cult (religious practice)似乎在羅馬有一個屬於他們的中心。[5]

許多的考古發現,包括集會地點、宗教遺跡/遺址和文物,貫穿整個羅馬帝國(的歷史)自始至終都貢獻了現代有關於密特拉教的學問/知識。[6]密特拉斯的聖像場景顯示出祂是從岩石中出生、屠殺公牛,以及與索爾神(Sol,太陽神)一起共享宴會等等的宗教形象。大約有420處場址已給予了與這項信仰有關的史料。發掘的文物項目當中約有1000個碑銘、700個屠牛場景(屠牛像英语tauroctony〔tauroctony〕)的例證,還有大約400個(密特拉教)其他古迹。[7]據估計在羅馬至少會有680座密特拉寺英语mithraea[8]然而,並沒有來自這支宗教的書面記述或是神學理論留存下來;而有限的知識/見聞/學問可以從希臘文拉丁文書籍中的碑文和摘要/節錄或是信息傳遞的參考文獻中獲得。而實體證據上的解讀仍然存在著問題和議論。[9]這個秘密教派還有很多教義是教外人士所未知的。

羅馬人將這支秘密宗教視為具有波斯人或是瑣羅亞斯德教徒的淵源。自從1970年代初以來占有主導地位的學術研究單位已經注意到波斯人的密特拉崇拜儀式和羅馬人的密特拉密教之間的差異了。在這方面,密特拉教有時被認為是與早期基督教媲美、相對等的宗教[10]連帶著具有著相似性,譬如解放者-救世主(liberator-saviour)、神職人員的等級制度(主教、長老、執事)、(宗教性)聚餐以及善與惡間的艱苦搏鬥(屠殺公牛/受難)。

密特拉斯屠牛像,請注意此宗教意涵乃是代表一种自我救赎和牺牲。現今珍藏於羅浮宮朗斯分館(Louvre-Lens)。
從岩石出生的密特拉斯以及密特拉教的文物。戴克里先浴场博物館(Diocletian Baths Museum)。

神話信仰和起源[编辑]

這支信仰神話的基本版本是由文學/文獻史料來證實的,然而,最主要地,則是藉由在神廟之中的崇拜的偶像/圖像的描繪來做考証。不過後者難以做闡釋的。

密特拉教神話傳說可以肯定的版本是密特拉斯是從岩石之中出生的[11]祂在祂自己的神廟之中的屠牛像上被描繪成獵捕和宰殺一頭公牛(參見以下屠牛場景章節)。然後祂與司掌太陽神的索爾會面,索爾向密特拉斯表示服從。然後兩尊神祇便握手,並且在公牛皮上用膳。對於與此有關的信仰知之甚少[12]由歐布洛斯(Euboulos)與帕拉斯(Pallas)對這支宗教所著作的古代史冊已經佚失了。[13]在拉丁文的密特拉教的宗教遺跡之中神明的名號確定是被尊為Mithras(密特拉斯,拉丁文原文中字尾有加‘s’),儘管Mithra這一字彙可能已被用於希臘文(Μίθρας)之中了。[14]

有些宗教遺跡則會顯示出額外/補充的神話情節。在杜拉·歐羅普斯(Dura Europos)的密特拉宗教繪畫中(《密特拉宗教聖蹟碑銘集成英语Corpus Inscriptionum et Monumentorum Religionis Mithriacae》〔Corpus Inscriptionum et Monumentorum Religionis Mithriacae,縮寫為CIMRM42號),故事是開始於眾神之王朱庇特與巨人之間的戰鬥。接下來是一尊留著鬍鬚的神祇橫臥靠在一顆岩石上的神秘描繪,連同在上方有一棵樹的葉子。這尊神祇有時被認為是俄刻阿諾斯(Oceanus)。接著就描繪正規的密特拉教神話了。同樣的情節也出現在來自於維魯努姆英语Virunum(Virunum)的CIMRM 1430號中的浮雕裡,以及在來自於德國的CIMRM 1359號中的浮雕裡做為一個序幕。

在敘利亞境內位於哈瓦蒂(Hawarte or Hawarti)密特拉寺內的宗教繪畫中,有出現更進一步的神話場景。密特拉斯被描繪為在祂的腳下束縛/囚禁了一隻惡魔;而在另外一個場景之中,密特拉斯則被描繪為正打擊著由惡魔所操控/操縱的城市。這些場景似乎遵循著正規的神話故事。

名號[编辑]

Mithraism密特拉教)”是一個現代(學術)規範下的一個專有名詞。羅馬時代的作家通過諸如“Mithraic mysteries密特拉密教)”、“mysteries of Mithras密特拉斯的秘密宗教)”或是“mysteries of the Persians波斯人的秘密宗教)”等短语/叙述來提到祂。[1][15]現代資料有時將希臘羅馬(密特拉)宗教稱之為“Roman Mithraism羅馬密特拉教)”或是“Western Mithraism西方密特拉教)”以區別來自於波斯人的密特拉崇拜/信仰。[1][16][17]

密特拉斯的詞源[编辑]

密特拉密教的屠牛像之淺浮雕,位於法國梅斯(Metz)。

密特拉斯(Mithras)乃古代波斯的真理與光明之神、太陽神、羅馬密特拉教的主神,在英文文獻中Mithras(為拉丁文形式,等同於希臘文的“Μίθρας”,[18]後來轉入英文。)的名号是Mithra英语Mithra密特拉)名號的另一種形式的寫法,這乃是(源自於)古波斯神祇的名號[19][20] – 自從弗朗茨·庫蒙英语Franz Cumont(Franz Cumont)的時期以來透過研究密特拉教的學者即是以這樣關係聯繫所做出的理解。[21]這名號的一個早期希臘文型態之例證是藉由西元前四世紀色諾芬的著作,即為《居魯士之教育英语Cyropaedia》(Cyropaedia)一書中所得知而來的,這是一部撰述著波斯君王居魯士大帝(Cyrus the Great)的傳記。[22]

拉丁文或者是古典希臘文字形的確切型態是由於語法的變格過程而讓字彙呈現了變化。有考古學的證據表明著在拉丁民族的崇拜者/信徒中將神祇名號的主格型態写為“Mithras”。然而,在這波菲利英语Porphyry (philosopher)(Porphyry)希臘文本De Abstinentia(為拉丁文寫法;希臘文:«Περὶ ἀποχῆς ἐμψύχων»;漢譯:《禁慾》)的著作之中,即有提到了現今已經失落的一段以歐布洛斯和帕拉斯為依据的密特拉密教佚史,這些的纂輯意味著這些作者將“Mithra”這個名號視為一個不变化的外來語詞彙。[23]

在其他的語言中有關於密特拉神的名號還有包括著:

伊朗文的“Mithra”以及梵文的“Mitra”被認為是來自印度-伊朗語的一個詞彙“mitra”意思是契約協議合同[29]

現代的歷史學者毋論關於這些名號是否指稱同一尊神明也有著觀念/概念上的分野。約翰 R. 亨尼爾斯(John R. Hinnells)曾寫過Mitra/Mithra/Mithras作為在幾種不同宗教中崇拜的單一神性/神明。[30]另一方面,大衛·烏蘭西(David Ulansey)認為屠牛的密特拉斯是一尊新的神明,祂在西元前一世紀開始被人們給崇拜著,並且向祂引用了一個古老的名號(來尊稱祂)。[31]

瑪麗·博伊斯英语Mary Boyce(Mary Boyce),為一位古伊朗宗教的研究員,執筆寫道儘管羅馬帝國的密特拉教彷彿顯得比歷史學者以前所認為的伊朗(宗教)的內涵更少,不過仍然是“如同密特拉斯這名號獨自的彰顯著,這個內涵是有些重要的。(as the name Mithras alone shows, this content was of some importance.)”。[32]

證據和史料[编辑]

密特拉教幾乎是完全從物質文物和獻納碑銘中所得知的。總共,已經揭露了400多個與密特拉教相關的考古發現點,連同約1,000個獻納碑銘和1,150件雕塑。

很少有當代的書面文字史料來源,並且大部分留存下來都是教外人士的觀點。提及密特拉教的資料可以在以下文獻中找到:

  • 普魯塔克(Plutarch),《庞培的生平》(Life of Pompey)24;
  • 波菲利,《在寧芙的洞穴》(On the Cave of the Nymphs)6、15-16、17-18、24-25;
  • 波菲利,《戒除葷食》(On Abstinence from Animal Foods)4.16;
  • 特土良(Tertullian,約西元200年),《在軍隊的花冠上》或者是《在士兵的花冠上》(On the Military Crown or On the Soldier's Crown)15;
  • 奧利振(Origen,西元240年左右)《反駁克理索》(希臘文:Κατά Κέλσου;英文:Against Celsus)6.22。[a]

有關密特拉教之所以缺乏優良的文字書面資料主要原因是由於其作為一支秘密宗教的地位/狀態,其中聖像以及儀式的意義也唯有入教者才能夠被准許知道的秘密。教內人士沒有去記錄他們宗教的詳細內容,而且教外人士是對他們也是並不太了解的。這顯然使得歷史學家難以理解,所以目前關於密特拉教有很多教義仍然是未知的。

宗教中的聖像[编辑]

密特拉斯作為屠牛者身份的浮雕,出自海德堡附近的新故乡(Neuenheim)区,左右方與上方框架內的浮雕則是由密特拉斯的人生場景所構成。

很多關於密特拉斯的信仰只有從浮雕和雕塑才能得知。並且已經有很多人努力的嘗試來解釋這種史料

密特拉斯崇拜在羅馬帝國中的具體特點是神靈屠殺公牛的形像/聖像。密特拉斯其他的形像/聖像則被安座在羅馬神廟內,譬如密特拉斯與索爾(羅馬太陽神)一起的宴會,以及描繪著密特拉斯從岩石中誕生的形像/聖像。但是屠殺公牛的形像/聖像(屠牛像)總是在壁龕中央重要的位置。[33]用於重建這個宗教聖像背後神學理論的文本來源是非常稀少罕見的。[34](請參閱以下章節──屠牛場景的解譯

描繪神靈屠殺公牛形像/聖像的做法似乎是明確地特定于羅馬密特拉教。根據大衛·烏蘭西所述,這個“或許是最重要的例證(perhaps the most important example)”有關於伊朗和羅馬(宗教)傳統之間明顯的區別:“…沒有證據顯示伊朗的神明密特拉與屠殺公牛有任何關係。(... there is no evidence that the Iranian god Mithra ever had anything to do with killing a bull.)”。[35]

屠牛場景[编辑]

密特拉斯的屠牛像,現今珍藏於倫敦大英博物館
從上圖的細節可以看出,顯示狗和蛇正在喝著公牛的血液。(然而有其神秘的涵義在。)
從上圖的細節可以看出,一隻蝎子襲擊了公牛的睾丸。(仍然是有其神秘的涵義在。)

在每一座密特拉寺裡面核心部分就是密特拉斯宰殺一頭聖牛雕像的表現方式,稱之為屠牛像或者是香港人所稱的劏牛像(英文文獻中的專有名詞為:Tauroctony)。[36]

聖像的形式可能是以浮雕的方式呈現,或者是採用獨立式的雕塑,並且在側面的細節也許是存在或者是省略。這中心部分是密特拉斯穿著安納托利亞地區的服裝並且頭上戴著一頂弗里吉亞無邊便帽(Phrygian cap);祂跪在一隻筋疲力盡的[37]公牛身上,其中握住牠(公牛)的鼻孔[37]是以祂的左手來行使的,並且祂右手拿著利器刺入公牛的頸部。當他這樣做時,祂轉過頭來朝向索爾神像看了一下。一隻狗和一條蛇的頭伸向牛的血液。一隻蠍子則箝住公牛的生殖器。一隻烏鴉正在周遭飛舞或是坐在公牛身上。從公牛的尾巴看到三支小麥穗露出,有些時候的聖像造型則是小麥穗從傷口露出來的。這頭公牛通常是白色的。神明以不自然的方式坐在公牛身上同時以祂的右腿壓制住公牛的蹄並且左腿彎曲以及靠在公牛的背部或腹部上面。[38]兩名火炬手各站於一側,穿著同密特拉斯一樣,考泰斯(Cautes)將祂的火炬向上者以及考托佩斯(Cautopates)將祂的火炬向下者[39][40]有時候聖像的造型中考泰斯與考托佩斯英语Cautes and Cautopates是帶著牧羊人的曲柄杖來替代火炬。[41]

屠牛像,出自於奧地利維也納藝術史博物館

這項宗教儀式舉行的地點是在洞穴裡,密特拉斯帶著公牛進入洞穴內,在對牠獵殺之後,(密特拉斯)騎坐在牠背上並且壓制牠的力量。[42]有些時候洞穴是由一個圓圈所圍繞著,黃道十二星座的圖像則是呈現在圍繞洞穴的圓圈上面。在洞穴的外面,左上方,是司掌太陽的索爾,連同祂火焰般的頭冠,祂通常駕駛著一輛四馬雙輪戰車(quadriga)。一縷光線通常是射下來觸及到密特拉斯。位於右上方的神祇則是盧娜(Luna),與祂的盈月在一起,祂可能被描繪為駕駛著一輛二马双轮战车英语biga (chariot)(biga)。[43]

在一些聖像的描繪中,中央的屠牛像是由左方、上方以及右方的一系列附屬場景所構成的整體造型,主旨在說明關於密特拉斯故事中的事件;密特拉斯從岩石出生、水的神蹟、公牛的狩獵與騎乘、密特拉斯跪著謁見索爾、密特拉斯與索爾握手並且與祂分享公牛被支解後的膳食,以及乘坐一輛戰車升向天空。[43]在某些情況下,就像這種斯達科(stucco或譯為灰泥)聖像的例子則是位在聖塔普利斯卡(Santa Prisca)密特拉寺裡,寺中聖像的神明展現出英雄地裸體英语Heroic nudity(heroically nude)。[44]其中一些浮雕被夠造成以便於祂們(聖像)能夠在一個軸/樞紐上轉動。在後面則是另一個形象的描繪,那是更加精緻的宴會場景。這是標明著屠殺公牛場景是在(密特拉教的)宗教儀式第一部分之中被使用著,然後這(公牛屠殺場景浮雕)被轉動後,跟著這二幕場景是在(密特拉教的)宗教儀式第二部分之中被使用著。[45]除了主要的崇拜/信仰聖像之外,許多的密特拉寺具有幾個附帶(secondary)的屠牛像,以及一些小型便於攜帶的版本,或許是意味著由私人所奉獻的,(這類型的聖像)也是有被發現/找到。[46]

相關神靈[编辑]

密特拉斯通常會被描繪成身邊有兩尊較小的神靈,服裝穿著與密特拉斯相同,手持著火炬。這兩位火炬手在密特拉斯宗教遺跡上被命名為考泰斯與考托佩斯英语Cautes and Cautopates

在一些浮雕雕塑之中還有發現到的是一尊神秘的獅首形象的神像,祂或許可能被稱為阿里曼紐斯英语Arimanius(Arimanius)。

在密特拉教各種的宗教遺跡上有出現一名男性神祇留有絡腮鬍、斜倚著。這尊男神似乎就是俄刻阿诺斯,乃海洋的化身。

在某些宗教遺跡上可以遇見凱路斯(Caelus)這尊神祇的名號,例如CIMRM 1127號,其中考泰斯、考托佩斯、俄刻阿諾斯、凱路斯都有出現並被提到過的。密特拉密教的神靈凱路斯有時候被描繪成一隻老鷹俯越/伏在被标有與行星或黃道十二星座符号在一起的天球上面。[47]在密特拉密教的宗教背景(神靈的前後關係)下,祂(凱路斯)與考泰斯相關聯的[48]以及也許可能是永恒凱路斯Caelus Aeternus;英譯:“Eternal Sky”;漢譯:“永恆的天空”)。[49]多羅·李維(Doro Levi)聲稱阿胡拉·馬茲達(Ahura-Mazda)在拉丁語中被呼喚為“Caelus Aeternus Iupiter(漢譯:永恆凱路斯·朱庇特)”。[50]有些密特拉寺的牆壁特徵是同俄刻阿諾斯與凱路斯一起的宇宙寓意/寓言之描繪。迪堡(Dieburg)的密特拉寺代表/象徵著在法厄同赫利俄多穆斯(Phaeton-Heliodromus)之下同凱路斯、俄刻阿諾斯和特勒斯(Tellus,羅馬神話中的大地女神)一起的三方/三部分世界。[51]

宴會場景[编辑]

在屠牛像之後的第二項最重要場景於密特拉密教藝術之中就是所謂的“宴會場景”了。[52]宴會場景的特徵是密特拉斯和索爾·無敵者(the Sol Invictus)在被屠殺的公牛皮上進行著宴會。[52]關於明確具體的宴會場景則是呈現在菲亚诺罗马诺(Fiano Romano)地區的浮雕上,其中一名火炬手將商神杖(caduceus)指向祭壇的基座,商神杖的頂端似乎湧現出火焰來。罗伯特·图尔坎(Robert Turcan)認為由於商神杖是屬於墨丘利(即希臘神話中的赫耳墨斯)所擁有的神器,並且在神話中墨丘利是被描述為一名普绪科蓬波斯英语psychopomp(psychopomps,乃古希腊神话裡负责接引死者灵魂的神祇们,也就是冥府使者),在這個場景中火焰的引發是指著人類靈魂的派遣/調遣/差遣並且就這件事情表達了密特拉密教的教義。[53]图尔坎也將這個事件與屠牛像聯繫起來:被屠戮的公牛血液已經在祭壇基座的地面上濡濕,並且從血液中靈魂被商神杖的火焰給引了出來。[53]

從岩石之中誕生像[编辑]

上圖:密特拉斯從岩石中升起(現今珍藏於國立羅馬尼亞歷史博物館);
右圖:從岩石中出生的密特拉斯(大理石,西元180年~192年),出自於聖托·斯特凡諾·罗同多(Santo Stefano Rotondo,有時稱之為San Stefano Rotondo或者是S. Stefano Rotondo)地區,羅馬。

密特拉斯被描繪/描述為從岩石中出生。祂被顯示為從岩石中出來的那時刻,就已經呈現在祂年輕時期的樣貌,連同以一隻手持著匕首以及另一隻手持著火炬。祂是裸體的,與祂的雙腿一同呈現出佇立的姿態,並且在祂的頭上佩戴著一頂弗里吉亞無邊便帽。[54]

然而,(這樣從岩石出生的聖像之)形象有了變化。有時候他被顯示為如同一名兒童般地從岩石中出來,並且在某種情況下在祂一隻手上握有一個球狀物(globe);有時會看到雷電。其中還有一些描述著火焰是從岩石再就是密特拉斯的帽子噴發出來的。有一座塑像/雕像的底座有穿孔以便能夠作為噴泉/噴水池的功能,並且在另一個底座則有水神的面罩/面具/面像。有些時候密特拉斯還擁有著其他的武器像是弓與箭,並且還有伴隨著動物們例如狗、蛇、海豚、老鷹、其他鳥類、獅子、鱷魚、螯龍蝦(lobsters)以及蝸牛在祂周圍。在一些的浮雕上,有一尊留有鬍鬚的神祇身分经鉴定為俄刻阿諾斯,祂乃是水神,並且有些地方則是為四風之神。在這些浮雕中,四大元素可能一起被召喚/祈求(invoked)。有时候維多利亞(Victoria,羅馬神話中的勝利女神)、盧娜索爾以及薩圖恩(Saturn)也似乎擔任著一個(重要任務的)角色。特別是薩圖恩通常是被看到將匕首交付給予密特拉斯以便祂能夠行使祂的偉大的事蹟。[54]

在有些的描述中,考泰斯與考托佩斯也是有在場的;有時候祂們被描繪為牧羊人。[55]

在某些情況/場面下,能被看到一只雙耳瓶(amphora),並且有幾個例子/情況表現出了像(密特拉斯從)蛋出生或是(密特拉斯從)樹誕生這樣的變化。一些解釋表明著密特拉斯的誕生是以點燃的火炬或是蠟燭(在宗教儀式上)被頌揚/讚美(celebrated)的。[54][56]

獅首神的圖繪發現於C.瓦勒留斯·赫拉克勒斯(C. Valerius Heracles)與兒子們的密特拉寺,奉獻於西元190年,位在奧斯提亞·安提卡(Ostia Antica),義大利(CIMRM 312號)。

獅首形象[编辑]

獅首人身像的密特拉斯,出自於西頓(Sidon)密特拉寺。由弗拉維奧·杰罗修斯(Flavius Gerontios)於西元500所奉獻的(CIMRM 78號以及79號),現今珍藏在羅浮宮

這支秘密宗教之中最具特色和人們對他們知之甚少、深奧難解的的特徵之一就是經常在密特拉密教寺廟/神廟裡所發現到的裸體獅首人身像,經由現代學者以描述性的術語/用語命名譬如leontocephaline(英譯為:lion-headed)或者是leontocephalus(英譯為:lion-head),在漢譯之中都是“獅首、獅頭”的意思;有時候leontocephaline在英文之中也被引伸為lion-headed god,漢譯即獅首神。他被一條蛇給纏繞著(或者是被兩條蛇所纏繞,像是一柄商神杖),蛇的頭部通常靠在獅子的頭上。獅子的口往往是敞開的,給予人一種震懾/威攝的印象。祂常常被人描繪成有四個/兩對翅膀、兩支/一雙鑰匙(有時是單支鑰匙),以及握在祂手中的權杖。有些時候這尊神像是站在一顆刻有對角線交叉/對角十字(diagonal cross)的球狀物上。在這裡所示的神像中,四個翅膀意味著四季的象徵,並且在祂的胸部上則刻有雷電(希臘神話:宙斯/羅馬神話:朱庇特的神器)。在神像的基座上是伏爾坎(Vulcan)的錘子和夾鉗/鉗子、,以及墨丘利的法杖(即是商神杖)。這相同的神像還有一種造型上的變化,然而是以人類的頭部形象而不是獅子面像(lion-mask),也是有被發現到,但是很罕見。[57][58]

雖然動物頭像的神祇在當時同時代的埃及和諾斯替(Gnostic)神話的畫像表示法之中是很普遍的,但是與密特拉密教的獅首神像完全相似的卻還沒有被發現到。[57]這尊神像的名號已經從專門的碑铭上被解讀出來為阿里曼紐斯英语Arimanius,乃是阿里曼(Ahriman)名稱的一種拉丁文形式——即為瑣羅亞斯德教萬神殿/众神庙中的一名惡神/魔王。阿里曼紐斯從碑銘上得知祂被認為在密特拉密教信仰之中顯然是一尊神明,舉例來說,在從《密特拉宗教聖蹟碑銘集成》(CIMRM )所收錄的圖片中像是源自奧斯提亞(Ostia)的222號、源自羅馬的369號,以及源自匈牙利潘诺尼亚(Pannonia)的1773號和1775號。[59]

有些學者將這獅頭人身(lion-man)的神像鑑定/識別為艾翁英语Aion (deity)(Aion)、或者是祖爾宛英语Zurvanism(Zurvan)、或者是克洛諾斯(Cronus)、或者是柯羅諾斯(Chronos),而其他人則斷言/聲稱祂是瑣羅亞斯德教之中阿里曼(拉丁文形式的)譯名。[60]也有人推測著這尊神像是诺斯替教的造物主英语demiurge(Demiurge),(上帝之獅〔Ariel〕)伊達波思英语Yaldabaoth(Yaldabaoth或者是Ialdabaoth,也譯為亞爾達鮑思伊達鮑斯)。[61]儘管獅首神像的確切身分被學者們所討論著,在很大程度上認定著神明與時間和季節的變化有關。[62]一位神祕學者/神祕主義者/術士(occultist),D. J. 庫珀(D. J. Cooper),抱持著相反的推測論點認為獅首神像並非神祇,而更準確地說是代表了在密特拉教之中的“精通/內行(adept)”層次/程度所達到的精神境界或是心靈狀態,即為獅子(Leo or lion)等級[63]

儀式和禮拜[编辑]

根据馬騰·約瑟夫·費爾馬歇仁德语Maarten Jozef Vermaseren(Maarten Jozef Vermaseren or M. J. Vermaseren)所述,密特拉密教的新年以及密特拉斯的誕辰/聖誕是在12月25日。[64][65]然而,羅杰·貝克(Roger Beck)非常地不同意(M. J. 費爾馬歇仁的觀點)。[66]曼弗雷德·克勞斯(Manfred Clauss)陳述說:“密特拉密教沒有祂自己的公開/公眾儀式。無敵者生日的節慶,於12月25日舉行,乃是一般普遍性的太陽節日,並且決不是特定於密特拉斯的密教(之節日)。(the Mithraic Mysteries had no public ceremonies of its own. The festival of Natalis Invicti, held on 25 December, was a general festival of the Sun, and by no means specific to the Mysteries of Mithras.)”[67]密特拉密教之新成員/新的教徒(initiates)被要求發起一項保守秘密與奉獻/忠誠(dedication)的誓言,[68]並且有些等級儀式是涉及到教义问答书(catechism)的朗誦/背誦,在其中入教者(initiate)會被詢問到有關於入教/起蒙/入會(initiation)象徵性/象徵意義的一系列問題,並且(入教者)必須回答明確的答案。有一項這樣的教義問答書的例證,顯然地是關於獅子等級(Leo grade),被發現在一份殘缺不全的埃及莎草紙(P.Berolinensis 21196)上,[68][69]並寫道:

譯文:
…他將會說:’何處…?
…他是/(你是?)在那個方面(在那時/在那上面)茫然不知所措?’說:…說:’夜晚’。他將會說:’何處…?’…說:’所有的事物…’(他將會說):’…你稱為…?’…說:’因為夏天…’…已經成為…他/它有著火熱…(他將會說):’…你接受/繼承了嗎?’…說:’在坑裡’。他將會說:’你在哪裡…?…(說):’…(在那…)庙形坟墓。’他將會說:’你將會受束縛嗎?’那(神聖的?)…(說):’…死亡’。他將會說:’為什麼,已經束縛了自己,…?’’…這個(具有?)四條流蘇。十分銳利並且…’…非常多’。他將會說:…?(說:’…因為/通過?)熱和冷’。他將會說:…?(說):’…紅色…亞麻布’。他將會說:’為什麼?’說:’…紅色邊界;亞麻布,然而,…’(他將會說):’…已被包裹嗎?’說:’救世主的…’他將會說:’父親是誰?’說:’一尊(產生?)一切事物…’(他將會說):’(’如何?)…你成為了獅子’說:’由那…父親的’。…說:’酒和食物’。他將會說’…?’
’…在這七之中—…

原文:
... He will say: 'Where ... ?
... he is/(you are?) there (then/thereupon?) at a loss?' Say: ... Say: 'Night'. He will say: 'Where ... ?' ... Say: 'All things ...' (He will say): '... you are called ... ?' Say: 'Because of the summery ...' ... having become ... he/it has the fiery ... (He will say): '... did you receive/inherit?' Say: 'In a pit'. He will say: 'Where is your ...?... (Say): '...(in the...) Leonteion.' He will say: 'Will you gird?' The (heavenly?) ...(Say): '... death'. He will say: 'Why, having girded yourself, ...?' '... this (has?) four tassels. Very sharp and ... '... much'. He will say: ...? (Say: '... because of/through?) hot and cold'. He will say: ...? (Say): '... red ... linen'. He will say: 'Why?' Say: '... red border; the linen, however, ...' (He will say): '... has been wrapped?' Say: 'The savior's ...' He will say: 'Who is the father?' Say: 'The one who (begets?) everything ...' (He will say): '('How ?)... did you become a Leo?' Say: 'By the ... of the father'. ... Say: 'Drink and food'. He will say '...?'
'... in the seven-...

(可以說)幾乎沒有密特拉密教的經典或者是高度秘密儀式的第一手記述保存下來;[34]而關於前述的誓言和教义问答书則是例外,以及被稱為密特拉斯礼拜仪式英语Mithras Liturgy(Mithras Liturgy)的文獻(也是如此),(這份文獻)乃是源自西元四世紀的埃及,其作為密特拉密教文獻的地位已受到了包括弗朗茨·庫蒙在內的學者所質疑。[70][71]密特拉寺的牆壁通常是有粉刷的,並且在這裡往往擁有廣泛地的宗教圖畫知識庫保存著;還有這些,即連同著密特拉密教紀念碑上的碑銘一起,(因而)形成了密特拉密教文獻的主要來源。[72]

儘管如此,由眾多密特拉寺的考古學(研究)清楚地表明著大多數的儀式是與筵席有關 ——因為食用餐具和食物殘渣幾乎總是會被發現到。這些往往包括著動物的骨頭再來就是非常大量的水果殘留物。[73]尤其是大量樱桃核的存在會傾向於證實著仲夏/盛夏(6月底、7月初)作為一個特別與密特拉密教慶祝活動相關的季節。這维鲁努姆英语Virunum《教徒名籍》(album),以刻著青銅名牌的形式,紀錄了正是發生在西元184年6月26日的密特拉密教紀念節慶(commemoration)的歡宴。貝克認為在這個日期的宗教慶典表明著夏被賦予了特殊意義/重要性;但是一年的這個時間/時段和在仲夏/盛夏時太陽極大的古老认识(觀點)正好相符合,同時也注意到像是利塔節(Litha,為凱爾特人的古夏至節)、聖約翰節前夕英语St John's Eve(St John's Eve),以及詹尼節英语Jāņi(Jāņi,為拉脱维亚人庆祝夏至的节日)等具有同一原因的宗教象征性節慶。

為了他們的盛宴,密特拉密教的入教者會倚靠在沿著密特拉寺長邊所安排的石製條凳上——通常可能會有15到30個食客的空間/飯廳,但是很少會多於40多人。[74]相對應著(這樣類型的)飯廳,或者是躺卧餐桌英语triclinium(triclinium,複數型態為:triclinia),在羅馬帝國境內幾乎任何神廟或宗教聖所的管轄區域被建築在地面上,而且這樣的廳室常常用在羅馬人他們‘會社(clubs)’,或者是同僚团体英语Collegium(collegium,複數型態為:collegia)的定期宴席。正如同僚團體對於有資格加入他們會社而言,密特拉密教盛宴/宴席對於密特拉教徒(Mithraists)而言或許也是執行著相似的作用;事實上,由於羅馬同僚團體的資格/條件往往(嚴格地)只限於特定的家族、地方或傳統行業,而密特拉教可能有部分社交聚會是作為提供著非嚴格限定會員條件的會社。[75]然而,密特拉寺的(寺院)規模不一定就能夠代表教眾人數的多寡。[76]

每一座密特拉寺在最深處的盡頭會有幾個祭壇,是位在屠牛像的聖像下方,並且還通常包含相當數量的附屬祭壇,兩者都在密特拉寺的主室(chamber)以及位於前室(the ante-chamber)或者是前廊/前廳(narthex)。[77]這些祭壇,其皆為標準的羅馬樣式,每個祭壇會帶有從特定/特殊的入教者中所奉獻/獻納的題詞,特定的入教者向密特拉斯獻納祭壇“履行他的誓言(in fulfillment of his vow)”,乃因獲得恩惠而向神明致謝。燃燒過的動物內臟殘留物通常被發現在主要的祭壇上表明著祭品的定期使用。然而,密特拉寺通常顯示出沒有提供關於動物犧牲祭品的屠宰儀式(在羅馬宗教中的一項高度專業化功能),[b]並可以依此推測著密特拉寺會為了他們與民間/公民信仰的專業祭品執事英语Glossary of ancient Roman religion#victimarius(victimarius)[78]合作而去提供這項服務地安排。每日對著太陽致以禱告/祈禱三次,並且星期日是特別神聖的一天。[79]

密特拉教是否具有整體性與內部一貫/一致的教義(對外人而言)是無法確定的。[80]其可能因地方的差異而有所不同的變化。[81]然而,在(從肖像學而言)聖像場景方面就相對地比較一致了。[43](密特拉教)其沒有最主要顯著的聖所或者是礼拜/信仰的中心;還有,雖然每一座密特拉寺都有(屬於)祂們自己的官員和工作人員/職員/負責人員,但卻沒有中央的監督管理機構。在有些密特拉寺之中,比如位在杜拉·歐羅普斯的那座(密特拉寺),壁畫描繪了攜帶捲軸的先知,[82]但是既沒有提到過密特拉密教聖人的名稱是已知的,也沒有任何參考文獻提供任何(有關於)密特拉密教經典或教導的稱謂/頭銜/稱號。眾所周知的是入教者可以將他們的等級從這一座密特拉寺轉移/調動到另一座密特拉寺。[83]

密特拉寺[编辑]

發現於義大利奧斯提亞·安提卡的一座密特拉寺英语mithraeum遺址,現今依然能夠看到寺內的規模。(CIMRM 229號)

密特拉斯的神廟是凹陷於地下、沒有窗戶,可以說密特拉寺的建築是並且非常的獨特。[84]室內的格式涉及了一個中央通道/過道,連同室內墻邊兩側都有凸起的的一排長椅(podium)。[85]在城市裡,一座公寓住宅大樓的地下室可能會改造/變換(成為密特拉寺);在別的地方他們可能是用挖掘的方法並且於上方做成圓拱形的,或者是從天然洞穴來進行改造。密特拉寺之所以要如此建造可以從波菲利的文獻中找到說明,他摘引了失落的歐布洛斯手冊[86]陳述著密特拉斯是在一個岩石的洞穴裡被崇拜/供俸著。密特拉密教的神廟通常是位在(羅馬)帝國的境內;儘管分佈上的不均勻,以相当多的數量是發現在羅馬奧斯提亞努米底亞(Numidia)、達爾馬提亞英语Dalmatia (Roman province)(Dalmatia)、不列顛尼亞(Roman Britain or Britain)以及沿著萊茵河/多瑙河(the Rhine/Danube)邊界;而在希臘埃及,以及敘利亞則不太常見。[87]根據沃尔特·布尔克特(Walter Burkert)所述,密特拉密教儀式的秘密性質意味著密特拉教只能在密特拉寺內實行/惯常地进行。[88]位在蒂嫩(Tienen)的一些新發現顯示出大規模筵席的證據並且意味著秘密宗教可能不像一般認為的那樣(具有)隱密性。[76]

就绝大部分而言,密特拉寺往往是小規模的,外形上不是特別的顯眼,並且是廉價地建造;這支信仰教派通常比較喜歡創造一個新的中心,而不是擴大現有的中心。這密特拉寺是象徵著密特拉斯攜帶並且屠殺公牛的洞穴;[4]並且無法負擔的起石材的花費做拱頂,其結果促使他們將採以板條和石膏做摹擬。祂們(密特拉寺)通常座落在靠近泉水或溪流之處;似乎一些密特拉密教的儀式需要用到淡水,並且水池通常被合併到建築結構的格局中。[89]入口處常常會有一個前廳英语narthex或者是前室,以及為了食物的準備/配置與儲存通常還會有其他附屬的廳室。在這現存的密特拉寺已向我們呈現了密特拉密教信仰的神聖空間之建築結構的物質實體遺跡。(英文文獻上的)“Mithraeum(密特拉寺)”是一個現代新造的字彙還有密特拉教徒將他們的神聖建築称為“speleum”或者是“antrum”(洞穴)、“crypta”(地下門廳/過道/玄關或者是走廊/通道〔underground hallway or corridor〕)、“fanum”(神聖或聖地〔sacred or holy place〕),乃至“templum”(神廟或者是神聖場所/地點)。[90]從比較具體的研究資料指出,在義大利境內的碑銘顯示出密特拉寺常常被稱為“spelaeum”;而在義大利境外則被稱之為“templum”。[91]

在其建築的基本形式中,密特拉寺與來自其他信仰的神廟以及神龕而言可是完全不同的。在羅馬宗教范围/境域內的標準規範模式/格式中,這神廟建築的功能/用途是作為神明的房子/宅舍(此乃傳承自古希臘人對於神廟建築的觀念),其用意是通過打開的門和柱狀門廊能夠來观察/視察,在一個開放式的庭院中的祭壇上提供著供奉祭品的擺設;可能不僅能合宜地提供給崇拜/信仰的入教者,而且還可以提供給叩里朵雷斯(拉丁文:colitores,英譯為:ordinary worshippers,漢譯為:普通信徒)或者是非入教的信徒/崇拜者/朝拜者使用。[92]密特拉寺則正好與此是相反的。[93]

啟蒙儀式的等級[编辑]

在《蘇達辭書》(Suda)“密特拉斯”的條目下,它陳述著“沒有人是被准許加入他們(密特拉斯的秘密宗教)的,直到他將歷經幾次分等級的考驗而應該顯示出自己的聖潔和堅定。(No one was permitted to be initiated into them (the mysteries of Mithras), until he should show himself holy and steadfast by undergoing several graduated tests.)”。[94] 聖額我略·納齊安(Gregory Nazianzen)則指的是“在密特拉斯秘密宗教內的考驗(tests in the mysteries of Mithras)”。[95]

進入密特拉教有七個啟蒙的等級,其由圣杰羅姆(St. Jerome)所列出的。[96]曼弗雷德·克勞斯指出等級的數目,有七個位階,必須連接/聯繫到行星。在费利奇西穆斯(Felicissimus)的奧斯提亞密特拉寺中之的馬賽克即有描繪出這些等級,與其象徵符號一起其(符號象徵)若非等級之象徵就是僅乃行星的符號。這等級在旁邊還有一份碑銘是他們表彰每個等級成為不同行星神祇所保護/庇佑的狀況。[97]按重要性的升序排列,這(七階)啟蒙的等級為:[98]

等級
(包含意譯、音譯兩部分)
象徵符號 行星/守護神
渡鴉大乌鸦科拉斯(Corax寇魯斯(Corux)或者是庫爾維克斯(Corvex)
(即英文中的raven或者是crow)
大口杯英语Beaker (archaeology)(beaker),商神杖 水星/墨丘利
新郎纽帕斯或者是寧福斯(Nymphus)寧福布斯(Nymphobus)
(即英文中的Bridegroom
手搖鈴面紗英语veil饰环英语circlet或者是帶狀頭飾英语Diadem (personal wear)(diadem)。 金星/維納斯
士兵英语Roman military personal equipment#Overview of infantry迈尔斯(Miles)
(即英文中的soldier
羅馬行軍包英语Loculus (satchel)/小背包(pouch),頭盔英语[Coolus helmet]]槍矛腰帶英语Belt buckle护胸甲英语breastplate 火星/馬爾斯
獅子英语Leos里歐或者是里奥(Leo)
(即英文中的lion
羅馬鐵鏟英语Batillum(batillum or vatillum)鐵搖子英语sistrum(sistrum)[c]月桂花環雷霆霹靂英语Thunderbolt/雷電。 木星/朱庇特
珀耳塞斯或者是帕撒斯(Perses)
波斯人)
※詳見表下的解說。
塞西亚短剑英语akinakes(akinakes or acinaces)弗里吉亞無邊便帽鐮刀鐮刀狀的月亮/彎月/盈月與星星機弦英语sporran 月亮/盧娜
赫利俄多穆斯或者是海路德米斯(Heliodromus)
太陽的信使英语Missing sun motif〔sun-runner or sun-courier〕或者是太阳—旅行从仆)
火炬太陽神的聖像赫利俄斯鞭子英语Scourge寬鬆長袍 太陽/索爾
教父佩特(Pater)
(英譯為:father,即父亲之意)
圓盤飾英语patera(patera)主教冠牧羊人的棍棒英语Shepherd石榴石或者是紅寶石戒指祭披英语chasuble(chasuble)或者是披肩英语cape,鑲有金屬線的精美長袍寶石飾物。 土星/薩圖恩

※在希臘神話之中,珀耳塞斯是埃塞俄比亞女王/王后安朵美達(Andromeda)與希臘英雄玻耳修斯(Perseus)的兒子,並且也天帝是宙斯之孫子。珀耳塞斯亦被認為是波斯人的先祖。[99]他與海洋寧芙珀耳塞(Perse)一起被留在科塞亞(Cossaea)。而關於波斯人起源的說法方面,藉由類似於聲音的相似性,珀耳塞斯乃被視為與帕薩爾加德(Pasargadae)部落的阿契美尼斯(Achaemenes)是同屬一個人的。另外,阿契美尼斯是阿契美尼德王朝(Achaemenid Dynasty)的同名祖先,他在西元前705年和西元前675年統治了伊朗南部。

在别处,像是位在杜拉歐羅普斯(的密特拉寺)一样,密特拉密教的題字保存了已紀錄的教徒/成員名單,其中一座密特拉寺的入教者是以他們的密特拉密教等級命名的。而位在維魯努姆,這教徒名單或者是《奉聖教徒名籍》(album sacratorum)被保留為銘刻的牌匾,隨著入教的新成員/教徒而逐年更新。通過前後參照交叉引用這些名單,其可以從這一座密特拉寺到另一座密特拉寺來追蹤到某些入教者;並且也還能推測性地去鑒定/識別與密特拉密教入教者一起在其他當代名單上的人士,像是兵役名冊、有關非密特拉的宗教聖所皈依者/奉獻者/擁護者的名單。祭壇和其他崇拜物品的奉獻碑銘中也發現了入教者的名稱。克勞斯在1990年總體的評論著,密特拉密教(的教徒)名稱的刻寫於西元250年以前只有約14%確認出入教者的等級──並因此質疑了傳統觀點即所有的入教者都屬於七個等級之一。[100]克勞斯認為這些等級代表了不同階級的祭司,sacerdotes。理查德·戈登(Richard Gordon)則堅持以前默克尔巴赫(Merkelbach)及其他人的理論,特別注意到像杜拉(Dura)這樣子的例證,那裏所有的名字都是與密特拉密教等級相關聯的。有些學者主張這種做法可能會隨著時間的推移而不同,或者是從這一座密特拉寺到另一座密特拉寺有所差異。

這最高等級,教父(pater),是很大程度上在獻辭和碑銘最常發現的──並且對於密特拉寺而言擁有幾個具備這個等級的男子其似乎沒有那麼的不尋常/異乎尋常。這pater patrum(英譯:father of fathers;漢譯:父親的父親,引申為教父之父)是經常找到的類型,其似乎表明了教父(pater)具有主要的地位。有幾個人的例子可以說明,通常那些社會地位較高的人,進入密特拉寺(入教)具有教父(pater)地位──特別是羅馬(帝國)在四世紀‘異教復興’的期間。已经有人提出著(這樣的說法是)有些密特拉寺可能會頒發榮譽教父(pater)地位給予有同情心/和藹的高官/高貴的人。[101]

當這入教者進入每一個等級的地位時似乎會被要求去接受著特定具體的嚴峻考驗/磨難或者是考試/試驗,[102]其包括涉及曝露於熾熱、酷寒或者是具威脅性的險境。一處‘磨難坑(ordeal pit)’,可以追溯到西元三世紀初期,這已經在卡洛堡英语Carrawburgh(Carrawburgh)的密特拉寺獲得了確認。關於(羅馬)皇帝康茂德(Commodus)的殘酷壓迫之記錄是描述到他自己的滑稽行徑在於他通過以殺人形式頒布了密特拉密教啟蒙考驗的法令。[d]到了西元三世紀後期,這所頒布審判/艱苦考驗(trials)的法令似乎在嚴厲/嚴酷之中呈現緩和、減弱的趨勢,因為‘磨難坑’被填平了。

被准許接納而進入教團是連同了與教父(pater)一起握手(的象徵性儀式),就像密特拉斯和索爾握手一樣。這入教者乃因而被稱之為辛德希歐耶syndexioi,那些由握手團結的人〔those united by the handshake〕)。該宗教術語被用於普洛菲璨西烏斯(Proficentius)的碑銘[3]以及被費爾米庫斯·馬特爾努斯(Firmicus Maternus)在他所撰寫的《錯誤的世俗宗教》( De errore profanarum religionum)一書中受到嘲諷,[103]那是一部西元四世紀基督教責難/抨擊異教的著作。[104][e]在古代伊朗,握著右手是締結條約的傳統方式或者表示著雙方之間的一些莊嚴諒解/理解。[105]

儀式的重新制定[编辑]

一座寺廟內部規模重建的密特拉寺英语mithraeum同以馬賽克描繪的啟蒙等級象徵符號。

在密特拉密教場景之中最為顯赫的神靈行為,索爾以及密特拉斯,由在這信仰的等級制度中的兩名最高級官員/長官在儀式裡所仿傚,此即教父(Pater)赫利多俄穆斯(Heliodromus)[106]入教者舉行了聖禮餐宴,重現了密特拉斯與索爾的宴會。[106]

美茵茨(Mainz)境內發現到一只杯子上的浮雕,[107][108]似乎描繪出密特拉密教啟蒙(儀式)。在這一只杯子上,入教者 被描繪成被引導到一個位置,在這個位置上,教父(Pater)將會打扮成密特拉斯以拉弓的姿勢就坐/坐著。伴隨入教者的是一位秘法家英语mystagogue(mystagogue,神秘教義的解釋者、引人入秘教者),他向入教者解釋象徵符號和神學。儀式/禮儀被認為重新制定成為了所謂‘水的神蹟(Water Miracle)’,在這神蹟方面是密特拉斯發射出一道閃電/電光打入岩石中,並於此刻由這岩石便因而噴出水來了。

羅杰·貝克假定/假设了第三個(宗教)遊行的密特拉密教儀式,這是基於美茵茨的杯子以及波菲利(兩方的史料)。這個所謂太陽的信使之遊行的特徵是以 赫利多俄穆斯(Heliodromus)作重要角色,由兩位代表分別代表考泰斯與考托佩斯的人士護送著(見下文)以及(遊行隊伍)前面是以一位士兵(Miles)等級的入教者為先導帶領根據太陽運行測量的歷程所制定/设定(enactment)出圍繞著密特拉寺的宗教儀式,其儀式之意旨是想要表示著宇宙。[109]

因此,有些人认为大多數密特拉密教儀式涉及到由入教者所重新設定在密特拉斯(神話)故事之中的一段情節,[110]而這神話故事其主要內容是:一、從岩石中出生;二、以箭矢射向岩石而從中噴出水來;三、公牛的屠宰;四、索爾向密特拉斯的服從;五、密特拉斯與索爾在公牛(皮)上舉行宴飲;六、密特拉斯駕著一輛戰車升向天空/天堂(heaven)。這個神話故事的一項顯著特徵(並且其定期描繪保存下來的浮花雕飾設置)是女性人物完全不在。[111]

神職人員[编辑]

密特拉密教似乎沒有專業的神職人員。在宗教文物遺跡上也沒有發現這樣職位的特殊宗教術語。只有啟蒙等級的名稱以及正規標準長老會collegium,例如:sacerdos〔祭司〕、antistes〔大祭司〕、hieroceryx〔英譯為:‘sacred herald’;漢譯為:神聖使者/神聖先驅〕)的名稱才有被確認及證實。並且也沒有發現到關於profeta(先知)pastophorus(主祭)gallus(原文為“雄雞”之意,代表警醒、悔改、革新的意涵,有光明戰勝了黑暗寓意)或者是“fanaticus(全心全意投入宗教者、或是神職人員)”宗教名詞的提及與引用。

教徒的资格[编辑]

僅有男性的名字出現在已留存之印刻/刻写的教籍名單內。歷史學家包括了庫蒙和理查德·戈登所得出的結論認為這個信仰只有男性(才能入教)。[112][113]

古代的學者波菲利英语Porphyry (philosopher)有提到在密特拉密教儀式中的女性入教者。[2]然而,二十世紀初的歷史學家A. S. 格顿(A. S. Geden)寫道這可能是出於誤解(所致)。[2]根據格頓所述,當時於東方的(宗教)信仰裡婦女在儀式之中的參與/參加並不陌生,在這種情況下於密特拉教之中軍隊的主要影響力/勢力(因為當時從軍者都是男性的緣故)使其不太可能會有女性教徒出現。[2](而關於密特拉教中的女性)這一點最近由大衛·喬納森(David Jonathan)提議著“婦女至少在(羅馬)帝國的一些地方參與了密特拉密教團體。(Women were involved with Mithraic groups in at least some locations of the empire.)”。[114]

士兵們在密特拉教徒之中有很強的代表性,而且還有商賈、海關(customs)官員和小官僚。(有些身份高貴的教徒)很少/尟少,如果有的話,直到四世紀中葉的『異教復興』入教者有來自於最具優勢/擁有主要地位的貴族或者是元老院的家族(人士);但是自由民和奴隸總是佔有相當大的人數。[115]

倫理道德[编辑]

克勞斯認為藉由波菲利的說法,(其觀點為)開始加入獅子等級的人們(教徒)他們必須保持雙手的純潔(因為雙手)從一切事物那所帶來著痛苦和傷害並且(雙手)是受到污染的,這意味著對教眾的成員作出了道德的要求。[116](有關於密特拉教的道德規範也可以)在背教者尤利安的著作《凱撒》(Caesares)一書之中有提到了一段話是“密特拉斯的誡命(commandments of Mithras)”(找到線索)。[117]特土良,在他的專著《在軍隊的花冠上》之中記載道密特拉教徒於軍隊中正式免除了出於慶祝/祝賀的冠冕這是在基於密特拉啟蒙儀式上包括了拒絕递上贡献/花冠,因為“他們唯一的花冠是密特拉斯(their only crown was Mithras)”。[118]

歷史與發展[编辑]

密特拉斯之前的秘密宗教[编辑]

密特拉斯-赫利俄斯(Mithras-Helios),带有發出太陽光線並且穿著伊朗服裝的特征者,[119]伴隨著科馬基尼王國(Commagene)的安條克一世(Antiochus I)。(內姆魯特山〔Mount Nemrut or Mt. Nemrut〕,西元前一世紀)

根據考古學家馬騰·費爾馬歇仁(Maarten Vermaseren)所述,出自於西元前一世紀科馬基尼王國(Commagene)的證據表明了“對密特拉斯的敬仰(reverence paid to Mithras)”但是並沒有提到“秘密宗教(the mysteries)”。[120]在由安條克一世(Antiochus I,西元前69年~西元前34年)國王位於內姆魯特山(Mount Nemrut)所建造的巨大雕像中,密特拉斯顯示出沒有蓄鬍、戴著一頂弗里吉亞無邊便帽[5][121](或者類似的頭飾,波斯冠状头饰〔Persian tiara〕)、穿著伊朗英语Iranian clothing帕提亞〔Parthian〕)服飾,[119]以及最初是坐在寶座上且位在其他神靈與國王本人的旁邊。[122]在寶座的背面有一段希臘文碑銘,其中包括了阿波羅·密特拉斯·赫利俄斯(Apollo Mithras Helios)的名號在属格之中(希臘文原文:Ἀπόλλωνος Μίθρου Ἡλίου)。[123]費爾馬歇仁還記述了有關於在西元前三世紀法尤姆(Fayum)的密特拉斯信仰。[124]R. D. 巴尼特(R. D. Barnett)則認為出自於大約西元前1450年的米坦尼國王薩烏什塔塔(Saussatar, Sauššatar or Shaushtatar)之皇家玉璽上就有描繪出密特拉斯屠牛像(tauroctonous)的圖案了。[125]

羅馬密特拉教的開始[编辑]

這支秘密宗教的起源和傳播在學者們之間進行了激烈的辯論並且對這些問題的看法有根本上的差異。[126]根據克勞斯所述密特拉斯的秘密宗教一直到西元一世紀以前尚未發展傳播。[127]而根據烏蘭西所述,密特拉密教其地址最早的證據是出現在西元前一世紀中期:歷史學家普魯塔克的說法是在西元前67年奇里乞亞英语Cilician pirates(Cilicia,位於小亞細亞東南沿海的一個羅馬行省)的海盜所執行的密特拉斯之“秘密儀式(secret rites)”。[128]然而,若是根據丹尼爾斯(Daniels)的說法,這些(的說法)是否與秘密宗教的起源有關還不清楚。[129]這獨特的地下神廟或者是密特拉寺在西元前一世紀最後一刻突然出現在考古學之中。[130]

最早的考古學證據[编辑]

與密特拉密教相關的碑銘和宗教遺跡皆由馬騰 J. 費爾馬歇仁在兩卷著作中編目/记载,此即《密特拉宗教聖蹟碑銘集成英语Corpus Inscriptionum et Monumentorum Religionis Mithriacae》(或者是原文的縮寫為CIMRM英语Corpus Inscriptionum et Monumentorum Religionis Mithriacae)。[131]CIMRM英语Corpus Inscriptionum et Monumentorum Religionis Mithriacae 593號顯示出的密特拉斯屠戮公牛被認為這是最早的宗教遺跡,而且是在羅馬境內發現到的。沒有註明日期,但是碑銘告訴了我們這確定是由阿爾息穆斯(Alcimus)所奉獻出來的,他是提貝里烏斯·克勞狄烏斯·李维亚努斯(Tiberius Claudius Livianus or T. Claudius Livianus)的管家。費爾馬歇仁和戈登相信著這位“李维亚努斯”就是一位已被確認的“李维亚努斯”他是在西元101年羅馬禁衛軍(Praetorian Guard)的指揮/官司令,而這一點大概會可以找出最早的年代為西元98年~西元99年。[132]

出自於阿爾巴·尤利亞(Alba Iulia)在今天的羅馬尼亞境內的奉獻/還願祭壇,奉獻給Invicto Mythrae(無敵者·密特拉)以履行誓言votum英语votum

克里米亞境內的刻赤(Kerch)附近已經挖掘出了由一尊神祇/神像在公牛上拿著刀(屠牛像)的五個小型赤陶板塊/陶饰板(terracotta plaques),由貝斯寇(Beskow)與克勞斯所鑑定的年代是到西元前一世紀的下半葉,[133]以及由貝克所鑑定的年代則是由西元前50年~西元50年之間。這些可能是最早的密特拉教屠牛像,假如其被公認為是一尊密特拉斯的描繪的話(這一點就成立了)。[134]這尊屠戮公牛的神祇/神像頭戴一頂弗里吉亞無邊便帽,但是由貝克和貝斯寇所描述的是除了這一點(弗里吉亞無邊便帽)相同之外,在其他方面並不像是標準的屠牛像的宗教造型。關於這些(出土的)文物無法與密特拉密教相连接/衔接的另一項原因是在於最初這些陶饰板是被發現在一位女性的墳塚之中的。[135]

出自於在羅馬境內的第十五區埃斯奎利諾(義大利文:Esquilino;英文:Esquiline)上聖瑪策林及聖伯多祿堂(SS. Pietro e Marcellino or Saints Marcellinus and Pete, Marcellinus and Peter)附近的一座祭壇或者是一大塊直邊的堅硬物體被(羅馬)帝國一位其名為T. 弗拉菲烏斯·許癸努斯(T. Flavius Hyginus)的自由民給刻寫成了双语的碑文,年代大約在西元80年~西元100年之間。其(祭壇)乃是奉獻給予索爾·無敵者·密特拉斯(Sol Invictus Mithras)[136]

CIMRM英语Corpus Inscriptionum et Monumentorum Religionis Mithriacae 2268號是一座損壞的基座或者是祭壇,其出自於下默西亞(Moesia Inferior)境內的諾維英语Novae(Novae)/斯泰倫(Steklen),年代鑑定為西元100年,該祭壇有發現到考泰斯與考托佩斯(的浮雕)。

其他早期的考古學(史料)還包括了出自於西元100年~西元150年之間從維諾西亞(Venosia)而來由名為薩格里斯(Sagaris)的演員/倡導者(actor)所刻寫的希臘文碑銘;在西頓(Sidon)境內艾克門(Echmoun)的神廟之中發現了一座紀念石碑(cippus,古希腊罗马之纪念碑石)並且由M. 杜南德(M. Dunand)所公佈出來。石碑刻有一段希臘文碑文,上面說這石碑是“由狄奧多圖斯(Theodotus)獻給了聖神阿斯克勒庇俄斯(Asclepios or Asclepius),密特拉斯在251年的ἱερεύς(英譯:priest;漢譯:祭司)”。石碑上刻寫的時間251年乃是使用著西頓當地的時代紀年,相當於西元140年~西元141年。[137]也有列在《希腊铭文补编》(Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum)之中;[138]還有最早的軍方/軍事碑銘,是由C. 薩奇狄烏斯·巴巴魯斯(C. Sacidius Barbarus)所刻寫的,乃為第十五阿波里納利斯軍團(XV Apollinaris)的百夫長,(該碑銘是)出自於多瑙河畔的卡农顿英语Carnuntum(Carnuntum),年代大概在西元114年之前。[139]

根據C. M. 丹尼爾斯(C.M.Daniels)所述,出自於多瑙河地區卡農頓碑銘是最早的密特拉密教題獻/獻辭,該處是同義大利一起成為密特拉教最早紮下(傳教)根基的兩個地區之一。[140]在羅馬以外最早能确定年代的密特拉寺可追溯到西元148年。[141]位在凱撒利亞·馬力提馬(Caesarea Maritima)的密特拉寺是在巴勒斯坦境內唯一可以被推斷年代的一座(密特拉寺)。[142]

最早的禮拜位址[编辑]

According to Roger Beck, the attested locations of the Roman cult in the earliest phase (circa 80 120 CE) are as follows:[143]

Mithraea datable from pottery

Datable dedications

關於密特拉斯和這支秘密宗教的古典文獻[编辑]

Mithras and the Bull: This fresco from the mithraeum at Marino, Italy (third century) shows the tauroctony and the celestial lining of Mithras' cape.

According to Boyce, the earliest literary references to the mysteries are by the Latin poet Statius, about 80 AD, and Plutarch (c. 100 AD).[144]

斯塔提烏斯[编辑]

The Thebaid (c. 80 AD[145]) an epic poem by Statius, pictures Mithras in a cave, wrestling with something that has horns.[146] The context is a prayer to the god Phoebus.[147] The cave is described as persei, which in this context is usually translated Persian; however, according to the translator J. H. Mozley it literally means Persean, referring to Perses, the son of Perseus and Andromeda,[145] this Perses being the ancestor of the Persians according to Greek legend.[148]

普魯塔克[编辑]

The Greek biographer Plutarch (46–127 AD) says that "secret mysteries ... of Mithras" were practiced by the pirates of Cilicia, the coastal province in the southeast of Anatolia, who were active in the 1st Century BCE: "They likewise offered strange sacrifices; those of Olympus I mean; and they celebrated certain secret mysteries, among which those of Mithras continue to this day, being originally instituted by them."[149] He mentions that the pirates were especially active during the Mithridatic wars (between the Roman Republic and King Mithridates VI of Pontus) in which they supported the king.[149] The association between Mithridates and the pirates is also mentioned by the ancient historian Appian.[150] The 4th century commentary on Vergil by Servius says that Pompey settled some of these pirates in Calabria in southern Italy.[151]

狄奧·卡西烏斯[编辑]

The historian Dio Cassius (2nd to 3rd century AD) tells how the name of Mithras was spoken during the state visit to Rome of Tiridates I of Armenia, during the reign of Nero. (Tiridates was the son of Vonones II of Parthia, and his coronation by Nero in 66 AD confirmed the end of a war between Parthia and Rome.) Dio Cassius writes that Tiridates, as he was about to receive his crown, told the Roman emperor that he revered him "as Mithras".[152] Roger Beck thinks it possible that this episode contributed to the emergence of Mithraism as a popular religion in Rome.[153]

波菲利[编辑]

Mosaic (1st century AD) depicting Mithras emerging from his cave and flanked by Cautes and Cautopates (Walters Art Museum)

The philosopher Porphyry (3rd–4th century AD) gives an account of the origins of the Mysteries in his work De antro nympharum (The Cave of the Nymphs).[154] Citing Eubulus as his source, Porphyry writes that the original temple of Mithras was a natural cave, containing fountains, which Zoroaster found in the mountains of Persia. To Zoroaster, this cave was an image of the whole world, so he consecrated it to Mithras, the creator of the world. Later in the same work, Porphyry links Mithras and the bull with planets and star-signs: Mithras himself is associated with the sign of Aries and the planet Mars, while the bull is associated with Venus.[155]

Porphyry is writing close to the demise of the cult, and Robert Turcan has challenged the idea that Porphyry's statements about Mithraism are accurate. His case is that far from representing what Mithraists believed, they are merely representations by the Neoplatonists of what it suited them in the late 4th century to read into the mysteries.[156] However, Merkelbach and Beck believe that Porphyry’s work "is in fact thoroughly coloured with the doctrines of the Mysteries".[157] Beck holds that classical scholars have neglected Porphyry’s evidence and have taken an unnecessarily skeptical view of Porphyry.[158] According to Beck, Porphyry's De antro is the only clear text from antiquity which tells us about the intent of the Mithriac Mysteries and how that intent was realized.[159] David Ulansey finds it important that Porphyry "confirms ... that astral conceptions played an important role in Mithraism."[160]

密特拉斯聖儀[编辑]

In later antiquity, the Greek name of Mithras (Μίθρας ) occurs in the text known as the "Mithras Liturgy", a part of the Paris Great Magical Papyrus (Paris Bibliothèque Nationale Suppl. gr. 574); here Mithras is given the epithet "the great god", and is identified with the sun god Helios.[161][162] There have been different views among scholars as to whether this text is an expression of Mithraism as such. Franz Cumont argued that it isn’t;[163] Marvin Meyer thinks it is;[164] while Hans Dieter Betz sees it as a synthesis of Greek, Egyptian, and Mithraic traditions.[165][166]

現代學術對於起源的相關議論[编辑]

庫蒙的假設:源自於波斯境內的宗教[编辑]

庫蒙的评论和重新評估[编辑]

現今學說[编辑]

後來的歷史[编辑]

羅馬密特拉教的結束[编辑]

屠牛場景的解譯[编辑]

敘利亞哈瓦蒂密特拉寺的宗教文物[编辑]

密特拉斯與其他的神明[编辑]

法涅斯[编辑]

索爾、赫利俄斯、索爾·無敵者[编辑]

朱庇特·多立克努斯[编辑]

密特拉教與基督教[编辑]

相關條目[编辑]

註釋[编辑]

  1. ^ 這是一部維護基督教的護教大典。
  2. ^ ※請注意:耆那教和佛教都反对用动物祭祀。
  3. ^ 一種手搖樂器,又稱叉鈴,古埃及祭祀司繁殖女神愛西絲(Isis)時使用。
  4. ^ 請注意:密特拉教各等級的考驗主旨是提升教徒的精神、心靈層次,絕非如羅馬皇帝康茂德用來壓迫他人的。
  5. ^ 基督教與密特拉教都是在幫助世人的宗教,本質上都是良善的;然而宗教衝突真正問題是出自於世俗的人。

腳註[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 Beck, Roger (2002-07-20). "Mithraism". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition. Retrieved 2011-03-14. The term "Mithraism" is of course a modern coinage. In antiquity the cult was known as "the mysteries of Mithras"; alternatively, as "the mysteries of the Persians." ... The Mithraists, who were manifestly not Persians in any ethnic sense, thought of themselves as cultic "Persians." ... the ancient Roman Mithraists themselves were convinced that their cult was founded by none other than Zoroaster, who "dedicated to Mithras, the creator and father of all, a cave in the mountains bordering Persia," an idyllic setting "abounding in flowers and springs of water" (Porphyry, On the Cave of the Nymphs 6)."
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Geden, A. S. (15 October 2004). Select Passages Illustrating Mithraism 1925. Kessinger Publishing. pp. 51–. ISBN 978-1-4179-8229-5. Retrieved 28 March 2011. "Porphyry moreover seems to be the only writer who makes reference to women initiates into the service and rites of Mithra, and his allusion is perhaps due to a misunderstanding.... The participation of women in the ritual was not unknown in the Eastern cults, but the predominant military influence in Mithraism seems to render it unlikely in this instance."
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 M. Clauss, The Roman cult of Mithras, p. 42: "That the hand-shaken might make their vows joyfully forever"
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Manfred Clauss, The Roman cult of Mithras, p.42: "Because Mithras killed the bull in a cave, his followers likewise performed the ritual reproduction of this saving act in a cave, or rather in a shrine which reproduced that cave, in a spelaeum ('cave')."
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 Lewis M. Hopfe, "Archaeological indications on the origins of Roman Mithraism", in Lewis M. Hopfe (ed). Uncovering ancient stones: essays in memory of H. Neil Richardson, Eisenbrauns (1994), pp. 147–158. p. 156: "Beyond these three Mithraea [in Syria and Palestine], there are only a handful of objects from Syria that may be identified with Mithraism. Archaeological evidence of Mithraism in Syria is therefore in marked contrast to the abundance of Mithraea and materials that have been located in the rest of the Roman Empire. Both the frequency and the quality of Mithraic materials is greater in the rest of the empire. Even on the western frontier in Great Britain, archaeology has produced rich Mithraic materials, such as those found at Walbrook. If one accepts Cumont’s theory that Mithraism began in Iran, moved west through Babylon to Asia Minor, and then to Rome, one would expect that the cult left its traces in those locations. Instead, archaeology indicates that Roman Mithraism had its epicenter in Rome. Wherever its ultimate place of origin may have been, the fully developed religion known as Mithraism seems to have begun in Rome and been carried to Syria by soldiers and merchants. None of the Mithraic materials or temples in Roman Syria except the Commagene sculpture bears any date earlier than the late first or early second century. [footnote in cited text: 30. Mithras, identified with a Phrygian cap and the nimbus about his head, is depicted in colossal statuary erected by King Antiochus I of Commagene, 69–34 BCE. (see Vermaseren, CIMRM 1.53–56). However, there are no other literary or archaeological evidences to indicate that the religion of Mithras as it was known among the Romans in the second to fourth centuries AD was practiced in Commagene]. While little can be proved from silence, it seems that the relative lack of archaeological evidence from Roman Syria would argue against the traditional theories for the origins of Mithraism."
  6. ^ Beck, Roger (17 February 2011). "The Pagan Shadow of Christ?". BBC-History. Retrieved 4 June 2011. "We know a good deal about them because archaeology has disinterred many meeting places together with numerous artifacts and representations of the cult myth, mostly in the form of relief sculpture."
  7. ^ Clauss, Manfred. The Roman Cult of Mithras: The God and his Mysteries. pp. xxi. ISBN 0-415-92977-6.
  8. ^ Coarelli; Beck, Roger; Haase, Wolfgang (1984). Aufstieg und niedergang der römischen welt (The Rise and Decline of the Roman World). Walter de Gruyter. pp. 2026–. ISBN 978-3-11-010213-0. Retrieved 20 March 2011. "A useful topographic survey, with map, by F. Coarelli (1979) lists 40 actual or possible mithraea (the latter inferred from find-spots, with the sensible proviso that a mithraeum will not necessarily correspond to every find). Principally from comparisons of size and population with Ostia, Coarelli calculates that there will have been in Rome "not less than 680–690" mithraea in all ... ."
  9. ^ Ulansey, David (1991). Origins of the Mithraic Mysteries. New York: Oxford UP. p. 3. ISBN 0-19-506788-6. "However, in the absence of any ancient explanations of its meaning, Mithraic iconography has proven to be exceptionally difficult to decipher."
  10. ^ Hopfe, Lewis M.; Richardson, Henry Neil (September 1994). "Archaeological Indications on the Origins of Roman Mithraism". In Lewis M. Hopfe. Uncovering ancient stones: essays in memory of H. Neil Richardson. Eisenbrauns. pp. 147–. ISBN 978-0-931464-73-7. Retrieved 19 March 2011. "Today more than four hundred locations of Mithraic worship have been identified in every area of the Roman Empire. Mithraea have been found as far west as Britain and as far east as Dura Europas. Between the second and fourth centuries C.E. Mithraism may have vied with Christianity for domination of the Roman world."
  11. ^ Commodian, Instructiones 1.13: "The unconquered one was born from a rock, if he is regarded as a god." Also copious depictions in monuments.
  12. ^ Manfred Clauss, The Roman cult of Mithras, p. xxi: "we possess virtually no theological statements either by Mithraists themselves or by other writers."
  13. ^ Porphyry, De Antro Nympharum tells us of both writers.
  14. ^ Richard L. Gordon, "The date and significance of CIMRM 593 (British Museum, Townley Collection)", Journal of Mithraic Studies 2, 1978, p.148-174. p. 160: "The usual western nominative form of Mithras' name in the mysteries ended in -s, as we can see from the one authentic dedication in the nominative, recut over a dedication to Sarapis (463, Terme de Caracalla), and from occasional grammatical errors such as deo inviato Metras (1443). But it is probable that Euboulus and Pallas at least used the name Mithra as an indeclinable (ap. Porphyry, De abstinentia II.56 and IV.16)."
  15. ^ Origen, Contra Celsus, Book 6, Chapter 22. "After this, Celsus, desiring to exhibit his learning in his treatise against us, quotes also certain Persian mysteries, where he says: ‘These things are obscurely hinted at in the accounts of the Persians, and especially in the mysteries of Mithras, which are celebrated among them ...’ " Chapter 24 "After the instance borrowed from the Mithraic mysteries, Celsus declares that he who would investigate the Christian mysteries, along with the aforesaid Persian, will, on comparing the two together, and on unveiling the rites of the Christians, see in this way the difference between them."
  16. ^ "Electronic Journal of Mithraic Studies". Electronic Journal of Mithraic Studies. Retrieved 2011-03-28. "The Electronic Journal of Mithraic Studies (EJMS) is a revival of the Journal of Mithraic Studies edited by Dr. Richard Gordon. It is a place where researchers on Roman Mithraism can publish the product of their research and make it freely available for other interested people."
  17. ^ Beck, Roger (2002-07-20). "Mithraism". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition,. Retrieved 2011-03-28. "For most of the twentieth century the major problem addressed by scholarship on both Roman Mithraism and the Iranian god Mithra was the question of continuity."
  18. ^ Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary
  19. ^ Ulansey, David (1991). Origins of the Mithraic Mysteries. New York: Oxford UP. p. 90. ISBN 0-19-506788-6. "It is therefore highly likely that it was in the context of Mithridates’ alliance with the Cilician pirates that there arose the synchretistic link between Perseus and Mithra which led to the name Mithras (a Greek form of the name Mithra) being given to the god of the new cult."
  20. ^ Britannica, Encyclopedia of World Religions. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2006. p. 509. ISBN 978-1-59339-491-2. "... Mithra is the next most important deity and may even have occupied a position of near equality with Ahura Mazde. He was associated with the Sun, and in time the name Mithra became a common word for "Sun". Mithra functioned preeminently in the ethical sphere; he was the god of the covenant, who oversaw all solemn agreements that people made among themselves ... In later times Mithra gave his name to Mithraism, a mystery religion."
  21. ^ Ulansey, David (1991). Origins of the Mithraic Mysteries. New York: Oxford UP. p. 8. ISBN 0-19-506788-6. "Cumont’s ... argument was straightforward and may be summarized succinctly: the name of the god of the cult, Mithras, is the Latin (and Greek) form of the name of an ancient Iran god, Mithra; in addition, the Romans believed that their cult was connected with Persia (as the Romans called Iran); therefore we may assume that Roman Mithraism is nothing other than the Iranian cult of Mithra transplanted into the Roman Empire."
  22. ^ Xenophon, Cyropaedia 7.5.53. Cited in Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon
  23. ^ Gordon, Richard L. (1978). "The date and significance of CIMRM 593 (British Museum, Townley Collection". Journal of Mithraic Studies II: 148–174.. p. 160: "The usual western nominative form of Mithras’ name in the mysteries ended in -s, as we can see from the one authentic dedication in the nominative, recut over a dedication to Sarapis (463, Terme de Caracalla), and from occasional grammatical errors such as deo inviato Metras (1443). But it is probable that Euboulus and Pallas at least used the name ‘Mithra’ as an indeclinable [foreign word] (ap. Porphyry, De abstinentia II.56 and IV.16)."
  24. ^ E.g. in Rig Veda 3, Hymn 59
  25. ^ Michael Speidel (1980). Mithras-Orion: Greek hero and Roman army god. Brill. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-90-04-06055-5. "India's sacred literature refers to him since the hymns of the Rig Veda. But it was in Iran where Mithras rose to the greatest prominence: rebounding after the reforms of Zarathustra, Mithras became one of the great gods of the Achaemenian emperors and to this very day he is worshipped in India and Iran by Parsees and Zarathustrians."
  26. ^ Hopfe, Lewis M.; Richardson, Henry Neil (September 1994). "Archaeological Indications on the Origins of Roman Mithraism". In Lewis M. Hopfe. Uncovering ancient stones: essays in memory of H. Neil Richardson. Eisenbrauns. pp. 150–. ISBN 978-0-931464-73-7. Retrieved 19 March 2011. "All theories of the origin of Mithraism acknowledge a connection, however vague, to the Mithra / Mitra figure of ancient Aryan religion."
  27. ^ 27.0 27.1 Turcan, Robert (1996). The cults of the Roman Empire. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 196–. ISBN 978-0-631-20047-5. Retrieved 19 March 2011. "The name Mithras comes from a root mei- (which implies the idea of exchange), accompanied by an instrumental suffix. It was therefore a means of exchange, the ‘contract’ which rules human relations and is the basis of social life. In Sanskrit, mitra means 'friend' or ‘friendship’, like mihr in Persian. In Zend, mithra means precisely the ‘contract’, which eventually became deified, following the same procedure as Venus, the ‘charm’ for the Romans. We find him invoked with Varuna in an agreement concluded c. 1380 BCE between the king of the Hittites, Subbiluliuma, and the king of Mitanni, Mativaza. ... It is the earliest evidence of Mithras in Asia Minor."
  28. ^ Thieme, Paul (1960), "The ‘Aryan’ Gods of the Mitanni Treaties", Journal of the American Oriental Society, 80.4. pp. 301–317.
  29. ^ Schmidt, Hans-Peter (2006), "Mithra i: Mithra in Old Indian and Mithra in Old Iranian", Encyclopaedia Iranica, New York: iranica.com (accessed April 2011)
  30. ^ Hinnells, John R. (1990), "Introduction: the questions asked and to be asked", in Hinnells, John R., Studies in Mithraism, Rome: L'Erma di Bretschneider, p. 11, "The god is unique in being worshipped in four distinct religions: Hinduism (as Mitra), in Iranian Zoroastrianism and Manicheism (as Mithra), and in the Roman Empire (as Mithras)."
  31. ^ Ulansey, David (1991). Origins of the Mithraic Mysteries. New York: Oxford UP. p. 94. ISBN 0-19-506788-6. "the intimate alliance between the pirates and Mithridates Eupator, named after Mithra and mythically descended from Perseus, led to the pirates adopting the name Mithras for the new god."
  32. ^ Boyce, Mary; Grenet, Frantz (1975). Zoroastrianism under Macedonian and Roman rule, Part 1. Brill. pp. 468, 469. ISBN 90-04-09271-4. Retrieved 2011-03-16. "The theory that the complex iconography of the characteristic monuments (of which the oldest belong to the second century A.C.) could be interpreted by direct reference to Iranian religion is now widely rejected; and recent studies have tended greatly to reduce what appears to be the actual Iranian content of this "self consciously ‘Persian’ religion", at least in the form which it attained under the Roman empire. Nevertheless, as the name Mithras alone shows, this content was of some importance; and the Persian affiliation of the Mysteries is acknowledged in the earliest literary reference to them."
  33. ^ Ulansey, David (1991). Origins of the Mithraic Mysteries. New York: Oxford UP. p. 6. ISBN 0-19-506788-6.
  34. ^ 34.0 34.1 Clauss, M. The Roman cult of Mithras, p. xxi: "... we possess virtually no theological statements either by Mithraists themselves or by other writers."
  35. ^ Ulansey, David (1991). Origins of the Mithraic Mysteries. New York: Oxford UP. p. 8. ISBN 0-19-506788-6.
  36. ^ David Ulansey, The origins of the Mithraic mysteries, p. 6: "Although the iconography of the cult varied a great deal from temple to temple, there is one element of the cult’s iconography which was present in essentially the same form in every mithraeum and which, moreover, was clearly of the utmost importance to the cult’s ideology; namely the so-called tauroctony, or bull-slaying scene, in which the god Mithras, accompanied by a series of other figures, is depicted in the act of killing the bull."
  37. ^ 37.0 37.1 Clauss, M., The Roman cult of Mithras, p. 77.
  38. ^ Mazur, Zeke. "Harmonious Opposition (PART I): Pythagorean Themes of Cosmogonic Mediation in the Roman Mysteries of Mithras" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-06-14. "The god's right leg, appearing on the left as one faces the tauroctony, is nearly always straight as it pins the bull's hoof to the ground, while his left leg, which is usually resting on the back or flank of the bull, is bent at the knee with his foot often partially obscured beneath the folds of his tunic. Anyone familiar with the cult's iconography will immediately recognize this awkward and possibly unnatural posture as a typical or even essential aspect of the tauroctony. The remarkable consistency of this particular feature is underscored by comparison with the subtle variability of others..."
  39. ^ Clauss, M. The Roman cult of Mithras, p. 98–99. An image search for ‘tauroctony’ will show many examples of the variations.
  40. ^ Näsström, Britt-Marie. "The sacrifi ces of Mithras" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-04-04. "He is wearing a Phrygian cap and a wind-filled cloak, and, most remarkable of all, his head is turned in the other direction as if he would not look at his own deed. Still, this sacrifice is a guarantee of salvation for the participants."
  41. ^ J. R. Hinnells, "The Iconography of Cautes and Cautopates: the Data", Journal of Mithraic Studies 1, 1976, pp. 36–67. See also William W. Malandra, Cautes and Cautopates Encyclopedia Iranica article.
  42. ^ Clauss, M., The Roman cult of Mithras, p. 74.
  43. ^ 43.0 43.1 43.2 L'Ecole Initiative: Alison Griffith, 1996. "Mithraism"
  44. ^ Bjørnebye, Jonas (2007). "The Mithraic icon in fourth century Rome:The composition of the Mithraic cult icon". Hic locus est felix, sanctus, piusque benignus: The cult of Mithras in fourth century Rome,Dissertation for the degree of philosophiae doctor (PhD). "The figure of Mithras himself is usually attired in an oriental costume of Phrygian cap, tunica manicata (a long-sleeved tunic), anaxyrides (eastern style trousers), and a cape, though in some cases, he is depicted heroically nude or even, in a unique example from Ostia, in what seems to be a Greek chiton. Like the general trend in Graeco-Roman art, most if not all tauroctony scenes, regardless of the medium they were executed in, were painted, and the different items of Mithras' clothing was usually colored in either blue or red, often, as in the painting at Marino, with most of the costume in red with only the inside of the cape being blue and star-speckled. The bull was often white, sometimes wearing the dorsuale, the Roman sacrificial band in reds or browns, while the torchbearers could be depicted in a variety of colors with reds and greens being the most common."
  45. ^ Klauck, Hans-Josef; McNeil, Brian (December 2003). The religious context of early Christianity: a guide to Graeco-Roman religions. T & T Clark Ltd. pp. 146–. ISBN 978-0-567-08943-4. Retrieved 4 September 2011.
  46. ^ Beck, Roger (2006). The Religion of the Mithras cult in the Roman empire. Great Britain: Oxford University Press. p. 21. "Often, the mithraeum was embellished elsewhere with secondary exemplars of the tauroctony, and there also seem to have been small portable versions, perhaps for private devotion."
  47. ^ Doro Levi, "Aion", in: Hesperia (1944), p. 302.
  48. ^ M.J. Vermaseren, Mithraica I: The Mithraeum at S. Maria Capua Vetere (Brill, 1971), p. 14: "And so Oceanus could be connected with both Cautes (Capua) and Cautopates (Heddernheim): Cautopates was moreover related to Terra and Cautes to Caelus."; Jaime Alvar, Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation, and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis, and Mithras, translated by Richard Gordon (Brill, 2008), p. 86: "On an important monument from mithraeum III at Heddernheim/Frankfurt, Cautes is further associated with Caelus, Heaven, and Cautopates with Oceanus.(195)" "195. V. 1127 = Schwertheim 1974, 81 no. 61c. This may however simply be because they are two sets of brothers."
  49. ^ R. Beck in response to I.P. Culianu, "L'«Ascension de l'Âme» dans les mystères et hors des mystères," in La Soteriologia dei culti orientali nell' impero romano (Brill, 1982), p. 302: "My other point is just to bring in a Mithraic monument, which has not so far figured in our conversations, but which I believe is of great importance, and that is the monument of Ottaviano Zeno, recently edited by Professor Vermaseren (Mithriaca IV, Leiden 1978). Its upper register contains a row of seven altars, with two Aion-typc figures, both entwined with serpents; one is winged, the other not. These two figures and their positions, the one at the extreme left of the row order, the other in the centre, allows one to speculate on the planetary order underlying these otherwise anonymous altars. Professor Vermaseren produces, to my mind, a very plausible set of identifications, seeing the Aion on the left as Saturn, and the Aion in the centre as a type of Jupiter, or rather a Caelus aeternus in the position of Jupiter (pp. 52-53). The question then arises, what order of the planets is implied for the seven altars? These are in fact more than one possible sequence, and others, of course, if one identifies the Aions differently." No reference is given for the claim.
  50. ^ Levi, "Aion," p. 302: "Thus Ahura-Mazda is invoked in Latin as Caelus aeternus Iupiter; and other allegorical representations of the Mithriac Caelus occur in the form of an eagle leaning over the heavenly sphere, adorned with the signs of the planets or with the zodiacal ring." but no reference is given for the claim. Salomon Reinach ,Orpheus: A General History of Religions, translated by Florence Simmonds (London: Heinemann, 1909), p. 68, also claims that Ahura-Mazda was referred to as Caelus by the Romans; again without reference.
  51. ^ Vermaseren, Mithraica I, p. 14.
  52. ^ 52.0 52.1 Beck, Roger, "In the Place of the Lion: Mithras in the Tauroctony" in Beck on Mithraism: Collected works with new essays (2004), p. 286 287.
  53. ^ 53.0 53.1 Beck, Roger (2007). The Religion of the Mithras Cult in the Roman Empire. London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-921613-4., p. 27-28.
  54. ^ 54.0 54.1 54.2 Vermaseren, M. J. "The miraculous Birth of Mithras". In László Gerevich. Studia Archaeologica. Brill. pp. 93–109. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
  55. ^ Vermaseren, M. J. László Gerevich, ed. Studia Archaeologica. Brill. p. 108. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
  56. ^ Commodian, Instructiones 1.13: "The unconquered one was born from a rock, if he is regarded as a god." See also the image of "Mithras petra genetrix Terme", inset above.
  57. ^ 57.0 57.1 von Gall, Hubertus, "The Lion-headed and the Human-headed God in the Mithraic Mysteries", in Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin英语Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin ed. Études mithriaques, 1978, pp. 511
  58. ^ Cumont Franz, The Mysteries of Mithras, pp 105
  59. ^ Jackson, Howard M., "The Meaning and Function of the Leontocephaline in Roman Mithraism" in Numen, Vol. 32, Fasc. 1 (Jul., 1985), pp. 17–45
  60. ^ R D Barnett (1975). John R Hinnells, ed. Mithraic studies: proceedings of the first International congress of Mithraic studies, Vol II. Manchester University Press ND. pp. 467–. "According to some, the lion man is Aion (Zurvan, or Kronos); according to others, Ahriman."
  61. ^ David M Gwynn (2010). Religious diversity in late antiquity. BRILL. p. 448.
  62. ^ Beck, R., Beck on Mithraism, pp. 194
  63. ^ D. Jason Cooper (1996). Mithras: mysteries and initiation rediscovered. York Beach, ME: Samuel Weiser, Inc. pp. 48–49. "The statue is a representation of the Leo degree, internalized."
  64. ^ Vermaseren, M. J. The Excavations in the Mithraeum of the Church of Santa Pricsa in Rome. Brill. pp. 238–. Retrieved 3 April 2011. "One should bear in mind that the Mithraic New Year began on Natalis Invicti, the birthday of their invincible god, i.e., December 25th, when the new light ...... appears from the vault of heaven."
  65. ^ "Roman Religion". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 4 July 2011. "For a time, coins and other monuments continued to link Christian doctrines with the worship of the Sun, to which Constantine had been addicted previously. But even when this phase came to an end, Roman paganism continued to exert other, permanent influences, great and small....The ecclesiastical calendar retains numerous remnants of pre-Christian festivals—notably Christmas, which blends elements including both the feast of the Saturnalia and the birthday of Mithra."
  66. ^ Beck, Roger (1987). "Merkelbach's Mithras". Phoenix. 41 (3): 296–316. doi:10.2307/1088197., p. 299, n. 12.
  67. ^ Clauss, Manfred. Mithras: Kult und Mysterien. München: Beck, 1990, p. 70.
  68. ^ 68.0 68.1 "Sodalitas Graeciae (Nova Roma)/Religion from the Papyri/Mithraism". NovaRoma. 2009-03-11. Retrieved 2013-09-07.
  69. ^ [1] William M. Brashear, A Mithraic Catechism from Egypt
  70. ^ Ulansey, David (1991). Origins of the Mithraic Mysteries. New York: Oxford UP. p. 105. ISBN 0-19-506788-6. "The original editor of the text, Albrecht Dieterich, claimed that it recorded an authentic Mithraic ritual, but this claim was rejected by Cumont, who felt that the references to Mithras in the text were merely the result of an extravagant syncretism evident in magical traditions. Until recently, most scholars followed Cumont in refusing to see any authentic Mithraic doctrine in the Mithras Liturgy."
  71. ^ Meyer, Marvin W. (1976) The "Mithras Liturgy".
  72. ^ Francis, E.D. (1971). Hinnells, John R., ed. "Mithraic graffiti from Dura-Europos", in Mithraic Studies, vol. 2. Manchester University Press. pp. 424–445.
  73. ^ Clauss, M., The Roman cult of Mithras, p.115.
  74. ^ Clauss, M., The Roman cult of Mithras, p.43.
  75. ^ Burkert, Walter (1987). Ancient Mystery Cults. Harvard University Press. p. 41. ISBN 0-674-03387-6.
  76. ^ 76.0 76.1 Bjørnebye, Jonas (2007). Hic locus est felix, sanctus, piusque benignus: The cult of Mithras in fourth century Rome,Dissertation for the degree of philosophiae doctor (PhD). pp. 12, 36. "The discovery of a large quantity of tableware as well as animal remains in a pit outside the newly excavated mithraeum at Tienen, Belgium, has also attracted new attention to the topic of Mithraic processions and large-scale feasts, begging a re-examination of the secrecy of the cult and its visibility in local society...provides evidence for large-scale, semi-public feasts outside of the mithraeum itself, suggesting that each mithraeum might have had a far larger following than its relative size would imply."
  77. ^ Clauss, M., The Roman cult of Mithras, p. 49.
  78. ^ Price S & Kearns E, Oxford Dictionary of Classical Myth and Religion, p.568.
  79. ^ Antonía Tripolitis (2002). Religions of the Hellenistic-Roman age. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 55–. ISBN 978-0-8028-4913-7.
  80. ^ Beck, Roger (2007). The Religion of the Mithras Cult in the Roman Empire. London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-921613-4. "Nevertheless, the fact that Porphyry and/or his sources would have had no scruples about adapting or even inventing Mithraic data to suit their arguments does not necessarily mean that they actually did so. It is far more likely that Mithraic doctrine (in the weak sense of the term!) really was what the philosophers said it was... there are no insuperable discrepancies between Mithraic practice and theory as attested in Porphyry and Mithraic practice and theory as archaeology has allowed us to recover them. Even if there were major discrepancies, they would matter only in the context of the old model of an internally consistent and monolithic Mithraic doctrine.", p.87.
  81. ^ "Beck on Mithraism", op. cit., p. 16
  82. ^ Hinnells, John R., ed. (1971). Mithraic Studies, vol. 2. Manchester University Press. plate 25
  83. ^ Clauss, M., The Roman cult of Mithras, p.139.
  84. ^ Manfred Clauss, The Roman cult of Mithras, p.43: "The architecture of mithraea is quite special, and its characteristic configuration makes it easy to identify such temples in excavations."
  85. ^ Manfred Clauss, The Roman cult of Mithras, p.46: "The cult-room itself (crypta) was constructed according to a traditional scheme, whose design remained virtually constant from Britain to the Black Sea. Its characteristic feature was a central aisle (fig. 7: D) flanked on each side by raised podia (E) for the initiates."
  86. ^ Porphyry, De antro nympharum, c. 6.
  87. ^ Clauss, M., The Roman cult of Mithras, pages 26 and 27.
  88. ^ Burkert, Walter (1987). Ancient Mystery Cults. Harvard University Press. p. 10. ISBN 0-674-03387-6.
  89. ^ Clauss, M., The Roman cult of Mithras, p.73: "...the importance of water for all manner of ritual purposes is revealed by the water-basins and cisterns, by the representations of Oceanus, and also by the evident desire to locate temples in the vicinity of a river or a spring. Water-basins were clearly part of the basic equipment of all mithraea."
  90. ^ Bjørnebye, Jonas (2007). "The mithraea as buildings". Hic locus est felix, sanctus, piusque benignus: The cult of Mithras in fourth century Rome,Dissertation for the degree of philosophiae doctor (PhD). "The extant mithraea present us with actual physical remains of the architectural structures of the sacred spaces of the Mithraic cult. While the Mithraists themselves never used the word mithraeum as far as we know, but preferred words like speleum or antrum (cave), crypta (underground hallway or corridor), fanum (sacred or holy place), or even templum (a temple or a sacred space), the word mithraeum is the common appellation in Mithraic scholarship and is used throughout this study"
  91. ^ Manfred Clauss, The Roman cult of Mithras, p.22: "The cult spread from Italy, then. In view of the sheer amount of evidence found there, we can probably point specifically to the area of Rome and Ostia. The cult in Rome retained some peculiarities well after the first century AD, though we have no firmly datable monuments from the early period. Among these idiosyncrasies we can list the term spelaeum, ritual cave, for the mithraeum, which was not replaced by the word templum as quickly as in the provinces..."
  92. ^ Price S & Kearns E, Oxford Dictionary of Classical Myth and Religion, p. 493.
  93. ^ Price S & Kearns E, Oxford Dictionary of Classical Myth and Religion, p. 355.
  94. ^ Clauss, The Roman cult of Mithras, p. 102. The Suda reference given is 3: 394, M 1045 (Adler).
  95. ^ Clauss, The Roman cult of Mithras, p. 102. The Gregory reference given is to Oratio 4.70 .
  96. ^ Jerome, Letters 107, ch. 2 (To Laeta)
  97. ^ M.Clauss, The Roman cult of Mithras, p.132-133
  98. ^ M.Clauss, The Roman cult of Mithras, p.133-138
  99. ^ David Sacks; Oswyn Murray; Lisa R. Brody (2005). Encyclopedia of the ancient Greek world. Infobase Publishing. pp. 256 (at the bottom left portion).
  100. ^ Clauss, Manfred (1990). "Die sieben Grade des Mithras-Kultes". ZPE. 82: 183–194.
  101. ^ Griffith, Alison. "Mithraism in the private and public lives of 4th-c. senators in Rome". EJMS.  http://www.uhu.es/ejms/Papers/Volume1Papers/ABGMS.DOC
  102. ^ Clauss, M., The Roman cult of Mithras, p. 103.
  103. ^ M. Clauss, The Roman cult of Mithras, p. 105: "the followers of Mithras were the ‘initiates of the theft of the bull, united by the handshake of the illustrious father’." (Err. prof. relig. 5.2)
  104. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, Patrick J. Healy, 1909 Ed.
  105. ^ Burkert, Walter (1987). Ancient mystery cults. Harvard University Press. pp. 16–. ISBN 978-0-674-03387-0. Retrieved 4 November 2011. "Taking the right hand is the old Iranian form of a promise of allegiance, ..."
  106. ^ 106.0 106.1 "Beck on Mithraism", pp. 288–289
  107. ^ Beck, Roger (2000). "Ritual, Myth, Doctrine, and Initiation in the Mysteries of Mithras: New Evidence from a Cult Vessel". The Journal of Roman Studies. 90 (90): 145–180. JSTOR 300205. doi:10.2307/300205.
  108. ^ Merkelbach, Reinhold (1995). "Das Mainzer Mithrasgefäß". Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik (108): 1–6.
  109. ^ Martin, Luther H. (2004). Ritual Competence and Mithraic Ritual. in Wilson, Brian C. (2004). Religion as a human capacity: a festschrift in honor of E. Thomas Lawson. BRILL., p. 257
  110. ^ Clauss, The Roman cult of Mithras, p.62-101.
  111. ^ Clauss, The Roman cult of Mithras, p.33.
  112. ^ Cumont, Franz (1903). The Mysteries of Mithras. p. 173. Retrieved 6 July 2011. "Whilst the majority of the Oriental cults accorded to women a considerable role in their churches, and sometimes even a preponderating one, finding in them ardent supporters of the faith, Mithra forbade their participation in his Mysteries and so deprived himself of the incalculable assistance of these propagandists. The rude discipline of the order did not permit them to take the degrees in the sacred cohorts, and, as among the Mazdeans of the Orient, they occupied only a secondary place in the society of the faithful. Among the hundreds of inscriptions that have come down to us, not one mentions either a priestess, a woman initiate, or even a donatress."
  113. ^ Richard Gordon (2005). "Mithraism". In Lindsay Jones. Encyclopedia Of Religion. 9 (Second ed.). Thomas Gale, Macmillan Reference USA. p. 6090. "...Moreover, not a single woman is listed: the repeated attempts to show that women might belong to the cult are wishful thinking (Piccottini, 1994)."
  114. ^ David, Jonathan (2000). "The Exclusion of Women in the Mithraic Mysteries: Ancient or Modern?". Numen. 47 (2): 121–141. doi:10.1163/156852700511469., at p. 121.
  115. ^ Clauss, The Roman cult of Mithras, p.39.
  116. ^ Clauss, M., The Roman cult of Mithras, pp. 144–145: "Justin’s charge does at least make clear that Mithraic commandments did exist."
  117. ^ Clauss, M., The Roman cult of Mithras, p. 144, referencing Caesares 336C in the translation of W. C. Wright. Hermes addresses Julian: "As for you ... , I have granted you to know Mithras the Father. Keep his commandments, thus securing for yourself an anchor-cable and safe mooring all through your life, and, when you must leave the world, having every confidence that the god who guides you will be kindly disposed."
  118. ^ Tertullian, De Corona Militis, 15.3
  119. ^ 119.0 119.1 Franz Grenet, “MITHRA ii. ICONOGRAPHY IN IRAN AND CENTRAL ASIA,” Encyclopædia Iranica英语Encyclopædia Iranica, online edition, 2016 (accessed on 19 May 2016).
  120. ^ Vermaseren, M. J. (1963), Mithras: the Secret God, London: Chatto and Windus, p. 29, "Other early evidence of the first decades BCE英语BCE refers only to the reverence paid to Mithras without mentioning the mysteries: examples which may be quoted are the tomb inscriptions of King Antiochus I of Commagene at Nemrud Dagh, and of his father Mithridates at Arsameia on the Orontes. Both the kings had erected on vast terraces a number of colossal statues seated on thrones to the honour of their ancestral gods. At Nemrud we find in their midst King Antiochus (69–34 BCE and in the inscription Mithras is mentioned ..."
  121. ^ Vermaseren, M. J. (1956), Corpus inscriptionum et monumentorum religionis mithriacae, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, CIMRM 29, "Head of a beardless Mithras in Phrygian cap, point of which is missing."
  122. ^ Vermaseren, M. J. (1956), Corpus inscriptionum et monumentorum religionis mithriacae, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, CIMRM 28, "The gods are represented in a sitting position on a throne and are: Apollo-Mithras (see below); Tyche-Commagene; Zeus-Ahura-Mazda; Antiochus himself and finally Ares-Artagnes."
  123. ^ Vermaseren, M. J. (1956), Corpus inscriptionum et monumentorum religionis mithriacae, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, CIMRM 32, verse 55
  124. ^ R D Barnett (1975). John R Hinnells, ed. Mithraic studies: proceedings of the first International congress of Mithraic studies, Vol. II. Manchester University Press ND. pp. 467–. "According to Vermaseren, there was a Mithras cult in the Fayum in the third century BC, and according to Pettazzoni the figure of Aion has its iconographic origin in Egypt."
  125. ^ R D Barnett (1975). John R Hinnells, ed. Mithraic studies: proceedings of the first International congress of Mithraic studies, Vol. II. Manchester University Press ND. pp. 467–468. "I ... see these figures or some of them in the impression of the remarkable royal seal of King Saussatar of Mitanni (circa 1450 BCE great-great-grandfather of Kurtiwaza), the only royal Mitannian seal that we possess ... Mithra-tauroctonos, characteristically kneeling on the bull to despatch it. We can even see also the dog and snake ... below him are twin figures, one marked by a star, each fighting lions ... below a winged disc between lions and ravens, stands a winged, human-headed lion, ..."
  126. ^ Beck, Roger. "On Becoming a Mithraist New Evidence for the Propagation of the Mysteries". In Leif E. Vaage, et al. Religious Rivalries in the Early Roman Empire and the Rise of Christianity. p. 182. "The origins and spread of the Mysteries are matters of perennial debate among scholars of the cult."
  127. ^ Clauss, Manfred (2000). Gordon, Richard (trans.), ed. The Roman cult of Mithras. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-1396-X.
  128. ^ Ulansey, David. "The Cosmic Mysteries of Mithras". Retrieved 2011-03-20. "Our earliest evidence for the Mithraic mysteries places their appearance in the middle of the 1st Century BCE: the historian Plutarch says that in 67 BCE a large band of pirates based in Cilicia (a province on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor) were practicing "secret rites of Mithras". The earliest physical remains of the cult date from around the end of the 1st Century CE, and Mithraism reached its height of popularity in the third century."
  129. ^ C.M.Daniels, "The role of the Roman army in the spread and practice of Mithraism" in John R. Hinnells (ed.) Mithraic Studies: Proceedings of the First International Congress of Mithraic Studies, Manchester University Press (1975), vol. 2, p. 250: "Traditionally there are two geographical regions where Mithraism first struck root in the Roman empire: Italy and the Danube. Italy I propose to omit, as the subject needs considerable discussion, and the introduction of the cult there, as witnessed by its early dedicators, seems not to have been military. Before we turn to the Danube, however, there is one early event (rather than geographical location) which should perhaps be mentioned briefly in passing. This is the supposed arrival of the cult in Italy as a result of Pompey the Great’s defeat of the Cilician pirates, who practised ‘strange sacrifices of their own ... and celebrated certain secret rites, amongst which those of Mithra continue to the present time, having been first instituted by them’. Suffice it to say that there is neither archaeological nor allied evidence for the arrival of Mithraism in the West at that time, nor is there any ancient literary reference, either contemporary or later. If anything, Plutarch’s mention carefully omits making the point that the cult was introduced into Italy at that time or by the pirates."
  130. ^ Beck, R. (1998). "The Mysteries of Mithras: A New Account of their Genesis", Journal of Roman Studies, 115–128. p. 118.
  131. ^ Vermaseren, M. J. (1960) [1956], Corpus inscriptionum et monumentorum religionis mithriacae, 2 vols., The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
  132. ^ Gordon, Richard L. (1978). "The date and significance of CIMRM 593 (British Museum, Townley Collection". Journal of Mithraic Studies II: 148–174.. Online here (2)
  133. ^ Beskow, Per, "The routes of early Mithraism", in Études mithriaques, Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin (ed.). p. 14: "Another possible piece of evidence is offered by five terracotta plaques with a tauroctone, found in Crimea and taken into the records of Mithraic monuments by Cumont and Vermaseren. If they are Mithraic, they are certainly the oldest known representations of Mithras tauroctone; the somewhat varying dates given by Russian archaeologists will set the beginning of the 1st century C.E. as a terminus ad quem, which is also said to have been confirmed by the stratigraphic conditions." Note 20 gives the publication as W. Blawatsky / G. Kolchelenko, Le culte de Mithra sur la cote spetentrionale de la Mer Noire, Leiden 1966, p. 14f.
  134. ^ ... the area [the Crimea] is of interest mainly because of the terracotta plaques from Kerch (five, of which two are in Corpus Inscriptionum et Monumentorum Religionis Mithriacae英语CIMRM as numbers 11 and 12). These show a bull-killing figure and their probable date (second half of 1st Century BCE to first half of 1st century AD) would make them the earliest tauroctonies – if it is Mithras that they portray. Their iconography is significantly different from that of the standard tauroctony (e.g. in the Attis英语Attis-like exposure of the god's genitals). Roger Beck, Mithraism since Franz Cumont, Aufsteig und Niedergang der romischen Welt, II 17.4 (1984), p. 2019 (3)
  135. ^ Beskow, Per, The routes of early Mithraism, in Études mithriaques Ed. Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin. p. 15: "The plaques are typical Bosporan terracottas ... At the same time it must be admitted that the plaques have some strange features which make it debatable if this is really Mithra(s). Most striking is the fact that his genitals are visible as they are in the iconography of Attis, which is accentuated by a high anaxyrides. Instead of the tunic and flowing cloak he wears a kind of jacket, buttoned over the breast with only one button, perhaps the attempt of a not so skillful artist to depict a cloak. The bull is small and has a hump and the tauroctone does not plunge his knife into the flank of the bull but holds it lifted. The nudity gives it the character of a fertility god and if we want to connect it directly with the Mithraic mysteries it is indeed embarrassing that the first one of these plaques was found in a woman's tomb." Clauss, p. 156: "He is grasping one of the bull’s horns with his left hand, and wrenching back its head; the right arm is raised to deliver the death-blow. So far, this god must be Mithras. But in sharp contrast with the usual representations [of Mithras], he is dressed in a jacket-like garment, fastened at the chest with a brooch, which leaves his genitals exposed – the iconography typical of Attis."
  136. ^ Gordon, Richard L. (1978). "The date and significance of CIMRM 593 (British Museum, Townley Collection". Journal of Mithraic Studies II: 148–174.. Online here (4) CIMRM 362 a , b = el l, VI 732 = Moretti, lGUR I 179: "Soli | Invicto Mithrae | T . Flavius Aug. lib. Hyginus | Ephebianus | d. d. – but the Greek title is just "`Hliwi Mithrai". The name "Flavius" for an imperial freedman dates it between 70–136 CE. The Greek section refers to a pater of the cult named Lollius Rufus, evidence of the existence of the rank system at this early date.
  137. ^ Israel Roll, The mysteries of Mithras in the Roman Orient: the problem of origin, in: "Journal of Mithraic Studies", Volume II, No. 1, pages 53-68. Reference given is: Dunand, M., Le temple d'Echmoun a Sidon, Essai de chronologie, Bulletin du Musée de Beyrouth 26, 1973 (appeared in 1975), p.7-25 (plate XIII left). Also mentioned by Roger Beck, Mithraism since Franz Cumont, ANRW II, p.2013: "A cippus from Sidon (DUNAND 1973) attests a ἱερεύς of Mithras in A.D. 140/141."
  138. ^ SEG 55 1661 - Dedication to Theos Hagios Asklepios, 141 A.D. From area of Bostan es-Sheikh, 3 km north of Sidon.
  139. ^ Gordon, Richard L. (1978). "The date and significance of CIMRM 593 (British Museum, Townley Collection". Journal of Mithraic Studies II: 148–174. p. 150.
  140. ^ C. M. Daniels, "The Roman army and the spread of Mithraism" in John R. Hinnels, Mithraic Studies: Proceedings of the First International Congress of Mithraic Studies, vol. 2, 1975, Manchester University Press, pp. 249–274. "The considerable movement [of civil servants and military] throughout the empire was of great importance to Mithraism, and even with the very fragmentary and inadequate evidence that we have it is clear that the movement of troops was a major factor in the spread of the cult. Traditionally there are two geographical regions where Mithraism first struck root: Italy and the Danube. Italy I propose to omit, as the subject needs considerable discussion, and the introduction of the cult there, as witnessed by its early dedicators, seems not to have been military. Before we turn to the Danube, however, there is one early event (rather than geographical location) which should perhaps be mentioned briefly in passing. This is the supposed arrival of the cult in Italy as a result of Pompey the Great's defeat of Cilician pirates, who practiced ‘strange sacrifices of their own ... and celebrated certain secret rites, amongst which those of Mithras continue to the present time, have been first instituted by them’." (ref. Plutarch, Pompey 24–25) Suffice it to say that there is neither archaeological nor allied evidence for the arrival of Mithraism in the west at that time, nor is there any ancient literary reference, either contemporary or later. If anything, Plutarch’s mention carefully omits making the point that the cult was introduced into Italy at that time or by the pirates. Turning to the Danube, the earliest dedication from that region is an altar to ‘Mitrhe’ (sic) set up by C. Sacidus Barbarus, a centurion of XV Appolinaris, stationed at the time at Carnuntum in Pannonia (Deutsch-Altenburg, Austria). The movements of this legion are particularly informative." The article then goes on to say that XV Appolinaris was originally based at Carnuntum, but between 62–71 CE transferred to the east, first in the Armenian campaign, and then to put down the Jewish uprising. Then 71–86 back in Carnuntum, then 86–105 intermittently in the Dacian wars, then 105–114 back in Carnuntum, and finally moved to Cappadocia in 114.
  141. ^ C. M. Daniels, "The Roman army and the spread of Mithraism" in John R. Hinnels, Mithraic Studies: Proceedings of the First International Congress of Mithraic Studies, vol. 2, 1975, Manchester University Press, p. 263. The first dateable Mithraeum outside italy is from Böckingen on the Neckar, where a centurion of the legion VIII Augustus dedicated two altars, one to Mithras and the other (dated 148) to Apollo.
  142. ^ Lewis M. Hopfe, "Archaeological indications on the origins of Roman Mithraism", in Lewis M. Hopfe (ed). Uncovering ancient stones: essays in memory of H. Neil Richardson, Eisenbrauns (1994), pp. 147–158 . p. 153: "At present this is the only Mithraeum known in Roman Palestine." p. 154: "It is difficult to assign an exact date to the founding of the Caesarea Maritima Mithraeum. No dedicatory plaques have been discovered that might aid in the dating. The lamps found with the taurectone medallion are from the end of the first century to the late 3rd century CE. Other pottery and coins from the vault are also from this era. Therefore it is speculated that this Mithraeum developed toward the end of the 1st century and remained active until the late 3rd Century. This matches the dates assigned to the Dura-Europos and the Sidon Mithraea."
  143. ^ "Beck on Mithraism", pp. 34–35. Online here [2].
  144. ^ Boyce, Mary; Grenet, Frantz. Zoroastrianism under Macedonian and Roman rule, Part 1. Brill. 1975: 468, 469 [2011-03-16]. ISBN 90-04-09271-4. ... the Persian affiliation of the Mysteries is acknowledged in the earliest literary reference to them. This is by the Latin poet Statius who, writing about 80 CE., described Mithras as one who "twists the unruly horns beneath the rocks of a Persian cave". Only a little later (c. 100 CE.) Plutarch attributed an Anatolian origin to the Mysteries, for according to him the Cilician pirates whom Pompey defeated in 67 BCE. "celebrated certain secret rites, amongst which those of Mithras continue to the present time, having been first instituted by them". 
  145. ^ 145.0 145.1 Ulansey, David. Origins of the Mithraic Mysteries. New York: Oxford UP. 1991: 29. ISBN 0-19-506788-6. 
  146. ^ Statius: Thebaid 1.719 to 720 J.H.Mozey's translation at Classical E-Text Latin text at The Latin Library
  147. ^ The prayer begins at Statius Thebaid 1.696 J.H.Mozey's translation at Classical E-Text Latin text at The Latin Library
  148. ^ Ulansey, David. Origins of the Mithraic Mysteries. New York: Oxford UP. 1991: 27 to 29. ISBN 0-19-506788-6. 
  149. ^ 149.0 149.1 (Life of Pompey 24, referring to events c. 68 BCE).
  150. ^ App. Mith 14.92 cited in Ulansey, David. Origins of the Mithraic Mysteries. New York: Oxford UP. 1991: 89. ISBN 0-19-506788-6. 
  151. ^ E.D. Francis "Plutarch's Mithraic pirates", an appendix to the article by Franz Cummont "The Dura Mithraeum" in John R. Hinnells Mithraic Studies: Proceedings of the first international congress Vol 1, pp. 207–210. Manchester University Press, 1975. (The reference to Servius is in a lengthy footnote to page 208.) Google books link
  152. ^ Dio Cassius 63.5.2
  153. ^ Beck, Roger. Mithraism. Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition. 2002-07-20 [2011-05-15]. In the Cumontian scenario this episode cannot mark the definitive moment of transfer, for Mithraism in that scenario was already established in Rome, albeit on a scale too small to have left any trace in the historical or archaeological record. Nevertheless, it could have been a spur to Mithraism’s emergence on to the larger stage of popular appeal. 
  154. ^ Porphyry, De antro nympharum 2: "For, as Eubulus says, Zoroaster was the first who consecrated in the neighbouring mountains of Persia, a spontaneously produced cave, florid, and having fountains, in honour of Mithra, the maker and father of all things; |12 a cave, according to Zoroaster, bearing a resemblance of the world, which was fabricated by Mithra. But the things contained in the cavern being arranged according to commensurate intervals, were symbols of the mundane elements and climates."
  155. ^ Porphyry, De antro nympharum 11: "Hence, a place near to the equinoctial circle was assigned to Mithra as an appropriate seat. And on this account he bears the sword of Aries, which is a martial sign. He is likewise carried in the Bull, which is the sign of Venus. For Mithra. as well as the Bull, is the Demiurgus and lord of generation."
  156. ^ Turcan, Robert, Mithras Platonicus, Leiden, 1975, via Beck, R. Merkelbach's Mithras pp. 301–302.
  157. ^ Beck, R. Merkelbach’s Mithras p. 308 n. 37.
  158. ^ Roger Beck; Luther H. Martin; Harvey Whitehouse. Theorizing religions past: archaeology, history, and cognition. Rowman Altamira. 2004: 101– [28 March 2011]. ISBN 978-0-7591-0621-5. 
  159. ^ Beck, Roger. The Religion of the Mithras cult in the Roman empire. Great Britain: Oxford University Press. 2006: 17. De antro 6 is actually the sole explicit testimony from antiquity as to the intent of Mithraism’s mysteries and the means by which that intent was realized. Porphyry, moreover, was an intelligent and well-placed theoretician of contemporary religion, with access to predecessors’ studies, now lost. 
  160. ^ Ulansey, David. Origins of the Mithraic Mysteries. New York: Oxford UP. 1991: 18. ISBN 0-19-506788-6. 
  161. ^ Meyer, Marvin. The Mithras Liturgy. (编) A.J. Levine, Dale C. Allison, Jr., and John Dominic Crossan. The historical Jesus in context. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. 2006: 180. ISBN 0-691-00991-0.  (The reference is at line 482 of the Great Magical Papyrus of Paris. The Mithras Liturgy comprises lines 475–834 of the Papyrus.)
  162. ^ See the Greek text with German translation in Albrecht Dieterich, Eine Mithrasliturgie, 2nd edition, pp. 1–2
  163. ^ The "Mithras Liturgy": Text, Translation and Commentary, p. 12. Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2003.
  164. ^ Meyer, Marvin. The Mithras Liturgy. (编) A. J. Levine, Dale C. Allison, Jr., and John Dominic Crossan. The historical Jesus in context. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. 2006: 180–182. ISBN 0-691-00991-0. 
  165. ^ The "Mithras Liturgy": Text, Translation and Commentary. Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck. 2003.
  166. ^ Richard Gordon, "Probably Not Mithras" in The Classical Review Vol. 55, No. 1 (March 2005) pp. 99–100.

延伸閱讀[编辑]

  • Cumont, Franz, Textes et monuments figurés relatifs aux Mystères de Mithra : pub. avec une introduction critique, 2 vols. 1894-6. Vol. 1 is an introduction, Vol. 2 is a collection of primary data, online at Archive.org here [3], and still of some value.
  • Turcan, Robert, Mithra et le mithriacisme, Paris, 2000.
  • Mastrocinque, Attilio, Studi sul mitraismo:il mitraismo e la magia.
  • Mastrocinque, Attilio, Des Mysteres de Mithra Aux Mysteres de Jesus.
  • Bivar, A. D. H., The personalities of Mithra in archaeology and literature.
  • Harris, J. R. "Mithras at Hermopolis and Memphis", in Donald M. Bailey (ed), Archaeological Research in Roman Egypt (2004). Journal of Roman Archaeology.
  • Kaper, Olaf E., "Mithras im ptolemäischen Ägypten", in Peter C. Bol, Gabriele Kaminski, and Caterina Maderna (eds), Fremdheit-Eigenheit: Ägypten, Griechenland und Rom : Austausch und Verständnis (2004). Prestel.
  • Lane Fox, Robin, Pagans and Christians.
  • Will, Ernest, Le relief cultuel gréco-romain, (1955).
  • Nilsson, Martin P., Geschichte der griechischen Religion, Volume 2.
  • Marleen Martens, Guy De Boe, Roman Mithraism, (2004).
  • Gwynn, David M., Religious diversity in late antiquity.

外部連結[编辑]