無政府共產主義

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳到导航 跳到搜索

无政府共产主义[1][2][a](英語:Anarcho-communism[15][16][17][18]、Anarchist communism[19][20])是一种支持废除国家资本主义僱傭勞動等级制度[21]及生产资料私有制(但无政府共产主义尊重在集体所有制英语Collective ownership下的个人财产[22]),同时拥护生产资料公有制[23][24]及由工人委員會所构成的横向网络所统领下依照各盡所能、各取所需进行直接民主制[25][26]政治哲学思想流派英语Anarchist schools of thought。其中的一些流派,比如暴动无政府主义英语insurrectionary anarchism利己主义英语Egoist anarchism和激进个人主义影响颇深,并认为无政府共产主义是实现个人自由的最好社会组织形式[27][28][29][30]。大多数无政府共产主义者视无政府共产主义为一种调和个人与社会之间矛盾的方式[31][32][33][34][35]

无政府共产主义发展自法国大革命后的激进英语Political radicalism社会主义潮流[36][37],但直到第一国际在意大利的分部成立后才成型[38]。俄国思想家克魯泡特金在無政府共產主義中影响力十分巨大,并影响到了其后的内部分化[39]。迄今为止,最知名的无政府共产主义社群例包含1936年西班牙革命英语Spanish Revolution of 1936中的无政府工团主义地区[40]及在1918年至1921年俄国内战中由乌克兰革命者内斯托尔·伊万诺维奇·马赫诺所统领的乌克兰自由地区。乌克兰自由地区受克鲁泡特金著作中的无政府共产主义及集體無政府主義影响极大,且一度击退白军红军,统治乌克兰的大多数地区,但最终被布尔什维克所占领[41]

1929年,韩国无政府共产主义联合会在崇尚无政府主义独立行动主义將軍金佐鎮的支持下一度建立了一个无政府共产主义社会英语Korean People's Association in Manchuria,但最终随着大日本帝国暗杀了金佐鎮并自南方入侵该地区,同时中國國民黨从北部入侵该地区,该地区很快便丧失了自治权,最终被并入大日本帝国的附庸满洲国。在1936年开始的西班牙内战中,西班牙无政府主义者英语Anarchism in Spain经过在西班牙革命期间的努力和影响,一度在阿拉贡的多数地区建立了一个无政府主义社会,并且将无政府共产主义传播至了雷凡特、安达卢西亚及加泰罗尼亚,但最终被佛朗哥所统领的國民軍所击败[42]

思想的發展[编辑]

無政府共產主義的雛形最早可追溯到17世紀的英國內戰和18世紀的法國大革命。屬於英國激進運動挖掘派一員的傑拉德·溫斯坦利在他1649年的小冊子《新正义法典》中寫道:「不應有買賣、不應有集市或市場,但整個地球應該是每個人共有的寶藏」、「不應有統治他人的統治者,但每個人應是自己的統治者。」[43][36]

挖掘派抵制统治阶级和国王的暴政,以合作的方式完成工作,管理供应并提高社会生产力。由于挖掘派建立的公社没有私有财产,没有经济交换(所有物品、货物和服务都由集体所有),他们的公社可以被称为早期的共产主义社区,这些公社分布在英格兰的农村地区。

第一次工业革命之前,整个欧洲大陆盛行土地和财产共同所有的风气,但挖掘派因其反对君主统治的斗争而显得与众不同。他们在查理一世倒台后又因提倡工人自治而再次兴起。

法國大革命期間,席爾凡·馬雷夏爾英语Sylvain Maréchal在《Manifesto of the Equals》中,要求「共同享有地球的產物」並期待「貧富、大小、主僕、統治與被統治之間的噁心差別」的消失。[44][36]

约瑟夫·迪亚契是早期的無政府共產主義者,也是第一位稱自己為自由意志主義者的人。[45] 他提出與普魯東不同的看法:「工人無權於他或她(his or her)勞動所得的產物,但有權滿足他或她的需求,無論其性質為何」。[36]

集體無政府主義者主張勞動的報酬,但給予了轉變為依據需求作分配的共產制度的後革命過渡時期的可能性。受到巴枯寧的影響,詹姆士·季佑姆英语James Guillaume在論文《Ideas on Social Organization》中提到:「當……生產超越了消費……每個人將從社會豐富的物品儲備中得到所需,不用擔憂耗盡;而且道德情操將在自由與平等間高度發展,工人將會阻止,或大量減少濫用與浪費。」[46]

注释[编辑]

  1. ^ 或称共产无政府主义[3](英語:Communist anarchism[4][5])、自由共产主义[6][7](英語:free communism[8])、自由意志共产主义[9](英語:libertarian communism[10][11][12][13][14]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ 于义永. 革命后的趋新:师复的无政府构想. 《社会科学前沿》. 2019年, 8 (4) [2021-02-18]. 
  2. ^ 潘婉明. 在地 ∙ 跨域 ∙ 身体移动 ∙ 知识传播: 马来亚共产党史的再思考. 《华人研究国际学报》. 2011, 3 (2): 57–71 [2021-02-20]. doi:10.1142/S1793724811000162. 
  3. ^ W Haixia. 无政府主义思想与乡村改造的实践回顾——从消去的无政府主义提取当代价值. Rural China. 2014-06-07, 11 (2): 301–327 [2021-02-20]. doi:10.1163/22136746-12341256. 
  4. ^ "The Schism Between Individualist and Communist Anarchism" by Wendy McElroy.
  5. ^ "Anarchist communism is also known as anarcho-communism, communist anarchism, or, sometimes, libertarian communism". "Anarchist communism - an introduction" by Jacques Roux.
  6. ^ 羽离子. 欧文的实验村——新兰那克的今昔. 《湖北民族学院学报(哲学社会科学版)》. 2003, 21 (3): 6–9 [2021-02-20]. doi:10.13501/j.cnki.42-1328/c.2003.03.002. 
  7. ^ 自由共产主义简介. libcom.org. [2021-02-24]. 
  8. ^ Price, Wayne (2002). "What is Anarchist Communism?". The Anarchist Library. Retrieved 2019-08-04. "Instead, Kropotkin proposed that a large city, during a revolution, “could organize itself on the lines of free communism; the city guaranteeing to every inhabitant dwelling, food, and clothing...in exchange for...five hour’s work; and...all those things which would be considered as luxuries might be obtained by everyone if he joins for the other half of the day all sorts of free associations....” (p.p. 118–119)".
  9. ^ 反老孟; 黄璞叶. 黑命攸关|运动与暴力之辩:“糟得很”还是“好得很”?. 澎湃新闻. 2020-06-25 [2021-02-24]. 
  10. ^ According to anarchist historian Max Nettlau, the first use of the term "libertarian communism" was in November 1880, when a French anarchist congress employed it to more clearly identify its doctrines. Nettlau, Max. A Short History of Anarchism. Freedom Press. 1996: 145. ISBN 978-0-900384-89-9. 
  11. ^ "Anarchist communism is also known as anarcho-communism, communist anarchism, or, sometimes, libertarian communism". "Anarchist communism - an introduction" by Libcom.org.
  12. ^ "The terms libertarian communism and anarchist communism thus became synonymous within the international anarchist movement as a result of the close connection they had in Spain (with libertarian communism becoming the prevalent term)". "Anarchist Communism & Libertarian Communism" by Gruppo Comunista Anarchico di Firenze. from "L'informatore di parte", No.4, October 1979, quarterly journal of the Gruppo Comunista Anarchico di Firenze.
  13. ^ "The 'Manifesto of Libertarian Communism' was written in 1953 by Georges Fontenis for the Federation Communiste Libertaire of France. It is one of the key texts of the anarchist-communist current". "Manifesto of Libertarian Communism" by Georges Fontenis.
  14. ^ "In 1926 a group of exiled Russian anarchists in France, the Delo Truda (Workers' Cause) group, published this pamphlet. It arose not from some academic study but from their experiences in the 1917 Russian revolution". "The Organizational Platform of the Libertarian Communists" by Delo Truda.
  15. ^ Kinna, Ruth. The Bloomsbury Companion to Anarchism. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. 2012-06-28: 329. ISBN 978-1-4411-4270-2 (英语). 
  16. ^ Hodges, Donald C. Sandino's Communism: Spiritual Politics for the Twenty-First Century. University of Texas Press. 2014-02-01: 3. ISBN 978-0-292-71564-6 (英语). 
  17. ^ Wetherly, Paul. Political Ideologies. Oxford University Press. 2017: 130, 137, 424. ISBN 978-0-19-872785-9 (英语). 
  18. ^ Iliopoulos, Christos. Nietzsche & Anarchism: An Elective Affinity and a Nietzschean reading of the December '08 revolt in Athens. Vernon Press. 2019-10-15: 35. ISBN 978-1-62273-647-8 (英语). 
  19. ^ Bolloten, Burnett. The Spanish Civil War: Revolution and Counterrevolution. UNC Press Books. 1991: 65 [25 March 2011]. ISBN 978-0-8078-1906-7. 
  20. ^ Price, Wayne (2002). "What is Anarchist Communism?". The Anarchist Library. Retrieved 2019-08-04.
  21. ^ Anarchist communism - an introduction. libcom.org. [2020-11-10]. 
  22. ^ "The revolution abolishes private ownership of the means of production and distribution, and with it goes capitalistic business. Personal possession remains only in the things you use. Thus, your watch is your own, but the watch factory belongs to the people". Alexander Berkman. "What Is Communist Anarchism?" [1].
  23. ^ Mayne, Alan James. From Politics Past to Politics Future: An Integrated Analysis of Current and Emergent Paradigms. Greenwood Publishing Group. 1999 [2010-09-20]. ISBN 978-0-275-96151-0. 
  24. ^ Anarchism for Know-It-Alls By Know-It-Alls For Know-It-Alls, For Know-It-Alls. Filiquarian Publishing, LLC. 2008-01: 14 [2010-09-20]. ISBN 978-1-59986-218-7. 
  25. ^ Fabbri, Luigi. "Anarchism and Communism." Northeastern Anarchist #4. 1922. 2002-10-13.
  26. ^ Makhno, Mett, Arshinov, Valevski, Linski (Dielo Trouda). "The Organizational Platform of the Libertarian Communists". 1926. Constructive Section: available here.
  27. ^ Christopher Gray, Leaving the Twentieth Century, p. 88.
  28. ^ "Towards the creative Nothing" by Renzo Novatore
  29. ^ Post-left anarcho-communist Bob Black after analysing insurrectionary anarcho-communist Luigi Galleani's view on anarcho-communism went as far as saying that "communism is the final fulfillment of individualism...The apparent contradiction between individualism and communism rests on a misunderstanding of both...Subjectivity is also objective: the individual really is subjective. It is nonsense to speak of "emphatically prioritizing the social over the individual,"...You may as well speak of prioritizing the chicken over the egg. Anarchy is a "method of individualization." It aims to combine the greatest individual development with the greatest communal unity."Bob Black. Nightmares of Reason.
  30. ^ "Modern Communists are more individualistic than Stirner. To them, not merely religion, morality, family and State are spooks, but property also is no more than a spook, in whose name the individual is enslaved - and how enslaved!...Communism thus creates a basis for the liberty and Eigenheit of the individual. I am a Communist because I am an Individualist. Fully as heartily the Communists concur with Stirner when he puts the word take in place of demand - that leads to the dissolution of property, to expropriation. Individualism and Communism go hand in hand". "Stirner: The Ego and His Own". Max Baginski. Mother Earth. Vol. 2. No. 3 May 1907.
  31. ^ "Communism is the one which guarantees the greatest amount of individual liberty — provided that the idea that begets the community be Liberty, Anarchy...Communism guarantees economic freedom better than any other form of association, because it can guarantee wellbeing, even luxury, in return for a few hours of work instead of a day's work". "Communism and Anarchy" by Peter Kropotkin.
  32. ^ "This other society will be libertarian communism, in which social solidarity and free individuality find their full expression, and in which these two ideas develop in perfect harmony". Organisational Platform of the Libertarian Communists by Dielo Truda (Workers' Cause).
  33. ^ "I see the dichotomies made between individualism and communism, individual revolt and class struggle, the struggle against human exploitation and the exploitation of nature as false dichotomies and feel that those who accept them are impoverishing their own critique and struggle". "My Perspectives" 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期2010-12-02. by Willful Disobedience Vol. 2, No. 12.
  34. ^ L. Susan Brown, The Politics of Individualism, Black Rose Books (2002).
  35. ^ L. Susan Brown, "Does Work Really Work?".
  36. ^ 36.0 36.1 36.2 36.3 Robert Graham, Anarchism - A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas - Volume One: From Anarchy to Anarchism (300CE to 1939), Black Rose Books, 2005
  37. ^ "Chapter 41: The Anarchists" in The Great French Revolution 1789-1793 by Peter Kropotkin.
  38. ^ Nunzio Pernicone, Italian Anarchism 1864–1892, pp. 111-113, AK Press 2009.
  39. ^ "Anarchist-Communism" by Alain Pengam: "This inability to break definitively with collectivism in all its forms also exhibited itself over the question of the workers' movement, which divided anarchist-communism into a number of tendencies."
  40. ^ "This process of education and class organization, more than any single factor in Spain, produced the collectives. And to the degree that the CNT-FAI (for the two organizations became fatally coupled after July 1936) exercised the major influence in an area, the collectives proved to be generally more durable, communist and resistant to Stalinist counterrevolution than other republican-held areas of Spain." Murray Bookchin. To Remember Spain: The Anarchist and Syndicalist Revolution of 1936]
  41. ^ Skirda, Alexandre (2004). Nestor Makhno: Anarchy's Cossack. AK Press. pp. 86. 236–238.
  42. ^ Murray Bookchin. To Remember Spain: The Anarchist and Syndicalist Revolution of 1936
  43. ^ "The first Adam is the wisdom and power of flesh broke out and sate down in the chair of rule and dominion, in one part of mankind over another. And this is the beginner of particular interest, buying and selling the earth from one particular hand to another, saying, This is mine, upholding this particular propriety by a law of government of his own making, and thereby restraining other fellow creatures from seeking nourishment from their mother earth. So that though a man was bred up in a Land, yet he must not worke for himself where he would sit down. But from Adam; that is, for such a one that had bought part of the Land, or came to it by inheritance of his deceased parents, and called it his own Land: So that he that had no Land, was to work for those for small wages, that called the Land theirs; and thereby some are lifted up into the chair of tyranny, and others trod under the foot-stool of misery, as if the earth were made for a few, no for all men". Gerrard Winstanley (1649). The New Law of Righteousness.
  44. ^ "The Agrarian law, or the partitioning of land, was the spontaneous demand of some unprincipled soldiers, of some towns moved more by their instinct than by reason. We lean towards something more sublime and more just: the common good or the community of property! No more individual property in land: the land belongs to no one. We demand, we want, the common enjoyment of the fruits of the land: the fruits belong to all". Sylvain Maréchal (1796). Manifesto of the Equals. Marxist Internet Archive.
  45. ^ Joseph Déjacque, De l'être-humain mâle et femelle - Lettre à P.J. Proudhon par Joseph Déjacque页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆) (in French)
  46. ^ James Guillaume, Ideas on Social Organization页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆