神经质

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神经质英语:neuroticism,又译为情绪不稳定性),是心理学研究中一个基本的人格特质。情绪不稳定性測驗得分高的人比一般人更容易情緒化、情緒波動大、且更常有以下這些情緒:焦虑(anxiety)、擔憂(worry)、害怕(fear)、愤怒(anger)、挫折(frustration)、羨慕(envy)、忌妒(jealousy)、罪惡感/內疚感(guilt)、抑郁(depressed mood)、和孤獨感英语loneliness(loneliness)[1][2]。他们的抗壓性较差,且有可能将正常情况解释为威胁,将小挫折看成绝望的困难。 他们通常自我為中心/自以為萬眾注目害羞,并有可能难以控制冲动和延後讓自己的慾望/需求被满足的時間英语delayed gratification

高度神經質的人,其特質有可能在往後的人生中發展成為許多常見的精神疾病[3] [4],例如:憂鬱症恐懼症(phobia)、恐慌症(panic disorder)、其他焦慮症群(anxiety disorders)、和物質使用疾患(substance use disorder)-這些症狀常被俗称为神经症(neuroses) [4][5][6][7][8]

情绪不稳定性与低情緒商數(EQ)相关,包括情绪调节,动机和人际关系技巧较低[9]


参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ Jeronimus, B. F., Riese, H., Sanderman, R., Ormel, J. Mutual Reinforcement Between Neuroticism and Life Experiences: A Five-Wave, 16-Year Study to Test Reciprocal Causation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2014, 107 (4): 751–64. 
  2. ^ G. Matthews and Ian J. Deary. Personality traits. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 1998. 
  3. ^ Jeronimus B.F.; Kotov, R.; Riese, H.; Ormel, J. Neuroticism's prospective association with mental disorders halves after adjustment for baseline symptoms and psychiatric history, but the adjusted association hardly decays with time: a meta-analysis on 59 longitudinal/prospective studies with 443 313 participants. Psychological Medicine. 2016, 46 (14): 2883–2906. PMID 27523506. doi:10.1017/S0033291716001653. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Ormel J.; Jeronimus, B.F.; Kotov, M.; Riese, H.; Bos, E.H.; Hankin, B. Neuroticism and common mental disorders: Meaning and utility of a complex relationship. Clinical Psychology Review. 2013, 33 (5): 686–697. PMC 4382368. PMID 23702592. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2013.04.003. 
  5. ^ Hettema, J. M.; Neale, M. C.; Myers, J. M.; Prescott, C. A.; Kendler, K. S. A population-based twin study of the relationship between neuroticism and internalizing disorders. American journal of Psychiatry. 2006, 163 (5): 857–864. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.163.5.857. 
  6. ^ Personality correlates of male sexual arousal and behavior. Archives of Sexual Behavior: 149–156. doi:10.1007/BF01541871. 
  7. ^ Carducci, Bernardo J. The Psychology of Personality: Viewpoints, Research, and Applications. 2009-02-20. ISBN 978-1-4051-3635-8. 
  8. ^ Leese, Peter. Shell Shock: Traumatic Neurosis and the British Soldiers of the First World War. Palgrave MacMillan. 2014 [2014-09-30]. ISBN 978-1-137-45337-2. 
  9. ^ Daniel Goleman. Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bantam. 1997. 

参见[编辑]