逻辑论证

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳转至: 导航搜索

逻辑中,论证是基于叫做前提的一组断言,证明叫做结论的断言的真实性的尝试。演绎归纳推理的证明过程形成了论证,并假定了某种交流方式,它可以是书写的文本、演讲或交谈。

概述[编辑]

一般的,哲学和科学论证也常使用溯因论证和类推论证。论证可以是有效无效的,尽管如何确定论证是这两个范畴中的某一个,自身也经常是大量讨论的对象。非形式的,你可能期望有效的论证是强制性的,在它有能力使人信服结论的真实性的意义上。但是,这样的有效性标准是不充足的甚至是令人误解的,因为这更多的依赖于构造论证的人的技巧去操纵要说服的人,而更少依赖于论证自身。

论证的有效性的更少主观性的标准经常是明显需要的,并且在某些情况下我们甚至期望一个论证是严格的,就是说,坚持精确的有效性规则。这是在数学证明中使用的论证的情况。注意严格的证明不必须是形式证明

在平常语言中,人们提及论证的逻辑,或使用暗示了一个论证是基于形式逻辑推理规则的术语。尽管论证确可使用无可争议的纯逻辑推论(比如三段论),在实际论证中几乎总是使用其他种类的推论。例如,常处理因果关系或然性统计或更特殊化的领域如经济学的论证。在这些情况下,逻辑指称论证的结构而不是可以用在其中的纯逻辑的原理。

參考文獻[编辑]

  • Shaw, Warren Choate. The Art of Debate. Allyn and Bacon. 1922: 74. 
  • Robert Audi, Epistemology, Routledge, 1998. Particularly relevant is Chapter 6, which explores the relationship between knowledge, inference and argument.
  • J. L. Austin How to Do Things With Words, Oxford University Press, 1976.
  • H. P. Grice, Logic and Conversation in The Logic of Grammar, Dickenson, 1975.
  • Vincent F. Hendricks, Thought 2 Talk: A Crash Course in Reflection and Expression, New York: Automatic Press / VIP, 2005, ISBN 87-991013-7-8
  • R. A. DeMillo, R. J. Lipton and A. J. Perlis, Social Processes and Proofs of Theorems and Programs, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 22, No. 5, 1979. A classic article on the social process of acceptance of proofs in mathematics.
  • Yu. Manin, A Course in Mathematical Logic, Springer Verlag, 1977. A mathematical view of logic. This book is different from most books on mathematical logic in that it emphasizes the mathematics of logic, as opposed to the formal structure of logic.
  • Ch. Perelman and L. Olbrechts-Tyteca, The New Rhetoric, Notre Dame, 1970. This classic was originally published in French in 1958.
  • Henri Poincaré, Science and Hypothesis, Dover Publications, 1952
  • Frans van Eemeren and Rob Grootendorst, Speech Acts in Argumentative Discussions, Foris Publications, 1984.
  • K. R. Popper Objective Knowledge; An Evolutionary Approach, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972.
  • L. S. Stebbing, A Modern Introduction to Logic, Methuen and Co., 1948. An account of logic that covers the classic topics of logic and argument while carefully considering modern developments in logic.
  • Douglas Walton, Informal Logic: A Handbook for Critical Argumentation, Cambridge, 1998.
  • Walton, Douglas; Christopher Reed; Fabrizio Macagno, Argumentation Schemes, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
  • Carlos Chesñevar, Ana Maguitman and Ronald Loui, Logical Models of Argument, ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 32, num. 4, pp. 337–383, 2000.
  • T. Edward Damer. Attacking Faulty Reasoning, 5th Edition, Wadsworth, 2005. ISBN 0-534-60516-8
  • Charles Arthur Willard, A Theory of Argumentation. 1989.
  • Charles Arthur Willard, Argumentation and the Social Grounds of Knowledge. 1982.

延伸閱讀[编辑]

  • Salmon, Wesley C. Logic. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall (1963). Library of Congress Catalog Card no. 63-10528.
  • Aristotle, Prior and Posterior Analytics. Ed. and trans. John Warrington. London: Dent (1964)
  • Mates, Benson. Elementary Logic. New York: OUP (1972). Library of Congress Catalog Card no. 74-166004.
  • Mendelson, Elliot. Introduction to Mathematical Logic. New York: Van Nostran Reinholds Company (1964).
  • Frege, Gottlob. The Foundations of Arithmetic. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press (1980).
  • Martin, Brian. The Controversy Manual (Sparsnäs, Sweden: Irene Publishing, 2014).

外部鏈接[编辑]