底比斯 (希臘)

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳转至: 导航搜索
底比斯
Θήβα
卡兹米亚(Cadmea)遗址, 古底比斯中央堡垒
卡兹米亚(Cadmea)遗址, 古底比斯中央堡垒
位置
底比斯在希臘的位置
底比斯
底比斯
座標 38°19′N 23°19′E / 38.317°N 23.317°E / 38.317; 23.317坐标38°19′N 23°19′E / 38.317°N 23.317°E / 38.317; 23.317
政府
國家 希臘
大區 中希腊
专区: 维奥蒂亚州
人口统计 (as of 2011)[1]
基层政权
 - 人口: 36,477
 - 面积: 830.112 km2(321 sq mi)
 - 密度: 44 /km2(114 /sq mi)
自治社区
 - 人口: 25,845
 - 面积: 321.015 km2 (124 sq mi)
 - 密度: 81 /km2 (209 /sq mi)
社区
 - 人口: 22,883
 - 面积: 143.889 km2 (56 sq mi)
 - 密度: 159 /km2 (412 /sq mi)
其他
时区: EET/EESTUTC+2/3
海拔(中位数) 215 m (705 ft)
邮政编码: 32200
电话号码: 22620
网站
http://www.thiva.gr


底比斯 (Thebes, 英语发音:/ˈθbz/; 古希腊语Θῆβαι, Thēbai, 希臘語發音:[tʰɛ̂ːbai̮];[2] 希腊语Θήβα, Thíva [ˈθiva])是一座位于中希腊维奥蒂亚州的城市。因为这座城市是关于卡德摩斯俄狄浦斯狄奥尼索斯等故事的发生地,所以她在希腊神话中占有重要地位。在底比斯境内以及周边的考古发掘发现了一处迈锡尼定居点与写有“线性文字B”字符的泥板,显示了该城在青铜时期具有的重要地位。

在古代,底比斯曾经是维奥蒂亚地区的最大城市,也是维奥蒂亚邦联的领导城市。她也曾是古雅典城的主要对手之一,并且于前480年薛西斯一世入侵希腊的行动中支持波斯的作战。在伊巴密浓达的领导下,底比斯军队于前371年在留克特拉战役中击败了斯巴达军队。底比斯圣队(一支精锐部队)在对抗亚历山大大帝腓力二世喀罗尼亚战役中被彻底歼灭(famously fell)。在前335年,亚历山大大帝摧毁该城之前,底比斯是希腊历史中的一支重要力量,并且是在马其顿征服希腊时独立性最强的城邦。在拜占庭时期,该城也因丝绸而著称。

现代城市包括考古博物馆、卡兹米亚英语Cadmea遗址(青铜时代遗址与前线堡垒)与分散的古代遗迹。现代底比斯也是希腊行政区划维奥蒂亚州的最大城镇。

地理[编辑]

底比斯坐落在位于其北部的伊莉科湖英语Lake Yliki与作为维奥蒂亚地区阿提卡分界的季赛荣山英语Kithairon之间。 底比斯的海拔高度在215米左右,城市位于雅典的西北约50公里(31英里),拉米亚东南约100公里(62英里)处。 希腊1号高速公路雅典–塞萨洛尼基铁路英语Piraeus–Platy railway将雅典与希腊北部将底比斯连接起来。底比斯辖区覆盖了830.112平方公里的面积,包括自治社区(Mulnicipal Unit)的321.015平方公里与社区(Community)的143.889平方公里。[3]

行政区划[编辑]

在2011年,作为卡利克拉提斯改革的结果之一,底比斯与普拉迪厄斯(Plataies)英语Plataies西斯维(Thisvi)英语Thisvi瓦吉亚(Vagia)英语Vagia合并为一个辖区,并且沿用了底比斯的名字。而另外的三个名字成为了其他更大辖区的单位。[4]

历史[编辑]

神话记载[编辑]

对于底比斯最初时的记载保存于希腊人大量的口述传说中,那些口口相传的故事以它们的庞大分支与对古典时期文学所造成的影响,甚至可以媲美特洛伊神话。而整个底比斯神话主要可以分为五个故事:

  1. 卡德摩斯卡兹米亚英语Cadmea城堡,与地生人的成长(应该是一种用于解释将“底比斯”的名字著称于世的底比斯贵族的起源的原因论法故事)。
  2. 安菲翁英语Amphion筑“七门之墙”,和仄忒斯英语Zethus安提俄珀狄耳刻英语Dirce的同源故事。
  3. 拉伊俄斯英语Laius的故事,其劣迹在七将攻底比斯俄狄浦斯俄皮戈尼英语Epigoni与其家族没落的悲剧中达到高潮;拉伊俄斯对克吕西波的同性强暴被一些古人称为最早存在与凡人之间的同性恋行为,并且有可能为底比斯著名的教育学鸡奸提供了原因论(may have provided an etiology for the practice of pedagogic pederasty for which Thebes was famous)。请参阅古希腊娈童恋以获得更多信息。
  4. 塞墨勒的自焚与狄俄倪索斯的诞生。
  5. 赫拉克勒斯的功绩。

希腊人将底比斯建城的功劳归于卡德摩斯,一位来自苏尔的腓尼基国王、欧罗巴皇后的兄弟。卡德摩斯因传授腓尼基字母与建造底比斯之卫城而闻名,而该卫城也被命名为“卡兹米亚英语Cadmea”以歌颂他的功绩并成为了知识、信仰与文化中心。

早期历史[编辑]

前362年,底比斯力量巅峰时期的希腊地图,显示了底比斯、斯巴达与雅典的势力范围。

在底比斯境内以及周围的考古发掘Archaeological excavations in and around Thebes have revealed cist graves dated to Mycenaean times containing weapons, ivory, and tablets written in Linear B. Its attested name forms and relevant terms on tablets found locally or elsewhere include 𐀳𐀣𐀂, te-qa-i,[n 1] understood to be read as *Tʰēgʷai̮s (Ancient Greek: Θήβαις, Thēbais, i.e. "at Thebes", Thebes in the dative-locative case), 𐀳𐀣𐀆, te-qa-de,[n 2] for *Tʰēgʷasde (Θήβασδε, Thēbasde, i.e. "to Thebes"),[2][6] and 𐀳𐀣𐀊, te-qa-ja,[n 3] for *Tʰēgʷaja (Θηβαία, Thēbaia, i.e. "Theban woman").[2]

Theban workshop (Oinochoe type), 7th century BC.

It seems safe[需要解释] to infer that *Tʰēgʷai was one of the first Greek communities to be drawn together within a fortified city, and that it owed its importance in prehistoric days — as later — to its military strength. Deger-Jalkotzy claimed that the statue base from Kom el-Hetan in Amenhotep III's kingdom (LHIIIA:1) mentions a name similar to Thebes, spelled out quasi-syllabically in hieroglyphs as d-q-e-i-s, and considered to be one of four tj-n3-jj (Danaan?) kingdoms worthy of note (alongside Knossos and Mycenae). *Tʰēgʷai in LHIIIB lost contact with Egypt but gained it with "Miletus" (Hittite: Milawata) and "Cyprus" (Hittite: Alashija). In the late LHIIIB, according to Palaima,[7] *Tʰēgʷai was able to pull resources from Lamos near Mount Helicon, and from Karystos and Amarynthos on the Greek side of the isle of Euboia.

As a fortified community, it attracted attention from the invading Dorians, and the fact of their eventual conquest of Thebes lie behind the stories of the successive legendary attacks on that city.

The central position and military security of the city naturally tended to raise it to a commanding position among the Boeotians, and from early days its inhabitants endeavoured to establish a complete supremacy over their kinsmen in the outlying towns. This centralizing policy is as much the cardinal fact of Theban history as the counteracting effort of the smaller towns to resist absorption forms the main chapter of the story of Boeotia. No details of the earlier history of Thebes have been preserved, except that it was governed by a land-holding aristocracy who safeguarded their integrity by rigid statutes about the ownership of property and its transmission over time.

Archaic and classical periods[编辑]

Map of the Topography of Ancient Thebes.

As attested already in Homer's Iliad, Thebes was often called "Seven-Gated Thebes" (Θῆβαι ἑπτάπυλοι, Thebai heptapyloi) (Iliad, IV.406) to distinguish it from "Hundred-Gated Thebes" (Θῆβαι ἑκατόμπυλοι, Thebai hekatompyloi) in Egypt (Iliad, IX.383).

In the late 6th century BC, the Thebans were brought for the first time into hostile contact with the Athenians, who helped the small village of Plataea to maintain its independence against them, and in 506 BC repelled an inroad into Attica. The aversion to Athens best serves to explain the apparently unpatriotic attitude which Thebes displayed during the Persian invasion of Greece (480–479 BC). Though a contingent of 400 was sent to Thermopylae and remained there with Leonidas before being defeated alongside the Spartans,[8] the governing aristocracy soon after joined King Xerxes I of Persia with great readiness and fought zealously on his behalf at the Battle of Plataea in 479 BC. The victorious Greeks subsequently punished Thebes by depriving it of the presidency of the Boeotian League and an attempt by the Spartans to expel it from the Delphic amphictyony was only frustrated by the intercession of Athens. In 457 BC Sparta, needing a counterpoise against Athens in central Greece, reversed her policy and reinstated Thebes as the dominant power in Boeotia. The great citadel of Cadmea served this purpose well by holding out as a base of resistance when the Athenians overran and occupied the rest of the country (457–447 BC). In the Peloponnesian War the Thebans, embittered by the support which Athens gave to the smaller Boeotian towns, and especially to Plataea, which they vainly attempted to reduce in 431 BC, were firm allies of Sparta, which in turn helped them to besiege Plataea and allowed them to destroy the town after its capture in 427 BC. In 424 BC at the head of the Boeotian levy they inflicted a severe defeat upon an invading force of Athenians at the Battle of Delium, and for the first time displayed the effects of that firm military organization which eventually raised them to predominant power in Greece.

Silver stater of Thebes (405-395 BC). Obverse: Boeotian shield, reverse: Head of bearded Dionysus.

After the downfall of Athens at the end of the Peloponnesian War, the Thebans, having learned that Sparta intended to protect the states which they desired to annex, broke off the alliance. In 404 BC they had urged the complete destruction of Athens, yet in 403 BC they secretly supported the restoration of its democracy in order to find in it a counterpoise against Sparta. A few years later, influenced perhaps in part by Persian gold, they formed the nucleus of the league against Sparta. At the Battle of Haliartus (395 BC) and the Battle of Coronea (394 BC) they again proved their rising military capacity by standing their ground against the Spartans. The result of the war was especially disastrous to Thebes, as the general settlement of 387 BC stipulated the complete autonomy of all Greek towns and so withdrew the other Boeotians from its political control. Its power was further curtailed in 382 BC, when a Spartan force occupied the citadel by a treacherous coup-de-main. Three years later, the Spartan garrison was expelled and a democratic constitution was set up in place of the traditional oligarchy. In the consequent wars with Sparta, the Theban army, trained and led by Epaminondas and Pelopidas, proved itself formidable (see also: Sacred Band of Thebes). Years of desultory fighting, in which Thebes established its control over all Boeotia, culminated in 371 BC in a remarkable victory over the Spartans at Leuctra. The winners were hailed throughout Greece as champions of the oppressed. They carried their arms into Peloponnesus and at the head of a large coalition, permanently crippled the power of Sparta, in part by freeing many helot slaves, the basis of the Spartan economy. Similar expeditions were sent to Thessaly and Macedon to regulate the affairs of those regions.

Decline and destruction[编辑]

However, the predominance of Thebes was short-lived as the states which she protected refused to subject themselves permanently to her control. Their renewed rivalry with Athens, who had joined with Thebes in 395 BC in fear of Sparta, but since 387 BC had endeavored to maintain the balance of power against her ally, prevented the formation of a Theban empire. With the death of Epaminondas at the Battle of Mantinea (362 BC) the city sank again to the position of a secondary power. In a war with the neighboring state of Phocis (356–346 BC) it could not even maintain its predominance in central Greece, and by inviting Philip II of Macedon to crush the Phocians it extended that monarch's power within dangerous proximity to its frontiers. A revulsion of feeling was completed in 338 BC by the orator Demosthenes, who persuaded Thebes to join Athens in a final attempt to bar Philip's advance upon Attica. The Theban contingent lost the decisive battle of Chaeronea and along with it every hope of reassuming control over Greece. Philip was content to deprive Thebes of her dominion over Boeotia; but an unsuccessful revolt in 335 BC against his son Alexander the Great while he was campaigning in the north was punished by Alexander and his Greek allies with the destruction of the city, except, according to tradition, the house of the poet Pindar and the temples, its territory divided between the other Boeotian cities. Moreover, the Thebans themselves were sold into slavery.[9] Alexander spared only priests, leaders of the pro-Macedonian party and descendants of Pindar. The end of Thebes cowed Athens into submission. According to Plutarch, a special Athenian embassy, led by Phocion, an opponent of the anti-Macedonian faction, was able to persuade Alexander to give up his demand for the exile of leaders of the anti-Macedonian party, most particularly Demosthenes.[10]

Hellenistic and Roman periods[编辑]

Ancient works tend to treat the destruction of Thebes as an excess and one of the few misdeeds by Alexander. Although Thebes had traditionally been antagonistic to whichever state led the Greek world, siding with Persians when they invaded against the Athenian-Spartan alliance, siding with Sparta when Athens seemed omnipotent, and famously derailing the Spartan invasion of Persia by Agesilaus. Alexander's father Philip had been raised in Thebes, albeit as a hostage, and had learnt much of the art of war from Pelopidas. Philip had honoured this fact, always seeking alliance with the Boeotians, even in the lead up to Chaeronea. Thebes was also perceived as the most ancient of Greek cities with a history of over 1,000 years. Plutarch relates that during his later conquests, whenever Alexander came across a former Theban, he would attempt to redress his destruction of Thebes with favours to that individual.

After Alexander the Great died, Thebes was re-established in 315 or 316 BC[11] by Cassander, perhaps in his desire for fame.[12] However Thebes never returned to its former prominence or power. It was besieged and taken by Demetrius Poliorcetes in 293 BC, and again after a revolt in 292 BC. This last siege was difficult and Demetrios was wounded, but finally he managed to break down the walls and to take the city once more, treating it mildly despite its fierce resistance. The city recovered its autonomy from Demetrios in 287 BC, and became ally with Lysimachus and the Aetolian League.

Byzantine period[编辑]

During the early Byzantine period it served as a place of refuge against foreign invaders. From the 10th century, Thebes became a centre of the new silk trade, its silk workshops boosted by imports of soaps and dyes from Athens. The growth of this trade in Thebes continued to such an extent that by the middle of the 12th century, the city had become the biggest producer of silks in the entire Byzantine empire, surpassing even the Byzantine capital, Constantinople. The women of Thebes were famed for their skills at weaving. Theban silk was prized above all others during this period, both for its quality and its excellent reputation.

Though severely plundered by the Normans in 1146, Thebes quickly recovered its prosperity and continued to grow rapidly until its conquest by the Latins of the Fourth Crusade in 1204.

Latin period[编辑]

Thanks to its wealth, the city was selected by the Frankish dynasty de la Roche as its capital, before it was permanently moved to Athens. After 1240, the Saint Omer family controlled the city jointly with the de la Roche dukes. The castle built by Nicholas II of Saint Omer on the Cadmea was one of the most beautiful of Frankish Greece. After its conquest in 1311 the city was used as a capital by the short-lived state of the Catalan Company.

In 1379, the Navarrese Company took the city with the aid of the archbishop Simon Atumano.[n 4]

Latin hegemony in Thebes lasted to 1458, when the Ottomans captured it. The Ottomans renamed Thebes "İstefe" and managed it until the War of Independence (nominally to 1832) except for a Venetian occupation between 1687 and 1699.

Present day[编辑]

Today, Thebes is a bustling market town, known for its many products and wares. Until the 1980s, it had a flourishing agrarian production with some industrial complexes. However during the late 1980s and 1990s the bulk of industry moved further south, closer to Athens. Tourism in the area is based mainly in Thebes and the surrounding villages, where a lot of places of interest related to antiquity exist such as the battlefield where the Battle of Plataea took place. The proximity to other, more famous travel destinations, like Athens and Chalkis, and the undeveloped archaeological sites have kept the tourist numbers low.

Notable people[编辑]

Ancient[编辑]

  • Epaminondas (c. 418-362 BC) general and statesman - Commanded the Theban forces at the battles of Leuktra and Mantinea
  • Pelopidas (c. 420 - 365) general and statesman - Led rebellion against Sparta, commanded the Theban "Sacred band" at Leuktra
  • Aristides (4th century BC) painter
  • Nicomachus (4th century BC) painter
  • Crates of Thebes (c. 365-c. 285 BC) Cynic philosopher
  • Kleitomachos (3rd century BC) athlete
  • Pindar (c. 522–443 BC), poet

Modern[编辑]

See also[编辑]

Notes and references[编辑]

Notes
  1. ^ Found on the TH Ft 140 tablet.[5]
  2. ^ Found on the MY X 508, TH Wu 65, tablets.[5]
  3. ^ Found on the KN Ap 5864, PY Ep 539, tablets.[5]
  4. ^ Portions of the historical section were taken from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica.
References
  1. ^ Detailed census results 2011 (希腊文)
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 Θῆβαι. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.
  3. ^ . Ελληνική Στατιστική Αρχή (Hellenic Statistical Authority) http://www.statistics.gr/portal/page/portal/ESYE/BUCKET/A1604/Other/A1604_SAP02_TB_DC_00_2001_03_F_GR.pdf. [11 December 2013] (希腊文).  已忽略未知参数|script-title= (帮助); 缺少或|title=为空 (帮助)
  4. ^ Kallikratis law. Greek Ministry of the Interior. August 11, 2010 [June 8, 2014] (Greek). 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 5.2 Raymoure, K.A. Thebes. Minoan Linear A & Mycenaean Linear B. Deaditerranean.  The Linear B word te-qa-ja. Palaeolexicon. Word study tool for ancient languages.  KN 5864 Ap (103).  PY 539 Ep + fr. + fr. + fr. (1).  TH 65 Wu (γ).  MY 508 X (unknown).  TH 140 Ft (312). DĀMOS: Database of Mycenaean at Oslo. University of Oslo. 
  6. ^ Θήβασδε. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon.
  7. ^ Palaima, Thomas G. Sacrificial Feasting in the Linear B documents. Hesperia. 2004, 73: 217–246. 
  8. ^ Herodotus Bibliography VII:204 ,222,223.
  9. ^ Alexander the Great. Encyclopædia Britannica.
  10. ^ Plutarch. Phocion. : 17. 
  11. ^ The Parian Marble. The Ashmolean Museum. [12 November 2012]. 
  12. ^ Siculus, Diodorus. Book XIX, 54. Bibliotheca historica. 

Bibliography[编辑]

External links[编辑]

Template:Kallikratis-Central Greece Template:Thebes div Template:Ancient Greece topics