對法輪功的鎮壓

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(重定向自镇压法轮功
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對法輪功的鎮壓,是指從1999年開始,中國共產黨中华人民共和国政府滅絕中華人民共和國的法輪功修煉。鎮壓包括多方面的宣傳攻勢、強迫思想改造及所謂再教育,以及各種的法外強制措施,例如任意逮捕、強迫勞動肉體上折磨,有些修煉者因此死亡[1][2][3]

中國共產黨為此在1999年6月10日設置一個超越憲法的機構610辦公室以主導對法輪功的鎮壓[4];調動了國家官方媒體、司法、警察、軍隊、教育系統、家庭和工廠事業機構[5],並通過電視、報紙、廣播和互聯網的大規模宣傳以推動這場鎮壓[6]。許多報告指出,存在系統性酷刑[7][8]非法拘禁強迫勞動活摘器官[8]和濫用精神病醫療措施,藉以迫使修煉者宣布放棄對法輪功的信仰[9]。據外國觀察家估計,幾十萬、也許數以百萬計的法輪功學員,因為拒絕放棄修煉,而被關押在「勞改」集中營、監獄等關押設施[4][10]。根據曾遭關押的囚犯指出,法輪功學員在勞教集中營總是受到“最長刑期、最糟待遇”,而在一些關押設施中,被關押者,絕大多數是法輪功學員[11][12]

中華民國立法院2004年要求中共停止鎮壓的決議說明文,指李洪志所傳法輪功在世界數十國上億人修煉,「教人修心向善、促使社會道德提升,並使廣大的修煉民眾身心健康」,並指中共「發動全國宣傳機器,全面抹黑、污衊李洪志先生,故外界亦一再質疑,大陸當局一手炮製天安門自焚案等事件,意圖挑起一般人民對法輪功的仇恨。」[13]美國國會2010年要求停止鎮壓的605號決議文指「中共當局在過去十年,在世界範圍內以大量資源長期污衊法輪功(false propaganda)」[14]

背景[编辑]

法輪功是一種結合了的緩慢運動及靜坐冥想的修煉功法,其道德哲學以“真、善、忍”為中心。由李洪志於1992年5月在中國吉林省長春市傳給大眾。修煉人數在1990年代飛速增長,中國共產黨在1999年7月20日發起一場政治運動以“消滅”法輪功[9]

中國政府高層內部立場分歧[编辑]

法轮功把江泽民个人视作对作出镇压决定负责。[15]CNN报导提到中共中央总书记江泽民决定镇压法轮功,可能与其希望在中国共产党中央政治局中加強自己的权力有关;并指出中共中央政治局常委中,李鹏朱镕基李瑞环胡锦涛认为江泽民使用了错误的战略。[16]人權觀察也表示,中国共產黨高層內部,最初對於是否支持江澤民發動对法轮功的鎮壓有嚴重分歧。[17]

在江澤民於1999年7月主導鎮壓後,2000年4月一家中國官方直屬雜誌刊文公開批評鎮壓政策,指「法轮功之所以在中国出现爆炸性增长,就是因为它能满足普通人的需要」,引起國際媒體關注。前總書記胡耀邦的政治秘書林牧指中共高層對是否鎮壓的態度歧異,他抨擊江澤民的鎮壓、強制放棄信仰是「荒謬」,而當時李瑞環朱鎔基胡錦濤等人都和江持不同意見,且高層幹部及家屬煉法輪功的不在少數,並指出425中南海上訪和平合法[18][19]。大紀元時報專訪,中共退休大校軍官辛子陵間接證實,中共1999年鎮壓時,政治局7名常委中有6位不贊成,江澤民在常委通不過鎮壓決定,江又另外開會貫徹其鎮壓主張;前總理溫家寶曾與周永康在2011年就「活摘法輪功學員器官」問題在政治局激烈爭執,溫家寶斥責周「你活摘人體器官連麻藥都不打,這是人幹的事情嗎?我們到現在這個問題還不能面對、還不能解決,你對人民怎麼交待?」[來源請求]並指黨內包括上層,很多人都主張解決此錯誤,不能把鎮壓法輪功問題做為江澤民的遺產一代一代傳下去[20];前總書記趙紫陽政治秘書鮑彤亦透過大紀元公開指責鎮壓者「荒唐」[21]

2012年4月,英國廣播公司BBC國際媒體觀察部指出,在王立軍出逃薄熙來事件後,中國的網絡監控不尋常地解禁「六四事件趙紫陽、法輪功、活摘器官、轉法輪」等關鍵字,等到胡錦濤出訪國外期間,「親薄熙來勢力反擊」又嚴加控制、刪除敏感訊息。這顯示,中共內部高層在法輪功問題上的歧異及權力鬥爭,「正變得日益激烈而不再那麼隱蔽」[22]

2013年4月,BBC國際媒體觀察部指出,中國媒體對遼寧馬三家女子勞教所酷刑虐待勞教人員做出「突破性報道」《走出馬三家》,描述符合法輪功十年前的控訴,異於中國政府往昔一貫否認使用酷刑,且一些國內媒體和記者公開挑戰中宣部禁令及遼寧官方調查結論,顯示「中共領導層內部在勞教制度和法輪功問題上可能存在分歧」[23]

全面镇压前的不公对待[编辑]

事实上,中国政府在1996年就曾有对法轮功的打压。其中在1996年6月17日,《光明日报》发表评论员文章,将《转法轮》一书描绘成封建迷信。[24]随后,中华人民共和国新闻出版署以“宣扬迷信及伪科学”作为理由查禁《转法轮》、《中国法轮功》等书籍[25]。此时法轮功则回应以上事件违背胡耀邦“三不政策”(「對特異功能不宣傳,不爭論,不批評。」另一说法为「不打棍子、不爭論、不報導」)。

1999年4月中國科學院院士何祚庥在《天津科技》杂志上發表了一篇名爲《我不赞成青少年炼气功》的文章。何在文中指出法輪功是「僞科學」,對青少年的健康有害[26],并引起一些法轮功学员的不满。此后在25日,大约万名法轮功学员来到北京中南海附近的国家信访局进行上访[27],以抗议1996年以来法轮功在中国遭受的不公正对待。这件事立即触动了中共高层,特别是时任中共中央总书记江泽民的神经。当晚,江泽民向其他中共领导人写信称:“难道我们共产党人所具有的马克思主义理论,所信奉的唯物论无神论,还战胜不了法轮功所宣扬的那一套东西吗?”[28]

被中国政府全面打压[编辑]

七·二零 镇压正式启动[编辑]

江泽民下令取缔法轮功后,许多针对法轮功的批判活动迅速展开。各类针对法轮功的政治海报被张贴在中国全国各地,对法轮功展开猛烈的攻势。

中国公安从1999年6月6日开始对100多名在北京参加4.25上访的法轮功学员员展开讯问。[29]6月10日,时任中国共产党中央委员会总书记江泽民下令成立610办公室,称「统一研究解决“法轮功”问题的具体步骤、方法和措施」;[30][31]在7月22日正式镇压之前,派出了超过3000名安全局特务在中国国内外调查法轮功。[31]

7月20日凌晨,中国公安在全国各地绑架和拘留了公安认定是负责人的法轮功学员。 [32]两天之后的7月22日,中国政府正式发布了《中华人民共和国民政部关于取缔法轮大法研究会的决定》,开始对法轮功全面镇压。[33]公安部22日发布「六禁止」通告,即禁止民众悬挂、张帖法轮功横幅、图象、标徽记和其它标识;禁止散发法轮功相关材料;禁止弘法等法轮功活动、禁止静坐、上访等方式维护和宣扬法轮功的集会、游行、示威;禁止以谣言或其它方式煽动扰乱社会秩序;禁止组织、串联、指挥对抗政府决定的抗议。[34]

1999年7月22日开始,法轮功在中国被禁,人们被禁止公开练习法轮功、发送法轮功材料、组织对政府禁止法轮功决定的抗议;公安数天内收缴和摧毁了1.5万册法轮功书籍、录像带和光盘,关闭了中国大陆所有法轮功相关网站。[31]镇压开始的最初一周内,至少有5000名法轮功学员被捕和抄家,另有1200名政府官员被拘留和要求学习共产党文件并宣布脱离法轮功。[35]1999年7月27日美国国务院发表声明,呼吁中国政府在对待法轮功的问题上采取克制态度。[29]

西方学者Daniel Wright和Joseph Fewsmith提到,在法轮功于7月22日被宣布为非法后,中国中央电视台每晚半小时的新闻联播,从头至尾渲染反法轮功,在节目中专家、前法轮功练习者、普通居民纷纷发言指控法轮功欺骗信徒、分离家庭、损害健康、影响社会稳定;除此之外,晚间新闻几乎没有其他内容;对此,这两位学者认为:“这种政府操作完全是在妖魔化的分析”[35]

1999年7月29日中國公安部下達一份國際通緝令,以試圖推翻政府罪逮捕身在美國的法輪功創始人李洪志。中國還請求國際刑警組織提供合作,但遭拒絕。[29]针对中国公安部公开通缉法轮功创始人李洪志,同时通过“国际刑警组织中国国家中心局”向国际刑警组织各成员国发出国际协查通报,北京之春杂志评论表示:明眼人一看就知这是中国政府又一场政治闹剧;李洪志目前居住在美国纽约,已获永久居留权,逮捕或通缉已非中国政府警力所能及。而国际刑警协查的前提条件是双方在犯罪认定上的一致性,现在中国政府认定李洪志犯罪,但在美国看来则恰好相反,甚至美国舆论一边倒的同情和支持李洪志和法轮功,批评中南海压制言论自由和迫害宗教自由;美国国务院立即作出明确的回应:因两国没有引渡条约,美国不会把李洪志送到中国政府手里,同时美国对中国当局镇压法轮功表示关切,希望中国遵守已经签署的两国国际人权公约,保护人民集会、结社和信仰自由的权利;国际刑警组织正式回绝了中国政府的要求,甚至像泰国这样的近邻,也拒绝了北京的无理要求。[36]

7月22日正式镇压后随之而来的中国政府系列运动,目的在于通过政治宣传、监禁、强制思想改造等手段「灭绝、根除」法轮功群体,有些法轮功学员因此死亡。[6][37]据官方统计,至1999年年底,至少三万五千名法轮功学员被拘捕。[29]至2001年初,中国政府安全机构已确认在中国党政部门、国有企业和大专院校有约40000名法轮功学员;他们被告知,如不写保证退出法轮功,则将被开除,并将失去退休金。[38]

610辦公室[编辑]

1999年6月10日,中國共產黨“中央处理法輪功问题领导小组”成立,歷任組長李嵐清羅幹周永康,下设常設機構中央处理法輪功问题领导小组办公室,即中央610辦公室。 據美国国会及行政部门中国问题委员会報告及美國智庫報告資料顯示,该办公室是中国共产党管理的国家安全「法外机构」,其主要職責是協調各機關鎮壓法輪功[39][4][40][41],2003年以來,610辦公室的任務已擴大到包括針對被視為異端或有害中國共產黨統治的其他宗教、氣功團體,但法輪功仍然是其首要任務[41]。報導法輪功遭鎮壓情況而獲普利策獎的記者伊恩·約翰遜描 述610辦公室的工作是"動員國家的順從的社會組織(mobilize the country's pliant social organizations)"。在公安機關的指令下,教堂、寺廟、清真寺、報紙、媒體、法院和警察都迅速整隊配合執行當局「粉碎法輪功」的計畫,以任何 手段都不為過。幾天之內一波逮捕席捲全中國。到1999年底,法輪功學員們在關押中於死亡線上掙扎(dying in custody)[5]
著名中國維權律師高智晟在與北大學者焦國標親自調查後,於2005年在給胡錦濤、溫家寶公開信中形容610辦公室是「国家政权内且高于政权力量的黑社会组织,它是可以操纵、调控一切政权资源的黑社会组织。一个国家宪法及国家的权力结构安排规范中没有的组织,却“行使”着本只能由国家机关才能行使的权力及许多连国家机关都根本不能行使的“权力”。它“行使”着在这个星球上,人类有国家文明以来,作为国家从不能拥有的权力。」「以“610”为符号化的的权力,正在持续地以杀戮人的肉体及精神、以镣铐和锁链、电刑、老虎凳等形式与我们的人民“打交道”,这种已完全黑社会化了的权力正在持续地折磨着我们的母亲、我们的姐妹、我们的孩子及我们的整个民族。」並描述了610人員及警察對法輪功學員(不分男女)性器官的「極其下流」攻擊[42][43]美国国际宗教自由委员会要求中國政府立刻撤销610办公室之類組織、勞教所,以落實法治承諾,並停止拘禁、诽谤、消灭法輪功学员,停止强摘法輪功学员等囚犯器官。[44]

镇压原因[编辑]

国际观察家尝试从多个角度来解释中国政府镇压法轮功的原因,包括法轮功的流行、法轮功独立于政府并拒绝听中国政府的话、中国政府内部权力斗争、以及法轮功的道德和精神内涵与无神论的马克思主义不相容。例如有西方学者提出,江泽民个人對於法輪功和李洪志廣受歡迎感到妒忌和愤怒,以及江泽民决心要以马克思主义与法輪功作意識形態斗争的需要,是隨後發生的鎮壓運動的原因所在。[15][45]

新华社声明:「法轮功反对中国共产党和中央政府,追求理想主义、有神论和封建迷信」;[需要第三方來源][46]并且新华社断定,法轮功的真善忍原理与中国共产党努力实现的社会主义道德理念和文化进步没有丝毫共同点,因此有必要摧毁法轮功,以维护共产党的先进地位和纯洁性。[47]在镇压起初,其他发表在中国国家级媒体上的评论也声称法轮功必须被打败,因为法轮功的有神论哲学与马列唯物主义不相容。[47]

Willy Wo-Lap Lam在CNN写道,江泽民可能希望通过文革式运动迫使高级官员对他效忠以增强自己的权威,从而在接下起的中共十六大中占据支配地们;[48]华盛顿邮报报导并非所有政治局常委就法轮功必须被消灭这个论点与总书记江泽民有共识,[49],但政治局中也并没有对江泽民的决定作有力抵制。[50]

中国政府保护五个政府许可的‘爱国’宗教,未登记的宗教是在政府许可的宗教之外,容易受到镇压。[51]加拿大环球邮报报导,任何未在中国政府控制之下的团体均被视作一个威胁。[52]

华尔街日报的克莱格·史密斯英语Craig S. Smith称,中国政府没有精神信仰,欠缺在道德上战胜精神对手的信誉,故对任何挑战其意识形态且有能力组织自己的信仰体系感到威胁。[53]Julia Ching在American Asian Review表示,代表中国传统宗教复兴的法轮功信仰体系,被众多中共党员和军队成员所奉行,这个事实特别令江泽民感到困扰;江泽民把法轮功视作,在意识形态领域对中国政府崇尚斗争的无神论历史唯物主义构成威胁的精神信仰;希望在政府和军队消灭这样的精神信仰。[54]

Yuezhi Zhao认为,法轮功学员已经建立了一种『抵制身份』(resistance identity),与中国社会盛行的对金钱、权力、科学理性的追求以及中国现代化的整个价值体系相对立。[55]Sumner B Twiss认为,在中国,法轮功是中国本土的精神和道德传统的一个文化复兴运动,与中国政府的中国特色马克思主义完全对立。[56]

Vivienne Shue写道,法轮功展现了对共产党合法性的全面挑战。[57]David Ownby 也同意法轮功构成了共产党对中华民族统治地位的挑战,法轮功唤起了一种与中国政府不同的中国传统和当代价值观,令中国政府感受到威胁,因为法轮功否定了中国政府对中国民族主义和中国人作定义的唯一权力。[58]

镇压后中國法轮功学员遭遇[编辑]

2000年2月和3月15名被關押的法輪功學員喪生。[29]2000年4月19日:新華社公佈,總共有84名法輪功成員被判刑。[29]

一份2004年的联合国报告显示,数以十万计的法轮功学员据信未经合法程序而遭关押,被拘禁的学员遭到中国政府强迫劳动、被滥用精神病药物、酷刑,以及强制思想改造等。[59][60][61]

2005年12月,人权观察引述据一些曾遭劳改系统关押者的说法,在中国的劳改营(劳教所)及监狱设施里,法轮功学员是最大量的被关押群体,而且往往遭受最长的关押期、最糟糕的对待。 [62][63]

2008年美国国务院、美国国会美中委员会引述外国观察家的估计,中国的劳改营(劳动教养所)被关押者一半以上是法轮功学员[64][65]2009年研究员伊森·葛特曼估计,法轮功学员大约占全中国「劳改总人数」 的15%至20%。 [66]

2012 年12月23日,美国奥勒冈州主要报纸《俄勒冈人报》(The Oregonian)报导说,一封来自中国劳教所的信藏在美国俄勒冈居民朱丽叶‧凯斯购买的万圣节用品当中,信上写道:“先生:如果你偶然间购买了这个产 品,请帮忙转送这封信给世界人权组织。这里处在中国政府迫害之下的数千人将永远感谢并记住您。”这封没有署名的信说,这个坟墓包是在沈阳马三家劳教所二 所八大队制造的。在英文语句之间夹杂着中文词语。“在这里工作的人们不得不一天工作15个小时,没有周六周日休息和任何节假日。否则,他们就将遭到酷刑, 殴打和粗暴的话语。几乎没有工资(一个月10元人民币)。”“这里的人平均被判1至3年劳教,但是却没有经过正常法庭判决。他们许多人是法轮功学员,他们 完全是无辜的人,仅仅因为他们有不同于中国共产党政府的信仰。他们常常遭受比其他人更多的惩罚。”这封信引起了世人的震惊和关注。[67]

镇压期间离开中国的法轮功学员[编辑]

覃永洁[编辑]
覃永洁(Tan Yongjie)的两腿被施加烧红的铁条烙13回,为了逼迫他放弃法轮功[68]

美联社2001年7月报导,在中国遭折磨的覃永洁辗转逃到美国,经休斯顿Park Plaza医院治疗烧伤后出院。覃永洁是广东省保安县工人,1998年6月开始修炼法轮功,1999年法轮功在中国被镇压后,覃被拘留多次。2001年4 月25日,覃因散发传单吁政府停止鎮壓而再次被捕,遭毒打,未经审判被送入博罗县(译音)的劳改营,被手铐铐住吊了5个多小时;2001年6月2日,覃被 绑在一个柱子上,被用烧红的铁条烙他的腿,烙了13次,逼迫他放弃法轮功。世界日报采 访中提到2001年6月2日,覃永洁被三个管教殴打、逼迫写悔过书,覃沉默;「结果一个管教把我绑在柱子上,一个管教将一根生锈的铁条在电炉上烧红之後, 往我的大腿、小腿灼伤,还不断地问『你还练不练?』。」覃痛得发抖、大叫,「管教」像拖狗般把他扔在外面,後关进小号。「後来,管教看我行走困难而又痛得无法入睡,他们认为我不可能逃走,就把我叫去看管果园。果园范围广阔,我趁人不注意逃脱。」覃永洁逃离果园後,搭一卡车潜入香港,6月10日混进一货轮的集装箱中,半月海上航行后24日在加州偷渡入境。[69][68][70][71]

吴晓红、马海燕、林鸿斌等[编辑]

2012年4月,中国公民马海燕一家三代六口(马女士和先生两人,两个孩子分别是8岁、6岁,两位老人60多少岁,六人均修炼法轮功),加上林鸿斌、吴晓红、李先生三位法轮功学员,以及广西民运人士覃夕权先生,共十人,为躲避中国政府迫害,逃难到马来西亚,获联合国难民身份,并合购一艘游艇,孤帆一片,飘洋过海,拟到新西兰避难。历经27天海上艰险,经过澳洲公海时,游艇耗尽燃油,水尽粮绝,发出SOS求救信号后,被一澳洲渔船发现,后获得澳洲海关救援船施救。澳洲纽西兰纽澳两国总理均派出代表与他们会谈,忠告他们不要继续他们危险的航程去5000里之遥的纽西兰,澳洲移民官员伸出援手,当地主流媒体广泛关注报导,著名澳洲人权律师大卫‧曼纳(David Manne)为他们提供免费法律援助。在中国因修炼法轮功,十人中林鸿斌、吴晓红、李先生曾被判刑,马海燕及其母亲曾被抄家、被劳教、被迫流离失所,因基本人身安全得不到保障,他们冒险逃出了中国。[72][73][74][75]

因支持法轮功学员反镇压而被打压的中國民众[编辑]

黃琦[编辑]

六四天網的创办人黃琦曾因「為六四鳴冤、為民運吶喊、為法輪功叫屈」,于2000年遭到逮捕入獄。[76]

高智晟[编辑]

2005年11月据自由亚洲电台援引华盛顿邮报报导道,中国著名维權律師高智晟发表「给中国国家主席胡锦涛和总理温家宝的公开信」,要求中国政府尊重宗教和信仰自由,停止镇压法轮功。北京市司法局在高智晟拒绝收回这封公开信后,宣布对他行政处罚,停止执业一年。[77]

八九学生民主运动领袖王丹表示向高智晟表达敬意和支持,认为他是2005年的中国英雄。王丹写道:大陆著名权律师高智晟给胡锦涛温家宝发出的公开信《停止迫害自由信仰者改善同中国人民的关系》催人泪下,其中列举经高智晟勇敢的亲身调查所查证的令人发指的恶性侵犯人权案例。高智晟以理性和悲悯的态度,指出镇压法轮功学员严重破坏人们对法治建设的信心,破坏了中国人朴素和诚实的道德价值,道出了基层警察厌倦镇压和镇压带来更坚韧延绵的抗争的事实。高智晟清醒的以一个公民而不是律师的身份写信。作为职业律师,他已尽力,并让人们看清中国律师在职业范围内几乎没有能力维护法轮功学员基本人权的事实。王丹认为如果高律师以犬儒的态度忽略所看到的事实,会成为现行体制下名利双收的律师;可面对人权受到侵犯的事件,纵使才华横溢,也无能为力,因为这里法律只是个摆设,甚至是笑话。[78]

高律师于2006年12月21日被以「煽動顛覆國家政權罪」判處有期徒刑三年,緩刑五年,剝奪政治權利一年。[79]维权人士胡佳认为这个判决是使当局既能减低国际压力,同时又能减低高智晟影响力的两全之策。[79]

力虹[编辑]

正当盛年的中国诗人、剧作家、自由撰稿人,自由宪章奖获得者力虹于2010年12月31日去世,年仅52岁。[80]据报导,中国的法院对力虹实行重判,并在其身染重疾之后迟迟不同意保外就医,是由于力虹同情法轮功学员、声援高智晟律师。在力虹病入膏肓之时,有关当局连特意从国外赶回看弟弟的力虹姐姐都不让见面,纽约中文期刊“北京之春”主编胡平认为「这是因为害怕外界知道中国政府残害因言获罪的知识分子的真相」。[81]

2006 年,力虹听闻中国政府活体摘除法轮功学员器官后,奋笔疾书抨击中国政府,发表《被盗的器官在呼啸》、《活摘门方兴未艾、奥运门又将开启》等;在高智晟律师 被捕后,发表《还我高智晟,还我中国的良心》、《为民请罪的高智晟》;之后力虹被捕、于2007年3月19日被宁波中级法院以煽动颠覆国家政权罪判处6年 有期徒刑。[81][82]

效命中国国安反法轮功而被国外司法机关确认和处罚的海外人士[编辑]

  • 2010年5月,德籍华人约翰·周因为610公室充当反法轮功的间谍,在德国被缓刑和重金罚款;约翰是几年前回国探望生病的父亲时,被中国国安和610办公室收買。[83][84]
  • 2010年7月,據加拿大权威新闻杂志Maclean's报导,魁北克高等法院法官曼德維爾(Catherine Mandeville)裁决蒙特利爾中文週報《華僑時報》(La Presse Chinoise)的發行人周錦興(Crescent Chau)與北京宣傳機構有密切聯繫,證實《華僑時報》得到北京政府的資助。[85]
  • 2002年中華民國法務部調查局調查員厲開平,涉嫌蒐集台灣法輪功資料,以電腦網路傳送到大陸。法務部後將厲開平記兩大過免職,並移送法辦。[86]
  • 2004年中華民國法務部調查局逮捕了前國防部軍情局一名軍官,涉嫌收受中國大陸国家安全机关170多萬元,為中國大陸收集台灣法輪功成員名冊,同時與另一名軍情局少校及境管局查驗員,共同刺探香港立法會議員入出境台灣紀錄。桃園檢方昨偵查終結後,以違反國安法及洩密罪嫌提起公訴,具體求刑三年。[87]
  • 2011年台灣中央警察大學副教授、同時也是知名風水命理師吳彰裕,驚傳為中國大陸情報部門蒐集中國列管的民運人士、法輪功、支持西藏獨立等團體在台活動情資。經由台北地檢署偵辦,檢察官漏夜複訊後,依串供及有逃亡之虞,向台北地院聲請羈押禁見獲准。[88][89][90][91][92]
  • 2012年10月31日,針對2010年4月中華愛國同心會會長周慶峻率該會成員在台北101大樓前妨害陳建仁等3名法輪功學員行使言論及表達自由案件,台湾台北地方法院應依中華民國刑法第304條(強制罪),判決「周慶峻共同以強暴妨害人行使權利,處有期徒刑貳月,如易科罰金,以新臺幣壹仟元折算壹日。王美敦、張金德均無罪。」[93]
  • 2012年中華民國國家安全局退职情报员蔡国宾及国防部退伍少校王维亚,涉嫌被中國大陸情报单位吸收,蒐集涉及国家机密的书籍等资讯给对岸。板桥地检署2012年4月17日依违反国家机密保护法等罪嫌起诉两人。起诉书指出,王维亚涉嫌从95年起蒐集法轮功动态、国民党未公开的内部选情分析等资讯,并偕同蔡国宾蒐集由退休情治官员出版的「情报生涯30年」一书,此书因被认定涉及国家机密,出版前就遭到查扣。[94]

镇压与反镇压之战[编辑]

7.20中国政府媒体反法轮功的运动及相关评论[编辑]

中国政府反法轮功的运动是由电视、报纸、电台和网络驱动的。[6][32]在镇压发生的一个月内,中国国内的每家全国性媒体发表都300-400篇文章攻击法轮功,中国电视台在黄金时间的节目重播对法轮功的指控,其中没有任何不同的看法。[95]这场宣传运动集中指控法轮功影响社会稳定、欺骗和危险、威胁社会进步,表示法轮功的伦理哲学和马克思主义的社会伦理观不相容。[96]

对此,中国民主联合阵线的陈汉中先生表示:“江泽民之流在资产阶级经济大复苏二十年後的今天,沿袭毛泽东无产阶级文化大革命的伎俩‘取缔’法轮功,以为自己的威望比毛泽东还高,不知是弱智还是自大狂,法轮功还未取缔完,江泽民之流已经被历史取缔了。”[36]

中国非政府组织中国发展联合会王林建先生撰文表示:凡经历过三十年前的文化大革命的人,对批判“法轮功”的语言和手法,大概不会感到陌生。中国政府镇压“法轮功”,我的第一感觉是“文革”那一套又来了。许多人和我有同样的感觉,文革语言,深藏多年之後,今天再次登台亮相,恐吓人民的心理。“文革”就象地震。毛泽东说过:文化大革命,过七、八年就要来一次,不是吗?你看,毛泽东的“文革”结束後,过了6年,到1983年,邓小平便开始了他的“文革”。清除“精神污染”,反对资产阶级自由化;又过了6年,到1989年、1990年,邓的“文革”又开始了,反对“和平演变”。再过9年,就到了1999年,江泽民发动反对“法轮功”的运动,开始了他的“文革”。从这点说,江主席不愧是毛主席的好学生,中国政府的第三代合格领导人。[97]


法轮功学员抗议镇压的活动[编辑]

信访办上访[编辑]

法轮功对在中国发生的镇压的回应,最初是1999年7月在地方政府、省政府和中央政府的信访办上访,纽约时报1999年10月报导,不同数量的法轮功成员持续向北京施压。[98]

在中国大陆电视报纸上,丝毫没有法轮功学员的声音,法轮功学员到北京的「信访办公室」上访,马上就被抓进拘留所酷刑折磨。[99]清华大学毕业生,爱尔兰都柏林三一学院计算机科学专业的研究生赵明,99年底回中国,去政府信访办登记他反对迫害,立即被拘留,护照被扣留。[100]

北京外国记者招待会[编辑]

纽约时报1999年10月29日报导,约30位法轮功学员28日在北京郊区秘密与7名外国媒体记者会面。在场的法轮功学员们冒巨大风险,向外国记者们叙述7月镇压以来他们遭受日益恶劣的骚扰、抓捕甚至肉体折磨,呼吁国际社会施压中国政府,要求停止残酷镇压。其中来自辽宁的两位中国警察谈到上司要求他们在法轮功和职业之间作出选择;一个来自黑龙江的11岁孩子表示他因修炼法轮功被禁止上学。[101]

美联社同一天的报导,中国政府消息透露十月底这一周内,全国除西藏外有3000名法轮功学员被拘留;该记者招待会发生的过程,是七位外国记者收到有关秘密 新闻的电邮,先与法轮功学员在北京一家饭店会面,然后法轮功学员们开车把外国记者们带到了北京郊区一个旅馆开记者招待会;与会的一位法轮功学员向记者们展 示她被手铐弄伤的手腕,另一人描述了公安如何用电棍烧她的脸。[102]

参加该记者会的法轮功学员普遍受到迫害,其中记者会的主办者之一、石家庄人民电台原记者及主任、法轮功学员谷林娜因此被判刑四年。[34]事后,至少5位外国记者受到中国公安审问、被扣留在中国的居留许可、以及被警告在中国采访法轮功学员属非法。[103]据大赦国际,设于中国的外国记者俱乐部抗议中国公安因其成员报导法轮功而进行「跟踪、拘留、审问和威胁」;路透社美联社纽约时报等媒体的记者因参加法轮功学员主办的外国记者招待会,而被中国公安宣称是「非法报导」,并受中国公安逼迫签署认罪书、外国记者们在中国的工作签证及居留证被中国公安暂时扣留。[1]

天安門廣場請願[编辑]

镇压后法轮功学员在天安门广场被殴打

不久演变成更大规模的示威(請願),即每天数百法轮功学员抵达天安门广场炼法轮功或举横幅为法轮功辩护。[104]这些示威无一例外被公安击破,参加示威的学员被抓捕(有时被施加暴力)和拘留。[104]2000年2月5日數十名法輪功成員在中國農歷新年到來之際在天安門廣場舉行示威,立即受到警方圍捕。[29]2000年初,爱尔兰的中国留学生赵明因在天安门广场和平示威,被拘留并被判劳教两年,受到电击、剥夺睡眠、殴打等酷刑。[105]

纽约时报2000年2月11日报导,2000年中国农历新年期间,约500法轮功学员因天安门广场和平示威、抗议镇压时被拘留,其中包括少数美国法轮功学员。[104]

纽约时报报导,新华社于2000年4月21日首次承认中国政府在镇压法轮功中遇到困难,因为「自1999年7月22日镇压以来,法轮功学员每天在天安门广场制造麻烦」。[106]美国记者Ron Gluckman报导,在4.25一周年那天,老人、女人和儿童在天安门广场被公安猛烈扑倒在地,数十人被捕,有西方游客目击公安把法轮功学员击倒在地并拖走,感到非常可怕;该记者表示一年来北京对法轮功的铁腕镇压未能战胜法轮功。[107]

2000年4月25日,超过30,000名法轮功学员在天安门广场被捕。[104]2000年10月1日,数千法轮功学员到天安门广场抗议镇压,外国记者目击中国政府公安官员在天安门广场当众殴打法轮功学员。[108]

2001年在天安门广场的抗议继续持续,元月一日,700名学员在天安门广场示威时被捕。[109]普立茲奖获得者、记者张彦(Ian Johnson)表示,(在受到镇压后)法轮功学员维护自己信仰的努力可能形成了50年来对共产党统治的最大挑战。[110]

2001年11月20日,据法新社美联社报道,三十五名来自欧洲北美洲澳大利亚的外国法轮功学员于下午2点在天安门广场上打开一面写有『真善忍』的横幅,并且闭目打坐,这些人很快被中国警察带走,其中有人受到暴力折磨;第二天德通社援引美国、德国、法国和瑞典驻华大使馆官员的话说,来自十二个国家的法轮功学员大都被送上回各自国家的飞机。[111]

来 自澳大利亚、加拿大、法国、德国、爱尔兰、以色列、瑞典、瑞士、英国以及美国等十二个国家的法轮功学员被驱除出境;中国外交部发言人章启月于2001年 11月22日表示:「中国政府日前处理外国法轮功学员在天安门广场示威事件,是依法办事,这些人在中国受到了人道和公正的待遇」。[112]但这些外籍人士不同意章启月的看法,表示在天安门广场,他们有的被扯头发、有的鼻梁被打伤、有的被踢中要害;到了公安局后,几个瑞典女学员因拒绝听从指令,被警察从楼梯上踢下楼;一澳大利亚学员,被打得肿个大包,全身是抓伤,怎么能说这是人道和公正?[112]瑞典驻华使馆官员表示,中国政府未立即和瑞典使馆联系,就拘留外国人,违反国际惯例;尽管中国公安对外籍法轮功人士并没象对待中国国内法轮功学员那样施以更多暴力,但瑞典大使馆仍然抗议中国政府对这些人的身体进行「粗暴对待」。[112]

据 美国之音援引参与11月20日天安门广场示威的加拿大法轮功学员、23岁的大学生泽农,这些法轮功学员在以往就认识,很早相约要去天安门广场请愿,这一次 大家约定星期二下午两点在天安门广场汇合;他们各自分别进入中国,并于约定时间准时在天安门广场汇合。泽农在提前写好的声明「我为什么要去天安门」中表 示,「之所以要到天安门广场,是想用他一个白人的面孔和行为,告诉被蒙骗的中国人,法轮大法在世界各地都是受到尊重和欢迎的,只有在它的发源地却受到这样 残酷的打击」。[113]

2002年2月14日,CNN报导,北美、欧洲和澳洲的法轮功学员天安门广场展开上面写着『法轮大法好』的横幅,其中约40名被抓捕,其中数位被公安扑倒在地、施加脚踢拳打,中国游客围观了该事件。[114]北京警方声明说「法轮功学员制造麻烦是为了不让中国人民庆祝新年」。[114]这是一周内的第二次西方法轮功学员在天安门广场抗议,农历新年时,一加拿大法轮功学员和一美国法轮功学员也在广场示威。[114]

资料点[编辑]

2001年结束时,中国法轮功学员在天安门广场的公开呼吁不再频繁,转向在民间向民众「讲真相」。他们建立了较隐蔽的「资料点」制作传单和DVD等反击官方媒体对法轮功的描绘,然后向民众挨家挨户发送这些材料。[115]法轮功来源估计,至2009年,在中国有超过20万这种资料点的存在。[116]

一张10元人民币钞票,印有“法轮大法好,祛病健身佳”及“退党团队超一亿人,手拉手连起来,可绕地球三圈”的口号。

制作、持有或发送这些资料,经常是公安对法轮功学员监禁或判刑的理由。[117]近年,中国一些流通的低面额人民币纸币上,出现法轮功学员所写或印制的简短文字,或回击官媒的描绘,或推广法轮功理念。[118]

中国大陆各地禁止邪教的宣传不时可见,但这些宣传一般并没有明文提到法轮功。

至今,中国政府和法輪功信众仍持續舆论对峙,雙方常大量引用駭人照片:中國官方發佈所謂法輪功学员自焚照等(爭議性的天安門自焚事件),而法輪功文獻及網站則提供被虐学员的肢體照片記錄。[119]

法輪功学员展开法律起诉行动[编辑]

中国政府发动镇压以来,海外法轮功学员在许多国家起诉了参与鎮壓的中国政府高官。2007年,薄熙来在澳大利亚被判酷刑罪。[120]

2009年,西班牙国家法庭法官依斯马尔·莫雷诺(Ismael Moreno)向在中国大陆的江泽民罗干薄熙来等五个被告递送调查信,信中就每个被告介入鎮壓法轮功的情况提问。[121]

2009年12月17日,在经过四年的调查取证后,阿根廷最高法院宣判江泽民及罗干等针对法轮功修炼者的人士干犯群体灭绝罪及酷刑罪,并下达逮捕令。[122]同年11月,西班牙国家法院的法官伊斯梅尔·莫雷诺下令,就法轮功学员在华遭受酷刑折磨案,对前中国领导人江泽民等人提起公诉。[123]

据2012年4月BBC报导,薄熙来3月15号突然被免职后,中国的网络监控出现不寻常情况。一些曾经被屏蔽的搜索词汇例如“1989年六四事件”、“赵紫阳”、“法轮功”、“转法轮”、“器官活摘”等词汇时不时可以在中国的搜索引擎百度新浪微博查 到。在4月6日,很多被禁内容重新可以搜索到。比如,当天的新浪微博上可以搜索到上千个“活体器官摘除”的结果。其中大多和法轮功的指控有关;在北美的中 文网站博讯引述“北京消息人士”的话说,打击谣言的运动正好在中国最高领导人胡锦涛出访期间展开,“是亲薄熙来势力的一次反击”。[124]

镇压与反镇压中的广播、电视和网站[编辑]

有线电视插播[编辑]

2002年3月5日,长春市有线电视八个频道播出《法轮大法洪传世界》、《是自焚还是骗局》等电视片,长达五十分钟,使当地民众误以为镇压法轮功已经停止,聚集在广场庆祝。[125]美国旗帜周刊2010年12月6日发表标题为《进入细微的电波 - 几位不为人知的中国烈士如何帮助全世界的自由事业》的长篇报导,叙述了六位长春法轮功学员刘成军、梁振兴、雷明、刘海波、侯明凯、周润君等进行电视插播的过程及事件前后细节。

该插播事件的背景,是在2001年初中国大陆电视长时间渲染恐怖的天安门自焚后,中国民众自99年镇压开始后对法轮功学员的普遍同情正在消失,这六人希望民众从与官方电视不一样的角度来看自焚事件。[125]

事件发生后紧接着的三天内,长春官员因被上级警告如再有一次插播,将被开除公职,于是当地公安抓捕了约2000-5000长春法轮功学员,大赦国际称长春公安是全城搜捕。参与插播的刘海波、侯明凯、刘成军、梁振兴、雷明等被先后暴打、酷刑折磨至死。[125]

BOXUN报导称2002年8月23日、27日晚上7、8点钟,大陆法轮功学员在河北省涞水易县涿州高碑店徐水保定周边地区,成功播放包括电视片《见证》、《法轮大法洪传世界》长达70多分钟。[126]自由亚洲电台评论中提到,长春有线电视插播先后,2002年重庆鞍山哈尔滨莱阳烟台等城市的法轮功学员也实施有线电视插播,但以长春事件影响最大,当局逮捕5千人;而重庆在1月1日及6月1日发生两次,1月1日事件中,一法轮功学员据称病死狱中,另外4位分别被判16年、15年、9年、7年的重刑。[127]

被中国政府指控的卫星电视插播[编辑]

2005 年3月14日21时34分,亚洲卫星公司所属亚洲3S卫星6个C波段转发器先后被宣传法轮功内容的电视信号干扰,致使租用该转发器的中国几个省级电视台正 常的电视节目中断。该公司行政总裁翟克信证实确有此事。但据美国之音采访报导,法轮功发言人表示:“至于这次插播事件,我们不清楚是谁做的,至少跟我们法 轮功没有关系。我知道在中国大陆有很多人很同情法轮功,或者对中国政府镇压法轮功不满,或者对中国在国内的政策、错误决定、腐败和践踏人权的行为不满,他 们有很多方式来表示不满”。[128]

明慧網[编辑]

自法輪功於1999年6月21日成立明慧網,且表示不斷蒐集中国政府鎮壓法輪功的黑幕后,相繼出現亞太正悟網、正見網,其中有不少法輪功學員指責中國政府非法關押法輪功學員、訴請停止鎮壓法輪功的文章、以及國際官方支持法輪功的聲明……等根據。

法輪功學員相关媒體[编辑]

中国政府在1999年開始對法輪功學員的打压,並運用中國境內的一切官方媒體抵制法輪功。打压初期,国际媒體也大量轉載了中国大陆媒體的報導,導致部分國家對法輪功的了解可能出现偏差。有鑑於此,海外的法輪功學員決定創辦自己的媒體,以“揭露真相”。如世界各地發行的《大紀元時報》、美國紐約新唐人電視台希望之聲廣播電台等。在宣佈取締法輪功後,中國政府開始將法輪功設為敏感詞並在中國大陸境內屏蔽包含其內容的諸多網站。[129][130]

法輪功追随者在全球華語媒體世界有組織有媒體地動員對中國官方媒體的反制與挑戰, 學者趙月枝認為是最具戲劇張力媒體力量的展現。 [131]BBC在《法輪功的“威脅”》中分析:「法輪功的電腦互聯網絡廣泛,網站詳細列明世界各主要城市內,法輪功學習中心的活動。法輪功組織善用互連網傳播信息,這也是中國政府擔心的原因。」[132]

争议[编辑]

关于宗教自由的争议[编辑]

路透社報導,聯合國宗教信仰自由問題特派專員比勒費爾特表示為法輪功辯護,在2010年10月在聯合國大會上報告指出,法輪功等社會弱勢信仰團體被認為是邪教,因此常受社會歧視、甚至升級為針對「顛覆陰謀」的打擊[133]。一名參與會議的中共北京當局代表對此提出抗議,並稱中國所有宗教都在「和諧並存」。這名代表強調法輪功是「邪教」,而不是宗教,並說中國「根絕」法輪功是合理的。[134]

(註:中國政府公安部認定邪教名單,法輪功不在其內[135])聯合國大會在過去五年都通過了譴責誹謗宗教行為的無約束力決議,一些西方國家認為,這類行為對言論自由構成威脅。比勒費爾特在其發言中沒有直接提及誹謗宗教一詞,但他說,宗教自由並不代表任何教派都不應被批評。[134]前中共610警官郝凤军说,“作为普通老百姓,他们是看不到法轮功的真实情况的,他们只能看到政府的媒体编造的法轮功如何害人的假话或中共炮制的谎言。如天 安门自焚,杀乞丐等连篇累牍的报道,就是要向人民被灌输:法轮功就是邪教。他们把所有的社会丑恶状态,都归结到法轮功的头上,他们甚至还可以无中生有。[136]

法律争议[编辑]

《中华人民共和国公安部关于认定和取缔邪教组织若干问题的通知》(公通字[2000]39号)中关于“现已认定的邪教组织情况”表明,到目前为止共认定和明确 的邪教组织有14种。其中,中央办公厅、国务院办公厅文件明确的有7种,公安部认定和明确的有7种。这是到目前为止关于邪教认定最新的一个正式文件。公安 部在认定邪教组织时,明确是根据《刑法》和一系列处理邪教组织的文件精神,参考了两高司法解释的定义,然后重新定义。其中沒有法輪功。[137]當時資料中並未包含法輪功。

根据《中华人民共和国刑法》第300条规定:组织和利用会道门、邪教组织或者利用迷信破坏国家法律、行政法规实施的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑;情节特别严重的,处七年以上有期徒刑。而关于中华人民共和国政府对邪教的定义,《中国最高人民法院最高人民检察院关于办理组织和利用邪教组织犯罪案件具体应用法律若干问题的解释》一文中指出:刑法第三百条中的“邪教组织”,是 指冒用宗教、气功或者其他名义建立,神化首要分子,利用制造、散布迷信邪说等手段蛊惑、蒙骗他人,发展、控制成员,危害社会的非法组织。

北京維權律师莫少平表示:「无论从刑法的三百条还是全国人大的决定,以及两高的解释里面都没有明确说法轮功是邪教,只有两高颁布司法解释的通知里面才确认说法轮功是邪教,两高的这个通知本身是不符合中国立法的规定。」[138]另 一位国内律师针对两高司法解释的通知,表示:这文件是内部通知,不是公开的法律文件,法律文件必须公之于众才生效,否则就是不教而诛;两高在公开的文件中 不认定法轮功是邪教,在内部通知中又说成邪教,是很不严肃,而且最高法院只能就司法审判如何适用法律进行解释,不能超越这个职权去认定什么社会组织是邪教 组织或者非法组织,这是行政权力而非司法权力的范围;这文件是对刑法300条的越权解释。[139]

纽约时报》报道称[140]中国政府将法轮功学员未经律师辩护甚至未经任何审判就投入狱中,即使辩护权是中国刑法授予的。此外,香港人权监察[141]至1999年7月以来,中国政府至少将5000名法轮功学员未经审判而直接监押。

強摘器官的指控[编辑]

2006年,三名證人指稱,有數千名法輪功學員被殺死以供應中國的器官移植產業[142][143][144]喬高-麥塔斯調查報告調查發現,“在2000年至2005年,中國至少有41,500例器官移植,器官來源不明”,並認定“到今天仍持續大規模從法輪功學員進行非自願的器官掠奪”[8]。中國問題專家葛特曼經獨立調查,估計在2000年至2008年北京奧運期間,有65,000名法輪功學員因被掠奪器官而死亡[145]。 聯合國特別報告員在2008年重申了聯合國機構的請求:“中國政府應充分說明,關於摘取法輪功學員器官的指控,以及中國器官移植自2000年以來數量暴增的器官來源為何“[146]

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 China: The crackdown on Falun Gong and other so-called "heretical organizations". Amnesty International. 23 March 2000 [17 March 2010].  引用错误:带有name属性“Amnesty1”的<ref>标签用不同内容定义了多次
  2. ^ Spiegel, Mickey. Dangerous Meditation: China's Campaign Against Falungong. Human Rights Watch. 2002 [28 September 2007]. ISBN 1-56432-269-6. 
  3. ^ Banding after the Ban: the underground Falungong in China, 1999–2011 Tong, James W.著 Journal of Contemporary China. Nov 2012, Vol. 21 Issue 78, p1045-1062.
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 Congressional-Executive Commission on China (31 October 2008) ‘Annual Report 2008’ Retrieved 24 December 2013. 引用错误:带有name属性“CECC2008”的<ref>标签用不同内容定义了多次
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 Johnson, Ian. Wild Grass: Three Portraits of Change in Modern China. New York, NY: Vintage. 2005. ISBN 0375719199.  引用错误:带有name属性“wildgrass”的<ref>标签用不同内容定义了多次
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 6.2 Leung, Beatrice (2002) 'China and Falun Gong: Party and society relations in the modern era', Journal of Contemporary China, 11:33, 761 – 784 引用错误:带有name属性“Leung”的<ref>标签用不同内容定义了多次
  7. ^ (23 March 2000) The crackdown on Falun Gong and other so-called heretical organizations, Amnesty International
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 8.2 David Kilgour, David Matas (6 July 2006, revised 31 January 2007) An Independent Investigation into Allegations of Organ Harvesting of Falun Gong Practitioners in China (free in 22 languages) organharvestinvestigation.net
  9. ^ 9.0 9.1 Spiegel 2002.
  10. ^ U.S. Department of State, 2009 Country Report on Human Rights: China (includes Hong Kong and Macau)
  11. ^ Human Rights Watch V. Abuses Against Petitioners in Beijing of report "We Could Disappear at Any Time" December 2005
  12. ^ Leeshai Lemish, "The Games are Over, the Persecution Continues", National Post 7 October 2008
  13. ^ 立法院公報 93卷33期 院會記錄(2004年決議全文-要求停止打壓法輪功). 立法院國會圖書館. 2004年6月. 
  14. ^ H. RES. 605. 美國國會. 2010-03-16. ...Chinese authorities have devoted extensive time and resources over the past decade worldwide to distributing false propaganda... 
  15. ^ 15.0 15.1 Dean Peerman,China syndrome: the persecution of Falun Gong, Christian Century, 10 August 2004
  16. ^ Lam, Willy Wo-Lap.CNN, 5 February 2001"China's sect suppression carries a high price"
  17. ^ Spiegel, Mickey; Joseph Saunders, Sidney Jones, Malcolm Smart, Jim Ross. Dangerous Meditation: China's Campaign Against Falungong (PDF). Human Rights Watch. 2002年1月 [17 March 2010]. 
  18. ^ 中国官方杂志批评镇压法轮功. RFA自由亞洲電台. 2000-04-14. 
  19. ^ 訪林牧:中共高層對待法輪功內幕. 大紀元時報. 2006-05-14. 
  20. ^ 新唐人記者秦雪採訪. 專訪辛子陵:江澤民一定會受到歷史審判. 大紀元時報. 2015-04-21. 
  21. ^ 專訪鮑彤:修煉法輪功沒有錯 鎮壓者喪心病狂. 大紀元時報. 2015-04-24. 
  22. ^ BBC國際媒體觀察部. 網絡封殺與解禁暴露中共權斗激烈. BBC英國廣播公司. 2012-04-06. 
  23. ^ BBC國際媒體觀察部. 分析:馬三家酷刑報道顯示中共內部分歧. BBC英國廣播公司. 2013-05-12. 
  24. ^ David Palmer, “Qigong Fever:Body, Science and Utopia in China,” p 249.
  25. ^ s:中华人民共和国新闻出版署关于重申有关法轮功出版物处理意见的通知
  26. ^ 何祚庥. 我不赞成青少年炼气功. 《天津科技》1999年04期. 非雜誌官方線上版參考
  27. ^ 法輪功中南海事件真相揭秘. 大纪元时报. 2008-04-26. 
  28. ^ 江泽民文选第二卷--党和国家主要领导人选集、文选、专集--中国共产党新闻. 人民网. 
  29. ^ 29.0 29.1 29.2 29.3 29.4 29.5 29.6 引用错误:没有为名为.E6.B3.95.E8.BC.AA.E5.8A.9F.E7.A4.BA.E5.A8.81.E5.91.A8.E5.B9.B4.E5.9B.9E.E9.A1.A7的参考文献提供内容
  30. ^ Jiang Zemin, Letter to Party cadres on the evening of April 25, 北京之春,no. 97 (June 2001)
    4月25日以来,我一直在思考,我们党已经搞了近80年的革命和建设,掌握着国家政权,有250万人民军队,有6000多万党员,有一大批高中级领导干部, 为什么却让“法轮功”这样的问题冒了出来,而且闹到这种程度呢?显然,一个李洪志,不可能有这么大的能耐。“法轮功”问题有很深的政治社会背景乃至复杂的国际背景。这是1989年那场政治风波以来最严重的一次事件。我们必须认真对待,深入研究,采取有力对策,中央已同意李岚清同志负责,将成立一个专门处理“法轮功”问题领导小组。李岚清同志任组长,丁关根、罗干同志任副组长,有关部门负责同志为成员,统一研究、解决“法轮功”问题的具体步骤、方法和措施。中央和国家机关各部委、各省、自治区、直辖市要密切配合。
  31. ^ 31.0 31.1 31.2 Michael J. Greenlee(University of Idaho College of Law). A King Who Devours His People: Jiang Zemin and the Falun Gong Crackdown: A Bibliography. International Journal of Legal Information]. [2012-12-25]. page 561-562, Volume 34,Issue 3, Winter 2006 引用错误:带有name属性“Michael”的<ref>标签用不同内容定义了多次
  32. ^ 32.0 32.1 引用错误:没有为名为Tong2009的参考文献提供内容
  33. ^ 中华人民共和国民政部. [http:// www.people.com.cn/GB/channel1/10/20000706/132286.html 中华人民共和国民政部关于取缔法轮大法研究会的决定(1999年7月22日)] 请检查|url=值 (帮助). 人民网. [2012-08-16]. 
  34. ^ 34.0 34.1 引用错误:没有为名为Dangerous的参考文献提供内容
  35. ^ 35.0 35.1 Daniel B. Wright. The Promise of Revolution: Stories of Fulfillment and Struggle in China's Hinterland. Rowman & Littlefield. 2003: 156 [26 December 2012]. ISBN 978-0-7425-1916-9. 
    outlawed on July 22, 1999, China Central Television's thirty-minute evening news program aired practically nothing but anti-Falun Gong rhetoric in which academics, former followers, and ordinary citizens spoke about how the cult cheats its followers, separates families, damages health, and hurt social stability. The government operation has been a study in all -out demonization. In the first seven days after the campaign began, Chinese authorities rounded up at least 5,000 Falun Gong members, ransacking homes and confiscating printed materials. Another 1200 government officials were detained and required to study Communist Party documents and to renounce any allegiance to the movement.
  36. ^ 36.0 36.1 评中共镇压法轮功. 北京之春. [2012-04-21] (中文). 
  37. ^ Amnesty International,"The crackdown on Falun Gong and other so-called 'heretical organizations'", 23 March 2000.
  38. ^ Lam, Willy Wo-Lap.CNN, 5 February 2001"China's sect suppression carries a high price"
    Meetings denouncing the sect have been held even in the remote western provinces -- and by apparently irrelevant government units such as the weather bureau and the Ministry of Land and Natural Resources. In a throw-back to the Cultural Revolution, there were hints the People's Liberation Army (PLA) might enter the fray. The Xinhua news-agency quoted officers from the PLA and the para-military People's Armed Police as asserting that the sect was "an effort by hostile Western forces to subvert China." Officers from all divisions of the military forces have vowed to do their utmost to defend the central leadership and to "maintain national security and social stability." Sources close to security departments in Beijing said Jiang was poised to take more drastic steps to reach his goal of eradicating the sect before the forthcoming 80th anniversary of the founding of the Communist Party. For example, the state security apparatus has identified about 40,000 Falun Gong practitioners among staff in Communist Party and government units, state enterprises and colleges. These "cultists" have been told if they do not sign papers denouncing the sect, they will be fired -- and their pensions confiscated. Surveillance and harassment of sect members, who apparently do nothing more than practice their brand of slow breathing exercise at home, have been stepped up. There are reports that understaffed police authorities have recruited unemployed workers in the battle against the Falun Gong.
  39. ^ Communist Party Calls for Increased Efforts To "Transform" Falun Gong Practitioners as Part of Three-Year Campaign ,CECC,2011年3月22日
  40. ^ Annual Report 2009. Congressional-Executive Commission on China. 10 October 2009 [24 December 2013]. 
  41. ^ 41.0 41.1 Sarah Cook, Leeshai Lemish. The 610 Office: Policing the Chinese Spirit(610辦公室-禁錮中國精神). 中國簡報 China Brief. 2011-09-16, 11 (17): 6–9. 
  42. ^ 高智晟揭露法輪功學員受迫害的情況. 自由亞洲電台RFA. 2005-12-13. 
  43. ^ 高智晟. 必须立即停止灭绝我们民族良知和道德的野蛮行径----高智晟致胡锦涛 温家宝及中国同胞的公开信. 自由亞洲電台RFA. 2005-12-12. 
  44. ^ 刘新. 美国际宗教自由委员会敦促停止迫害法輪功. 德國之聲DW.DE. 2013-07-29. 
  45. ^ Tony Saich, Governance and Politics in China, Palgrave Macmillan; 2nd Ed edition (27 February 2004)
  46. ^ Commentary on Political Nature of Falun Gong, People's Daily, 2 August 1999
  47. ^ 47.0 47.1 Gayle M.B. Hanson, Shaken by Mass Meditation – meditation movement Falun Gong, Insight on the News, 23 August 1999
  48. ^ Lam, Willy Wo-Lap.CNN, 5 February 2001"China's sect suppression carries a high price"
    "By unleashing a Mao-style movement, Jiang is forcing senior cadres to pledge allegiance to his line," said the party veteran. "This will boost Jiang's authority -- and may give him enough momentum to enable him to dictate events at the pivotal 16th Communist Party congress next year."
  49. ^ Reid, Graham (29 April-5 May 2006)"Nothing left to lose", New Zealand Listener. Retrieved 6 July 2006.
  50. ^ Tong, James. An Organizational Analysis of the Falun Gong: Structure, Communications, Financing. The China Quarterly. September 2002, 171: 636–660. doi:10.1017/S0009443902000402. 
  51. ^ Congressional Executive Commission on China, 'Annual Report 2010', 10 October 2010, p 19.
  52. ^ The Globe and Mail, Beijing v. falun gong, Metro A14, 26 January 2001
  53. ^ Smith, Craig S. Rooting Out Falun Gong; China Makes War on Mysticism. New York Times. 30 April 2000. 
  54. ^ Julia Ching, "The Falun Gong: Religious and Political Implications", American Asian Review, Vol. XIX, no. 4, Winter 2001, p. 12
    Jiang accepts the threat of Falun Gong as an ideological one: spiritual beliefs against militant atheism and historical materialism. He [wished] to purge the government and the military of such beliefs.
  55. ^ Zhao Yuezhi, Gong, Identity, and the Struggle over Meaning Inside and Outside China, in “Contesting Media Power: Alternative Media in a Networked World,” Nick Couldry and James Curran (ed.), (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003). ISBN 978-0-7425-2385-2
  56. ^ Twiss, Sumner B. "Religious Intolerance in Contemporary China, Including the Curious Case of Falun Gong" in The World's Religions After September 11. Arvind Sharma (ed), Greenwood Publishing, 2009 pp. 227–240
  57. ^ Vivienne Shue, "Legitimacy Crisis in China?" In Peter Hays Gries and Stanley Rosen (eds.), State and Society in 21st-century China. Crisis, Contention, and Legitimation, (New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 2004.
    similarly writes that Falun Gong presented a comprehensive challenge to the Communist Party's legitimacy. Shue argues that Chinese rulers historically have derived their legitimacy from a claim to possess an exclusive connection to the "Truth". In imperial China, truth was based on a Confucian and Daoist cosmology, where in the case of the Communist Party, the truth is represented by Marxist-Leninism and historical materialism. Falun Gong challenged the Marxist-Leninism paradigm, reviving an understanding based on more traditionally Buddhist or Daoist conceptions.
  58. ^ David Ownby, "China's War Against Itself". New York Times, 15 February 2001.
    [Falun Gong's] evocation of a different vision of Chinese tradition and its contemporary value is now so threatening to the state and party because it denies them the sole right to define the meaning of Chinese nationalism, and perhaps of Chineseness."
  59. ^ US press release (4 February 2004)Press Release HR/CN/1073. United Nations Retrieved 12 September 2006.
  60. ^ Sunny Y. Lu, MD, PhD, and Viviana B. Galli, MD, "Psychiatric Abuse of Falun Gong Practitioners in China", J Am Acad Psychiatry Law, 30:126–30, 2002
  61. ^ Robin J. Munro, "Judicial Psychiatry in China and its Political Abuses", Columbia Journal of Asian Law, Columbia University, Volume 14, Number 1, Fall 2000, p 114
  62. ^ Human Rights Watch, "We Could Disappear at Any Time," 7 December 2005. Quote: "Several petitioners reported that the longest sentences and worst treatment were meted out to members of the banned meditation group, Falungong, many of whom also petition in Beijing. Kang reported that of the roughly one thousand detainees in her labor camp in Jilin, most were Falungong practitioners. The government's campaign against the group has been so thorough that even long-time Chinese activists are afraid to say the group's name aloud..."
  63. ^ Chinese Human Rights Defenders,edu/facweb/dclarke/public/CHRD_RTL_Report.pdf Re-education through Labor Abuses Continue Unabated: Overhaul Long Overdue, 4 February 2009. Quote: "More than half of our 13 interviewees remarked on the persecution of Falun Gong practitioners in RTL camps . They said Falun Gong practitioners make up one of the largest groups of detainees in the camp, and that they are often persecuted because of their faith...'Of all the detainees, the Falun Gong practitioners were the largest group'".
  64. ^ US Department of State, [http: //www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/irf/2008/108404.htm 2008 Country Report on Human Rights: China (includes Hong Kong and Macao)], Oct 2008. Quote: "Some foreign observers estimated that at least half of the 250,000 officially recorded inmates in the country's reeducation-through-labor camps were Falun Gong adherents. Falun Gong sources overseas placed the number even higher."
  65. ^ Congressional Executive Commission on China, [http:/ /www.cecc.gov/pages/annualRpt/annualRpt08/CECCannRpt2008.pdf Annual Report 2008], 31 October 2008. Quote: "International observers believe that Falun Gong practitioners constitute a large percentage—some say as many as half—of the total number of Chinese imprisoned in RTL camps. Falun Gong sources report that at least 200,000 practitioners are being held in RTL and other forms of detention."
  66. ^ Ethan Gutmann, “How many harvested?”, in State Organs: Transplant Abuse in China, (Woodstock, ON: Seraphim editions, 2009), pages=49 - 67.
  67. ^ Rachel Stark. Halloween decorations carry haunting message of forced labor. oregonlive. 2012-12-23 [2012-12-23] (英语). That's when Keith found it. Scribbled onto paper and folded into eighths, the letter was tucked between two Styrofoam headstones. "Sir: View full size The letter describes conditions at a forced labor camp in China. "If you occasionally buy this product, please kindly resend this letter to the World Human Right Organization. Thousands people here who are under the persicution of the Chinese Communist Party Government will thank and remember you forever." The graveyard kit, the letter read, was made in unit 8, department 2 of the Masanjia Labor Camp in Shenyang, China. Chinese characters broke up choppy English sentences. "People who work here have to work 15 hours a day without Saturday, Sunday break and any holidays. Otherwise, they will suffer torturement, beat and rude remark. Nearly no payment (10 yuan/1 month)." Ten yuan is equivalent to $1.61. "People who work here, suffer punishment 1-3 years averagely, but without Court Sentence (unlaw punishment). Many of them are Falun Gong practitioners, who are totally innocent people only because they have different believe to CCPG. They often suffer more punishment than others." The letter was not signed.  参数|quote=值左起第130位存在換行符 (帮助)
  68. ^ 68.0 68.1 China escapee leaves hospital, 美聯社AP, July 29, 2001
    HOUSTON – A member of the Falun Gong sect who was tortured in China before a harrowing escape to the United States was released from a Houston hospital Saturday after treatment for severe burns. Tan Yongjie, who hitchhiked to Houston after escaping to Hong Kong and stowing away aboard a California-bound cargo ship, was admitted to Park Plaza Hospital on July 13 after his wounds opened. "He's had extensive skin graft surgery on his legs," said Jack Xiong, a member of the Houston Falun Gong community, adding that doctors expect Mr. Tan to make a full recovery. Mr. Tan returned to the Star of Hope homeless shelter, where he was living before his admission to the hospital. Mr. Xiong was hopeful the estimated 100 to 200 local Falun Gong members could help Mr. Tan. Through translators, Mr. Tan said his story began as a factory worker in Baoan, Guangdong Province, where he began practicing Falun Gong since June 1998. China banned the sect in 1999, and Mr. Tan said he was detained 15 days four different times, each time refusing to renounce his beliefs. He said he was arrested April 26 for distributing fliers calling for an end to government persecution of Falun Gong members. He said he was beaten, then sent without trial to a labor camp in Baluo County. After repeated torture sessions, Mr. Tan said, he was hung by handcuffs for more than five hours. On June 2, Mr. Tan said he was tied to a post and burned about his legs 13 times with a red-hot iron rod, urging him to give up Falun Gong. Mr. Tan escaped the camp soon after and fled to Hong Kong, where he sneaked aboard a cargo ship headed to Long Beach, Calif. After two weeks of living in a crate at sea, Mr. Tan said he caught a ride with someone headed to Florida on Interstate 10 and was dropped off in Houston. Houston police directed him to the Star of Hope shelter.
  69. ^ Tortured Member of Banned Chinese Sect Recovering in Houston, 美聯社AP, July 28, 2001
  70. ^ 世界日报:法轮功学员遭刑求带伤潜逃来美首例,世界日报, July, 2001
    【世 界日报休士顿讯】声称为法轮功学员惨遭中国政府烙刑的一名广西青年,辗转流落到休士顿,正在医院接受治疗。这是大陆法轮功学员遭刑求带伤潜逃来美之首例。 廿八岁的覃永洁两腿共有十叁处烙伤,两周前流落到休士顿後主动向警方求助,经送往休士顿公园广场医院急救,接受植皮手术,愈合良好。他於廿七日透过法轮功学员传译,向媒体公开他被捕、受刑、逃亡过程。声称本籍广西、在广东保安一家家具厂当工人的覃永洁表示,四月廿五日是中国政府镇压法轮功两周年,翌日他散发呼吁停止迫害法轮功的传单时,遭警察逮捕及毒打。他说,被捕的第二天警察把他关进广东博罗一个劳改农场,他拒绝回答问题、拒绝写悔过书、保证书及拒绝放弃修练法轮功,在强迫劳教的一个多月里,多次遭到殴打。有一次他因练功被监管人员用手铐锁在窗栏上,而且脚跟离地,长达五个小时,双手被勒出血印。六月二日,又被劳改农场叁个「管教」殴打,逼他写悔过书,他始终保持沉默。「结果一个管教把我绑在柱子上,一个管教将一根生锈的铁条在电炉上烧红之後,往我的大腿、小腿灼伤,还不断地问『你还练不练?』。」他指着双腿十多处被灼烫说,当时他痛得发抖、大叫,以致小便失禁。然後「管教」像拖狗似地把他扔到外面,最後关进小号。「後来,管教看我行走困难而又痛得无法入睡,他们认为我不可能逃走,就把我叫去看管果园。果园范围广阔,我趁人不注意逃脱。」覃永洁说,逃出果园後,他搭上一辆运输卡车潜入香港。六月十日,再混进货柜轮,经过半个月海上航行,廿四日从加州偷渡入境。接着,他搭上一辆去佛罗里达的「顺风车」,到休士顿下车。他表示,他在休士顿街头流浪多天,身上的钱快用完之时,他向警车招手拦下,用有限的英语试图表明自己是被迫害的法轮功学员,但无法让警察搞懂他的意思,警察只好跟他说拜拜。经过十多次拦警「报案」之後,终於有警察把他送到「希望之星」游民收容所,并连络通晓国语的执法人员了解他的情况,由於他的双腿伤口化脓溃烂,遂安排於本月十叁日送往公园广场医院治疗。为覃永洁动手术的盖尔.柏布瑞兹医师说,覃被送到医院急诊处时,全身发烧,两腿十叁处烙伤属叁级烧伤,他决定在其右大腿内侧切下大面积皮肤,施予植皮手术,所幸术後没有感染。
  71. ^ 首例法轮功学员带伤潜逃来美 曾被警察铁条烙伤十三处,大参考, 2001年8月
  72. ^ asylum seekers urged to stay put,MediaWorks TV, 2012年4月11日
  73. ^ 呼吁民运各界关注海上达澳的10位中国难民,BOXUN, 2012年4月11日
  74. ^ 中國法輪功學員停船澳大利亞尋求避難新西蘭 稱聯合國批準,倍可亲,AFP,2012年4月12日
  75. ^ 中國難民自駕闖怒海在澳洲獲自由Youtube,2012年5月16日
  76. ^ 維權人士黃琦案的開庭審理不符合相關程序. Sina全球新聞. [2012-12-30]. 
  77. ^ 中国著名律师高智晟被停牌. 自由亚洲电台. [2012-12-27]. 
  78. ^ 高智晟的勇气 (王丹). 自由亚洲电台. [2012-12-27]. 
  79. ^ 79.0 79.1 高智晟被判三年缓刑五年 各方解析判决publisher=自由亚洲电台. [2012-12-27]. 
  80. ^ 作家力虹12月31号在宁波病逝. 自由亚洲电台. [2012-12-27]. 
  81. ^ 81.0 81.1 作家力虹生命垂危 当局依然对其严密监视. 自由亚洲电台. [2012-12-27]. 
  82. ^ 诗人徐沛沉痛悼念被迫害致死的异议作家力虹). 自由亚洲电台. [2012-12-27]. 
  83. ^ Man Convicted of Spying on Falun Gong in Germany. Before It's News Inc.,. [2012-01-04]. CELLE, Germany—For the first time a Chinese agent has been convicted of spying on practitioners of Falun Gong... The guilty party, John Zhou, was given a two-year suspended sentence on June 8, along with a hefty fine. Zhou, 55, a Chinese doctor by profession… He began working with Chinese agents over five years ago. The court handed down a suspended sentence of two years in prison and a fine of 15,000 euros (US$21,530), to be paid to the human rights group Amnesty International. Zhou’s desire in 2005 to visit his sick father in China first led to his establishing contact with Tang Wenjuan, head of the Chinese Embassy’s Consular Section in Berlin and then to his career as a spy, according to court documents. Tang is actually a member of the Ministry of State Security, a domestic spy agency, according to a May 2010 piece in Der Spiegel... Months later, in March 2006, Zhou was introduced to three agents of the “610 Office” at a hotel in downtown Berlin. The 610 Office is an extralegal, secret task force with sweeping powers set up by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) to coordinate and carry out the persecution of Falun Gong. It also conducts espionage and harassment against Falun Gong practitioners abroad, attempting to reduce the influence of the group’s vocal criticism of human rights abuses against Falun Gong adherents in China. Falun Gong is a Chinese meditation practice with five meditative exercises and teachings based on the principles of truthfulness, compassion, and tolerance; it has been the target of a vast CCP-led persecution in China since 1999, and soon after also became an important target of the Chinese regime’s overseas espionage efforts. Chen Yonglin was the former consul for political affairs in China’s Sydney, Australia, and was tasked with handling the Falun Gong issue. After defecting in June 2005, he testified before a committee of the U.S. House of Representatives, “The war against Falun Gong is one of the main tasks of the Chinese mission overseas.” Chen listed several examples of how the Sydney consulate attempted to interfere with and restrict Falun Gong practitioners, including strictly “monitoring” Falun Gong activities. 
  84. ^ 為中國刺探法輪功 德國男子被起訴. BBC. [2012-01-04]. 
  85. ^ A Question of Influence. Maclean's. [2012-01-04]. Far from admonishing the Epoch Times for its characterization of Chau as a stooge for Beijing, Justice Catherine Mandeville of the Quebec Superior Court all but confirmed the thesis, highlighting Chau’s close ties with Beijing’s propaganda apparatus, along with evidence suggesting his paper had gotten money from the Chinese government. Chau’s self-stated belief that the overseas Chinese press is duty-bound to “maintain a positive image of the motherland”—part of a impassioned speech he delivered at a state-sponsored media conference in Shanghai—didn’t help. The Epoch Times story, wrote Mandeville, “constitutes an opinion which is drawn from a factual premise.” 
  86. ^ 台官員洩法輪功資料遭革職. BBC. [2012-01-04]. 
  87. ^ 前情報員扮共諜 求刑三年. 蘋果日報. [2012-01-04]. 
  88. ^ 警大副教授吳彰裕 涉替中國情蒐. 自由時報. [2012-01-04]. 
  89. ^ 涉為大陸情蒐 吳彰裕收押禁見. 中央社. [2012-01-04]. 
  90. ^ 吳彰裕替中情蒐 對象包括達賴及其侍衛長. 自由時報. [2012-01-04]. 
  91. ^ 洩密案抗告成功 吳彰裕200萬交保. 中國時報. [2012-01-04]. 
  92. ^ 警大副教授 將陸客情資交中共. 聯合報. [2012-01-04]. 
  93. ^ 臺灣臺北地方法院刑事判決 101年度易字第220號. 司法院 法学资料检索系统. 2009-11-01 [2012-11-19] (中文(台灣)‎). 主文 周慶峻共同以強暴妨害人行使權利,處有期徒刑貳月,如易科罰金,以新臺幣壹仟元折算壹日。王美敦、張金德均無罪。 
  94. ^ 國家機密洩陸 兩人遭訴. 中央社. [2012-04-17]. 
  95. ^ Leeshai Lemish, Media and New Religious Movements: The Case of Falun Gong, A paper presented at The 2009 CESNUR Conference, Salt Lake City, Utah, 11–13 June 2009
  96. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为ownbyfuture的参考文献提供内容
  97. ^ 反美 法轮功和文化革命. 北京之春. 1999-08-01 [2012-04-12] (中文). 
  98. ^ Elisabeth Rosenthal and Erik Eckholm, "Vast Numbers of Sect Members Keep Pressure on Beijing" New York Times, 28 October 1999.
  99. ^ [1],观察,2002-05-20
  100. ^ I went home to China from Trinity -- and was put in a torture jail for two years. Independent News & Media PLC [INM]. 2009-02-06 [2012-12-29]. 
    It was the end of 1999, and he had returned from China after almost a year in Dublin studying on a scholarship at Trinity College. A top-grade computer science student, he was looking forward to spending time with his parents and three brothers, all of whom had carved a career out of computing.

    While in Dublin, Ming had been dismayed to hear that the Chinese government had begun persecuting members of the spiritual Falun Gong movement, of which he was a follower. Shortly after returning to China, he went to his local government appeals office in order to register his opposition to the persecution. He was arrested on the spot, detained for several days and his passport was confiscated.

  101. ^ Erik Eckholm, “China Sect Members Covertly Meet Press and Ask World's Help,” New York Times, October 29, 1999
  102. ^ China Takes Permits of 5 Western Reporters At Secret News Conference, Members of Falun Gong Sect Charge Torture, Associated Press, October 29, 1999
  103. ^ China Takes Permits of 5 Western Reporters, New York Times, Nov. 4, 1999
  104. ^ 104.0 104.1 104.2 104.3 ROSENTHAL, ELISABETH. China Reportedly Detains 2,000 Members of Falun Gong Sect. NEWYORK TIMES. 11 February 2000.  引用错误:带有name属性“johnson2000”的<ref>标签用不同内容定义了多次
  105. ^ I went home to China from Trinity -- and was put in a torture jail for two years. Independent News & Media PLC [INM]. 2009-02-06 [2012-12-29]. 
    It was an experience that didn't deter him from spreading the Falun Gong message of "truthfulness, compassion and tolerance". But his luck soon ran out. At a peaceful rally in Beijing in early 2000, he was one of several arrested. And so began two years of internment in a 'labour camp' where torture was a frequent occurrence. Today, Ming, a 38-year-old Dublin-based web designer, recalls the nightmare of the Chinese justice system for many arrested Falun Gong followers. "They used electric batons to shock us," he says. "They would tie me to a bed-board when giving me the electric shocks. It was incredibly painful -- the skin would go red immediately and the following day it would be black. Fear of the shocks was almost as bad as the shocks themselves." His quiet, softly spoken voice only serves to heighten the trauma that he describes. He was subjected to regular bouts of sleep deprivation. "The other inmates would be told not to let me sleep," he says. "It was terrible -- I thought I was losing my mind. And that's what they wanted, of course." And there was worse to come in the Tuanhe 'Re-education through labour' Camp in Beijing. "They ordered inmates who were there for other crimes to beat me up. They were given special benefits for carrying out the beatings -- sometimes they were released early as a result. Once I was beaten so badly I couldn't walk for two weeks." Nor was he able to use the toilet. "My legs were so badly beaten I couldn't squat. It was an evil place." The physical scars eventually disappeared, but the psychological wounds remain. He looks visibly distressed when recalling the beatings that he was frequently subjected to in captivity. 'My life is happy now, but I cannot forget. And thinking about what happened to me makes me realise that at this very moment there are thousands of Falun Gong followers who are experiencing the same sort of torture in prisons throughout China.
  106. ^ ”China Admits Banned Sect Is Continuing Its Protest” Elisabeth Rosenthal. New York Times, Apr 21, 2000
    「July 22, 1999, Falun Gong members have been causing trouble on and around Tiananmen Square in Central Beijing nearly every day.」
  107. ^ Johnson, Ian. Defiant Falun Dafa Members Converge on Tiananmen. The Wall Street Journal. Pulitzer.org: A21. 25 April 2000. 
    ELDERLY MEN WERE PUNCHED. Women with children were fiercely knocked to the ground, and more than a dozen people were arrested after attempting to sit in a circle and meditate under the watchful gaze of a huge portrait of Chairman Mao. An all-day series of cat-and-mouse skirmishes spilled across Tiananmen Square in Beijing on April 25, 2000 - the one-year anniversary of huge protests by the since-outlawed group Falun Gong. ...Tiananmen Square was the scene of nearly constant protest throughout the day. In small clusters, teams would race into the center of the square, pulling out a hidden banner before police converged. This reporter watched as one man was knocked to the ground and hustled away in seconds. The series of protests, clearly organized in advance, reiterated what many have been murmuring for months in official circles: Beijing's hard-headed approach is not winning the year-long battle with the pesky Falun Gong. Beijing would desperately like to deliver a knockout blow to the group...The Falun Gong was outlawed last July. Yet, despite mass arrests, long sentences in labor camps administered without trial, and other harsh measures that have earned China fresh-new condemnation by human rights groups worldwide...- Beijing has been unable to crush the Falun Gong. That has been the hope of the ruling party in Beijing, which has endured months of almost daily protests in the square. Hardly a day goes by without new reports of protests, arrests and condemnation of the group. Most protests have been small in recent weeks. A few members of the group would appear and try to unfurl a banner before being spirited away by secret police. But Tuesday's confrontations were seen as something of a showdown. All week, the state-run press unleashed a barrage of condemnation rare even for the Chinese government. The official China Daily ran editorials every day last week, linking the Falun Gong to all of China's perceived enemies, from human-rights groups at the United Nations to arch-enemy, the Dalai Lama. ...Oddly enough, the crackdown was played out in full view of foreign tourists, who continued to flock to Tiananmen Square and nearby tourist attractions. Among them were a British couple who said they noticed big crowds on the square, but nothing unusual. Tom, a visitor from North Carolina, said many in his group were worried about security on the square during the anniversary. "But I see it as an opportunity," he said, "an opportunity to witness history." Rolf, from Germany, was also aware of his witness status. "I saw the police, pulling people, taking them away," he said. "It was horrible." If a message had been sent on the anniversary of the Falun Gong's first protest, Rolf said he would happily convey it. However, it wasn't quite the message Beijing wants the world to hear. "I'll tell people what I saw today on Tiananmen," he said. Then, before getting in his mini-bus, he said: "This is terrible. This is democracy in China."
  108. ^ Washington Post Foreign Service, “Falun Gong Protests Mar Chinese Holiday,” October 1, 2000
  109. ^ Selden, Elizabeth J.; Perry, Mark. Chinese Society: Change, Conflict and Resistance. Routledge. 2003. ISBN 0-415-30170-X. 
  110. ^ Johnson, Ian. "A Deadly Exercise: Practicing Falun Gong was a right, Ms. Chen said, to her last day", Wall Street Journal, 20 April 2000.
  111. ^ 中国警察暴力拘捕海外法轮功. 美国之音. 2001-11-21 [2012-12-29] (中文). 
  112. ^ 112.0 112.1 112.2 章启月称外国法轮功学员在中国受到人道和公正的待遇. 自由亚洲电台. 2001-11-21 [2012-12-29] (中文). 
  113. ^ 加籍法轮功成员天安门被捕. 美国之音. 2001-11-19 [2012-12-29] (中文). 
  114. ^ 114.0 114.1 114.2 CNN, China detains 40 Western Falun Gong activists, February 14, 2002
    Chinese authorities have detained about 40 Western members of the banned Falun Gong spiritual movement after a brief protest in Beijing's Tiananmen Square. Witnesses said the demonstrators threw the square into chaos for about 15 minutes as they unfurled a yellow banner and shouted slogans "Falun Gong is good!"" ...The trouble caused by these Falun Gong members was intended to prevent the Chinese people from celebrating" the lunar New Year, The Associated Press quoted a statement from Beijing police as saying. The agency says it is highly unusual for Chinese police to issue a statement following a protest and may be a sign they are trying to limit damage before next week's visit to Beijing by U.S. President George W. Bush. Witnesses to Thursday's brief protest reported seeing demonstrators dash across the vast plaza of Tiananmen Square screaming slogans as hundreds of uniformed and plainclothes police officers chased after them. Police also tackled some protesters to the ground, kicking and punching some, before wrestling them into police vans. Chinese tourists sightseeing in Beijing for the Lunar New Year holidays crowded round to watch the incident -- the second demonstration this week by Western Falun Gong members in Tiananmen Square. On Tuesday, China expelled Canadian Jason Loftus and American Levi Browde after they launched a Lunar New Year protest in the square.
  115. ^ Liao Yiwu. "The Corpse Walker: Real Life Stories: China from the Bottom Up." p 230.
  116. ^ Falun Dafa Information Center, "2010 Annual Report: Falun Gong Beliefs and Demography of Practitioners". 26 April 2010
  117. ^ Congressional Executive Commission on China, 2009 Annual Report,CECC report
  118. ^ [ttp://www.amandinealessandra.com/research/?p=542#.UN2YxW81mSoFalungong message found on 1-yuan bill in China – Boing Boing]
  119. ^ 見p.169James Miller. Chinese Religions in Contemporary Societies. ABC-CLIO. 2006: 169– [20 December 2012]. ISBN 978-1-85109-626-8. 
  120. ^ Chinese minister guilty of torture. The Austrailian. 2007-11-09 [2012-03-21]. 
  121. ^ The Supreme Court ordered an inquiry into the deaths in Falun Gong - The audience asks question the former Chinese President Jiang for genocide. elmundo.es. 2009-11-14 [2012-04-11]. 
  122. ^ 路透社:阿根廷法院要求中国逮捕江泽民及其他官员
  123. ^ 美国之音:江泽民等遭西班牙法院传讯
  124. ^ 网络封杀与解禁暴露中共权斗激烈,BBC,2012-04-06
  125. ^ 125.0 125.1 125.2 Ethan Gutmann, “Into Thin Airwaves”, Weekly Standard DEC 6, 2010, VOL. 16, NO. 12
    They were an odd trio, Great Sea, Big Truck, and Liang, and initially they had no plans, no journey to the West. Instead, larger events would conspire to bind them together on their personal pilgrimage. From 2000 to 2001, practitioners—perhaps 150,000 or more—had gone to Tiananmen Square to protest the Falun Gong ban. It hadn’t been effective; they wafted in about 500 a day, gusting up to 4,000 or so on special occasions. Even then, they unfurled their yellow banners according to some internal conscience-clock rather than a preconceived strategy and were easy pickings for the security forces. But Tiananmen had given practitioners a focal point, a commonly respected means of sincere expression that dated back to imperial China. Indeed, the Chinese public had never been persuaded by the party’s campaign. The more strident media reports on Falun Gong—a dangerous cult, Li Hongzhi is like Hitler, participants will kill themselves or their parents—simply led most Chinese to silently wonder: Why is the party so deeply threatened? Why don’t they leave those people alone? On the afternoon of January 23, 2001, five protesters, including a mother and a daughter, walked onto Tiananmen, doused their bodies with gasoline, and set themselves on fire. The footage played for weeks, and public disgust was real. Any remaining inhibitions about fair treatment for incarcerated practitioners were replaced by death quotas and mass disappearances to military hospitals. Falun Gong was finally being erased. Incarcerated in Changchun’s Chaoyang Gou prison, Liang’s group discussed the gaping holes in the immolation story: Crucially, Falun Gong teachings decried suicide. Plus there were rumors that CNN hadn’t provided the footage as the authorities claimed. Brushing aside the strange camera angles and inexplicable police behavior, Great Sea recalled a story translated from the Washington Post: A reporter had traveled to the burning mother’s home town only to discover the self-immolator was not a practitioner, but a paid nightclub dancer, that is, a prostitute. They had all used “truth-clarification” techniques: Liang liked tapes and remote loudspeakers, Big Truck swore by his mountains of pamphlets, Great Sea favored slogan-balloons. All seemed faintly ridiculous now. Yet an article on “broadcast interruption” in Minghui had caught Liang’s eye while in detention. The article spoke of the theoretical possibility of intercepting television transmissions by climbing up telephone poles, splicing into wires, and connecting DVD players. No specifics, but Great Sea’s experience in radiology gave him some purchase on the electronics, while Big Truck worked on getting back into shape. ... The Falun Gong broadcast had played on eight channels for 50 minutes, garnering an audience of over one million people, the ratings building as word spread, people calling each other, saying they should turn on their TV immediately. In some neighborhoods, local party officials grew desperate and cut the power, plunging streets into darkness. In others, such as those near Cultural Square, people spilled into the streets to celebrate. The ban is over! Falun Gong is rehabilitated! A few practitioners emerged from factories and hideouts, openly handing out literature. Neighbors, children, random strangers, even the old ladies with the red armbands approached them, everyone talking at once, bubbling over, laughing, slapping them playfully, congratulating them. A few suspected it had not been a government broadcast, but still they smiled broadly and whispered: How did you do it? You Falun Gong are so amazing! And it was almost beginning to seem as if they had been rehabilitated after all, and the euphoria and laughter did not cease, not even at 10 p.m., when the first practitioner got a phone call from a military friend saying they had orders to round up Falun Gong. ... It’s unclear whether Jiang Zemin actually gave an order to “kill [Falun Gong] without mercy.” Yet there is far less debate over whether the Jilin City head of the 6-10 Office, the agency created to eliminate Falun Gong, said: “This time we will tear their skin off.” It is a fact that Changchun and Jilin City officials were warned that they would lose their jobs if another hijacking occurred, plainclothes police were mobilized to stand by television transmission poles throughout Changchun, Western television reporters were ordered not to film any Chinese television broadcasts, and the police rounded up between 2,000 and 5,000 Changchun practitioners while Lei was tied to the iron chair.
  126. ^ 北大三角地: 河北保定地区电视台于晚间黄金时间播出70分钟法轮大法真相片,BOXUN,2002-08
  127. ^ 法轮功以资讯战反击中共镇压的大突破. RFA. [2012-01-02]. 
  128. ^ 法轮功否认干扰亚洲卫星公司信号. voa. [2012-01-02]. 
  129. ^ 哈佛大學法學院:中國過濾互聯網的經驗研究
  130. ^ 人權觀察:跨國公司如何協助中國政府的互聯網審查
  131. ^ 見p.221 "Conclusion" 趙月枝; Dr Nick Couldry/ James Curran. Contesting Media Power: Alternative Media in a Networked World. Rowman & Littlefield. 2003 [20 December 2012]. ISBN 978-0-7425-2385-2. 
  132. ^ BBC中文網. 分析:法輪功的“威脅”. BBC. 2000-07-22 [2012-04-15] (-zh-hk). 
  133. ^ LOUIS CHARBONNEAU. U.N. envoy defends Falun Gong, "evil cult" for China. REUTERS路透社. 2010-10-22 (英语). 
  134. ^ 134.0 134.1 BBC中文網. 聯合國委員會因法輪功議題起爭議. BBC. 2010-10-22 [2011-03-26] (中文(香港)‎). 
  135. ^ 中國公布官方「邪教名單」引發網友關注. BBC. 2014-06-03. 
  136. ^ 大纪元. 专访郝凤军:610办公室黑幕大揭底. 看中国 (中文(中国大陆)‎). 
  137. ^ 中华人民共和国公安部﹙ 通 知 )公通字[2000]39号. www.china21.org. 2000-04-30 [2012-04-12] (中文(中国大陆)‎). 
  138. ^ 自由亚洲电台报道:中国更多律师不畏压力为法轮功学员辩护
  139. ^ 再谈中国政府从来没有把法轮功认定为邪教组织
  140. ^ China: Many in Jails Without Trial
  141. ^ Religious Tolerance:FALUN GONG & FALUN DAFA
  142. ^ "Secret Chinese Concentration Camp Revealed" 10 March 2006 The Epoch Times
  143. ^ "New Witness Confirms Existence of Chinese Concentration Camp, Says Organs Removed from Live Victims" 17 March 2006 The Epoch Times
  144. ^ "Source Reveals Other Chinese Concentration Camps, Sujiatun is merely one of 36 concentration camps for Falun Gong in China" 31 March 2006 The Epoch Times
  145. ^ Ethan Gutmann (10 March 2011) "How many harvested?" revisited eastofethan.com
  146. ^ Market Wired (8 May 2008) China's Organ Harvesting Questioned Again by UN Special Rapporteurs: FalunHR Reports Retrieved 26 October 2014

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