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跨性別

维基百科,自由的百科全书
(重定向自跨性別者
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跨性別英语:Transgender)人士的性別認同性別表達與他們的性別指定不同[1][2][3]。在世界各地的不同文化中,他們還有跨仔、跨女、hijra、第三性、雙靈、travesti、fa'afafine、性別酷兒、transpinoy、muxe、waria和meti等稱謂。如果跨性別人士以醫學手段從一種性別過渡到另一種性別,則會被稱為變性人。「跨性別」是一個傘式術語:除了包括性別認同與出生時的性別指定相反的人(跨性別男性跨性別女性),它還可能包括不完全歸屬於傳統上的男性或女性的人(比如是性別酷兒者/性別非二元者,双性别者泛性别者、流性人、無性別者)[2][4][5]。有些定義則把X性別也歸類於跨性別之下,或概念性地視跨性別为第三性[6][7]。跨性別的定義廣泛至包含異裝者,而不論其性別認同[8]

跨性別者的性傾向獨立於其性別認同[9]:跨性別者可能自我認同為異性戀者、同性戀者、雙性戀者、無性戀者,以至拒絕為其性傾向下一個標籤。「跨性別」亦可與雙性人一詞作區別,雙性人是指出生時所具有的身體性別特徵「不符合男性或女性身體的典型二元概念」[10]。跨性別的相反詞則為順性別——順性別者的性別認同與其出生時的性別指定一致。

個人對於外表的感覺良好且認為其符合性別認同的情況則稱為「跨性別一致」(transgender congruence)[11]。許多跨性別者經歷性別不安,當中有些則尋求激素替代療法性別重置手術以及心理治療(但需注意的是,心理治療無法改變跨性別人士的性別認同[12]:1568。)[13] 。不是所有跨性別者皆渴望接受這些治療,也有些則因為經濟或醫学方面的原因而無法接受之[13][14]

大多數跨性別人士在工作及公共場所[15][16],和在醫療機構求診時[17] 遭他人歧視。許多地方的法律没有阻止此一情況發生的條文[18]

術語及定義的演變[编辑]

美國人Holly Boswell設計的跨性別象徵符號(⚧),結合了雄性與雌性的星相符號。

哥倫比亞大學醫學院精神科醫師約翰·F·奧利文(John F. Oliven)在其所著並於1965年出版的參考書《性衛生與病理學》(Sexual Hygiene and Pathology)中首次提出了「transgender」此一用語,並指出以前所使用的用語「transsexualism」「是具有誤導性的,因為性本身不是跨性別的一個重大影響因子」[19][20][21]。跨性別一詞因能跟「變性」(transsexual)和「易裝癖」(transvestite)區分開來,而得到廣泛推廣。相關推廣者包括易裝愛好者雜誌《Transvestia》的主编弗吉尼亞·普林斯英语Virginia Prince,其於該雜誌的1969年12月號中推广此一用語[22][23]。在20世紀70年代中期,人們普遍視「trans-gender」和「trans people」為兩個傘式術語並使用之[註 1] ,並使用「transgenderist」一詞去代指没有接受性別重置手術的跨性別者[24]。到了1976年,跨性別者在教材中會遭縮寫為TG[25]

到了1984年,「跨性別群體」(transgender community)此一概念經已發展起來,此用詞當中的跨性別也是一個傘式術語[26]阿爾斯特大學的理查德·艾爾金斯(Richard Elkins)於1985年建立了「跨性別檔案」(Trans-Gender Archive)[23]。1992年的跨性別法律和就業政策國際會議(International Conference on Transgender Law and Employment Policy)將跨性別定義為一個傘式術語,當中包括「變性者、跨性別者和易裝者等」[27]費雷思所著並於1992年發表的小冊子《跨性別解放:時機經已成熟的運動》(Transgender Liberation: A Movement Whose Time has Come)把跨性別定義為任何性別表現與社會規範衝突的统合術語;並認为其已成为酷兒的同義詞[28]

跨性別男人這個術語指的是從女性轉變為男性的男性,跨性別女性是指從男性轉變為女性的女性。衛生專業人員手冊、專業新聞風格指南和LGBT擁護組織建議其他人採用跨性別者自我認同的姓名和人稱代詞,提及跨性別人士的過去时亦同樣如是[29][30],当中許多亦建議在英語中「Transgender」不應当作名詞,而應当作形容詞使用;同时也指出「Transgender」不應在结尾加上「-ed」,變成「transgendered」[31][32][33]

性別認同與其出生時的性別指定相符,而又不是性別酷兒或性別非二元者的人則稱作順性別者[34]

變性及其跟跨性別的關係[编辑]

「 transsexual」(變性)一詞於1949年被戴維·奧利弗·考爾德韋爾英语David Oliver Cauldwell引入至英語[註 2],並於1966年得到哈里·本傑明英语Harry Benjamin推廣,相近於「transgender」一詞的提出和推廣時間[22]。自20世紀90年代以來,「變性」一詞一般用於形容跨性別群體下面的一個子分類[22][35][36],變性者是指想把性別永久過渡至跟他們的性別認同一致,並為此尋求醫療援助的人們。但是這兩個群體的關注點有時是不同的,比如可以支付醫療費用的變性男性和女性可能會相對較關注醫療私隱及法律承認問題。

跨性別和變性之間一般依據社會性別(心理及社會性的性別)和生理性別的差異來作區別[37][38]。因此,變性可以說是較注重於生理層面的性別;而跨性別則較着重於心理性別傾向和性別角色.[39]。許多跨性別人士更喜歡以跨性別者來自稱,並抗拒以變性者自稱[40][41][42]。比如美國跨性別女性克里斯汀·約根森英语Christine Jorgensen於1979年公開拒絕承認自己為「變性者」,而用跨性別者自稱,並說道:「性別不是與床伴有關,而是與身份有關」[43][44]。這意味著跨性別實際上是關於性別認同的[45][註 3]。但是一些變性人反對將自己列入跨性別此一傘式術語中[46][47][48][49]

人類學家戴維·瓦倫丁(David Valentine)在其2007年的著作《跨性別:一個分類的民族志》(Transgender, an Ethnography of a Category)中指出,跨性別一詞是由活動家們創造出來的,但其定義範圍包括許多不認同自身为跨性別者的人。隨後他亦指出不應把不認同自己為跨性別者的人納入跨性別光譜中[46]。費雷思亦同樣宣稱跨性別對於一些人而言並不是一个合適的自我認同,而是他者為了理解某些人而設立的一个分類[47]。然而,波士頓fenway health公司的跨性別者健康計劃對以上此一說法提出了質疑;其指出,跨性別一詞並沒有普遍得到接受的定義,且人們很容易就对此詞產生混淆,因為在21世紀之交流行的用詞現在看來可能具有冒犯性。該計劃建議臨床醫师詢問求診者对哪个用詞較为滿意,並避免使用變性者此一用詞,除非他們確定求診者對此感到滿意[45]

哈里·本傑明開發了一套適用於跨性別者和異裝者的分類系統,該分類系統稱為本傑明量表英语Benjamin scale,當中他根據易裝的原因和是否急需進行性別重置手術來把跨性別者和異裝者分為六類[50]。本傑明認為中等程度的「真正跨性別者」需要補充雌激素睾酮來進行「初步性的手術或代替手術」[50];包括米里亞姆·里維拉英语Miriam (TV personality)在內,一些人儘管符合本雅明對「真正的跨性別者」的定義,但又不希望進行性別重置手術。此外也有儘管接受了性別重置手術,但又不符合「跨性別者」的定義的例子,比如格雷戈里·海明威英语Gregory Hemingway[51][52]

跨性別的其他子類別[编辑]

除了性別認同與其出生時的性別指定不同的跨性別男性和跨性別女性外,一些群體亦包含在跨性別此一傘式術語的定義中,即使用上最狹隘的定義亦同樣如是。該些群體包括不完全歸屬於傳統上的男性或女性的人,例子有雙性性格者雙性別者泛性别者、無性別者——他們一般遭統稱為性別酷兒[5]——或第三性者(一些參考文獻和一些社會將跨性別人群概念化成第三性別)[6][7]。儘管一些文獻將跨性別者的定義扩及至異裝者[8],但一般都会將他們排除於外,如同異裝戀物癖英语Transvestic fetishism(因為一般將其分類為性慾倒錯)、以娱乐为目的的男扮女装(异装皇后)/女扮男装(异装皇帝)。

性別酷兒(包括雙性性格者、双性别者)[编辑]

性別酷兒/性別非二元者是指不完全歸屬於傳統意義上的男性或女性的人,當中包括無性別者、雙性性格者、双性别者、泛性别者、流性者[53],他們的存在跟順性别主義(假定所有人皆是順性別的信條)相違背[54][55]。双性别和雙性性格是兩個有所重疊的類別;双性别者認為自己一時是男性,一時是女性;或者認為自己既是男性又是女性。雙性性格者則可能類似地認為自己是無性別的(無性別者)、處於兩性之間、時男時女(流性者),或同时擁有多个性別(泛性别者)。有限度的雙性化表现是常見的(比如穿褲子的女性、戴耳環的男性),且不會遭視作跨性別行為。「Androgyne」在醫學上有時会被用作雙性人的同義詞[56]

易装癖者[编辑]

易装癖者會穿着被視為「與他們出生時的性別指定不同」的服裝[57][58]。「transvestite」一詞跟「cross-dresser」屬同義[59][60] ,不過「cross-dresser」一詞較為常用[60][61]。「异装」一詞在相關文獻中並沒有完整的定義。加拿大约克大学哲學系教授邁克爾·吉爾伯特(Michael A. Gilbert)則把易装癖者定義為:「有著明顯的性別認同且與其出生時的生理性徵相同的人,但因為那是異性的服裝而選擇穿着之[62]。」這個定義不包括「因其他原因而穿異性服裝」的人,例如扮演異性角色的演員、出席化妝舞會的男女[63]。易装癖者可能但不一定會模仿異性的行為或習俗,且一般不會想在醫學上改變自己的身體。大部分易装癖者認同自己為異性戀者[64]

異裝癖跟異裝戀物癖(transvestic fetishism)在概念上完全不同。異裝戀物癖是指間歇性地为戀物目的使用異性服裝的人[65][66]。在醫學上,異裝戀物癖分別以DSM和ICD中的代碼302.3和F65.1跟異裝癖作区分[66][65]

以娱乐为目的的男扮女装/女扮男装[编辑]

「Drag」此一用詞是用於形容在特殊場合男扮女装/女扮男装的人士,他們的異裝原因跟跨性別者或易装癖者不同,只是單纯为了表演或娱樂而異裝。除了服裝和化妝之外,他們的相關表現還可能包括行為上的轉變。以娱乐为目的的男扮女装/女扮男装可能會較為夸张、惹人發笑,以至使人認为当事人是怪誕的。异装皇后被第二波女性主義支持者認為是「对女性的諷刺」。異裝藝人在LGBT文化中具有一定的歷史。异装皇后是指以娱乐为目的的男扮女装;异装皇帝則是指以娱乐为目的的女扮男装;人造皇后(faux queen)是指女性對「异装皇后」的模仿表現。現實中的異裝表演者涵蓋所有性别和性别認同,並擁有不同的原因而去選擇表演異裝。一些表演者、易裝癖者和同性戀群體已經接受了一个由色情作品衍生出來的用語——「Tranny」去形容扮演易裝皇后或因其他原因而進行異裝的人,然而這個詞一旦套用於跨性別人士身上,便會惹來普遍的反感[67]

雙性人[编辑]

雙性人的生殖器等性別特徵不符合男性或女性身體的典型二元概念,但雙性人不一定會進行變性,因為他們未必会認為出生時的性別指定與性別認同不同。然而,跨性別者和雙性人所面对的問題擁有一定程度的重疊,因為他們都在挑戰社会对性别所下的傳统定義。

LGBT群體[编辑]

性別認同和跨性別認同這兩個概念跟性傾向不同[68]。性傾向是指一個人對男性、女性或兩性產生的持久情感,喜愛、愛情或性吸引的現象。而性別認同則是指一個人認同自己是男性还是女性[31]。跨性別者的性傾向和順性別者差不多[69]。異性恋和同性恋這兩個標籤在以前是錯誤地根據跨性別者出生時的性別指定而下的[70]。許多現今的專業文獻会使用像「認為男性擁有吸引力」、「認為女性擁有吸引力」、「認為兩性皆有吸引力」或「兩性皆无吸引力」般的用語去形容一个人的性傾向,而不考慮其性別認同[71] 。治療師正逐漸意識到他們在用詞上有必要尊重客戶的性別認同和性傾向[72]。例如某人出生時的性別指定为男性、自我認同为女性,並認为男性擁有吸引力的話,那么她仍屬異性恋者。

儘管性取向和性別認同之間存在區別,但縱觀歷史,同性戀和雙性戀的亚文化往往是唯一接受性別多元者的地方,因此他們對同性戀和雙性戀的亚文化存有歸屬感,此一情況在法律嚴格限制跨性別者的权利时尤其明顯。兩者互相接受的歷史具有一定的復雜性。西方社會的同性戀群体就像世界其他地方一樣,直到70年代才普遍區分生理性別和性別認同,而且在此以前經常將性別多元者視為同性戀者。現今跨性別者群体的成員一般都会跟女同性戀者、男同性戀者和雙性戀者一起參與LGBT權利運動。此外跨性別群体在LGBT權利史上所扮演的角色经常遭到忽视[73]

跨性別者的性傾向[编辑]

美國國家跨性別平權中心英语National Center for Transgender Equality的《國家跨性別歧視調查》(National Transgender Discrimination Survey)成功調查了27,715名跨性別者和性別酷兒。當中21%指出「酷兒」是对他們性傾向的最佳描述,18%自認为「泛性恋」,16%自認为「男同性恋」、「女同性恋」或「同性愛」,15%自認为「直的」,14%自認为「雙性戀」,最後10%自認为「无性戀」[74]

醫療保健[编辑]

精神醫療[编辑]

大多數精神衛生專業人員建議治療性別認同與其出生時的生理性徵不同時所引起的痛苦,特別是當事人想從一種性別過渡到另一種性別的情況。因性別認同與他人期望不同,或是因性別認同與生理性徵衝突而产生痛苦的人,皆可以通過深入地說出他們的感受而獲益;然而對性別認同的心理學研究以及對這一現象的科學認識仍是剛剛起步[75]

有關对像性別不安般的診斷準確性及其會否在即將出版的ICD-11中出現仍存有爭議。法國於2010年通過法令,取消了性別認同障礙的診斷[76]。丹麥議會亦類似地於2017年取消了F.64:性別認同障礙的診斷。DSM-5將性別認同障礙更名为性別不安,強化跨性別不被視為精神疾病的觀念[77]

跨性別者只有在「因其而產生困擾或影響身心功能」时才符合性別不安的診斷标準[78]。這種痛苦遭稱為性別不安,其可能的表現為情緒低落、無法工作、不能跟他人打好關係。此一診斷经常遭誤解作所有跨性別者皆患有性別不安症;不論跨性別者、批評者还是肯定者,皆可能因此一曲解而感到困惑。只要跨性別者不会性別認同而產生困擾或影響身心功能,那麼其就不符合性別不安的定義。而且性別不安不一定是永久性的,並可通過治療或性別轉換來得以解決。因他者的消極態度和行為而產生的壓迫感亦不會直接使跨性別者符合性別不安的診斷標準。性別不安的出現並不意味着跨性別本身是不道德的;心理學权威認為,存有任一精神或情緒問題的人皆不應受到社會污名。性別不安的治療目標是減輕當事人的困擾及使身心功能回復正常;一般的治療方法為改變当事人的生理性徵至另一性別[75]

精神健康相關的從業者在臨床培訓時,通常不會接觸處理上述情况时所需要的相關信息,以致大量的從業者在处理相关个案时欠缺準備功夫[79]。許多精神衛生保健提供者對跨性別問題知之甚少,以至尋求專業人士幫助的跨性別者在得不到任何幫助之餘,还反过來教育那些專業人士[75]。並使「改變生理性徵至另一性別」成為他們能提供的最佳意見——這對於真正想變性的人而言一般是有益处的,但對於其他类型的跨性別者來說則不是解決方案,比如不特别認同自己是男性还是女性的性別酷兒。不論性別酷兒最后的選擇進行性別轉換还是不進行,治療師皆應对他們的選擇進行支援,此外治療師還應就着性別認同和外观不一致此一問題尋求解決方法[11]

儘管從業者日漸意識到缺乏相關的臨床培訓並願意改善,但是關於跨性別人士在精神健康方面所面對的具體問題的研究仍主要聚焦於診斷和臨床醫生的經驗,而較忽略跨性別客戶的體驗[80],且治療方案並不總是根據跨性別者的精神健康需要而制定。在《變性者、跨性別者和非性別常規者的健康照護準則》第七版(SOC)出版之前,當事人必須被診斷出患有性別認同障礙后才可進行荷爾蒙補充療法或性別重置手術。新版本的内容相对較不关注診斷本身,並強調了靈活變通的重要性,以滿足變性者、跨性別者和非性別常規者的各種保健需求[81]

尋求精神衛生服務協助的原因因人而異。跨性別者尋求相關治療也不一定意味著他們在性別認同上出現了問題。因應付社会污名和跨性別恐懼者的批評指責而生的情緒壓力会促使跨性別者尋求精神健康方面的治療,为的是改善生活質量,正如一位跨性別女性所反映的那樣:「跨性別人士會去找一位治療師協助,但是他們的大部分問題治療師都束手無策,尤其在變性後。出現这种情況的原因在於他們不得不隱瞞和撒謊,且需承受罪惡感和羞恥感。這種感覺通常會不幸地持續數年[80]!」許多跨性別者因需承受社会污名而變得抑鬱和焦慮,並为此尋求治療;一些跨性別人士向治療師強調了其性別認同的重要性,以便探討其他生活質量問題[80]。也有些人后悔進行了性別重置手術並渴望「去變性英语Detransition[82]

導致跨性別人士的心理健康體驗受損的問題至今仍然存在。一名被心理學研究生課程錄取的跨性別男性指出了現代臨床培訓的主要關注點:「大多數人可能對跨性別這個詞很熟悉,但認識也僅限於此……我不認為我接受過任何臨床課程的正式相关培訓……亦不認为大多數治療师了解如何作出應对……大多數擁有碩士或以上水平的治療師都上过關於GLBT問題的多元化課程——一個多樣性很大的培訓班。內容基本圍繞著同性戀者的生活方式[80]。」許多健康保險政策不把與變性相關的治療纳入保險範圍內。許多人只能得到很少或根本没有的经濟支援。以上情況引起了对大多數治療師欠缺处理跨性別人士个案的培訓的擔憂,並使客戶的財務壓力增加,繼使他們得不到他們所需的治療[80]。許多處理跨性別人士个案的臨床醫師只接受过关於性別認同的一般培訓,但近來已有关於处理跨性別人士个案的入門培訓提供,以幫助消除障礙並提高服務水平[83]

自從多倫多市成癮與精神健康中心英语Centre for Addiction and Mental Health肯尼斯·朱克英语Kenneth Zucker雷·布蘭查德英语Ray Blanchard宣佈擔任DSM-V的性與性別認同障礙工作組成員後,易裝者和跨性別者在心理學上的分類變得更为複雜[84]。多倫多市成癮與精神健康中心旨在治好跨性別者的「跨性別」本身;此一宗旨令跨性別者群體感到震驚和憤慨[85]。法國於2010年2月通過法令,成為世界上第一個從精神疾病名單剔除性別認同障礙的國家[86][87]

威廉姆斯研究所(加州大学洛杉矶分校的智囊機構)於2011年進行的一項研究發現,41%的跨性別人士曾企圖自殺;曾遭受過住房或醫療保健方面的歧視、騷擾、家人 拋棄以及性侵犯的跨性別人士的企圖自殺率更高[88]

身體醫療[编辑]

對於變性和跨性別者,存在著醫療和外科手術,不過大多數人都不知道有這些醫療方法。跨性別男性激素替代療法英语Hormone replacement therapy (female-to-male)包括誘導鬍子生長,並使皮膚、頭髮、聲音和脂肪分佈變得男性化。跨性別女性激素替代療法則將脂肪分佈和乳房變得女性化。雷射脫毛英语Laser hair removal或電解法可為跨性別女性除去多餘的毛髮。跨性別女性手術可使聲音、皮膚、臉部、喉結、乳房、腰部、臀部和生殖器女性化。跨性別男性手術將胸部和生殖器男性化,並割除子宮、卵巢和輸卵管。術語「性別重置手術」(SRS)用來專指生殖器手術。術語“性別轉換療法”(SRT)則用來作為跨性別身體醫療行為的總稱。“變性”一詞被批評過度強調手術,而“性別轉換”則較為中立。[4][89]這些程序的適用性取決於性別不安症(舊稱性別認同障礙)的程度,[90]和當地司法管轄範圍內的護理標準。

跨性別男性若未進行子宮切除術並且服用睾丸酮,則罹患子宮內膜癌的風險增加,因為體內睾丸酮產生的雄烯二酮可以轉化為雌激素,而外部雌激素是子宮內膜癌的風險因子。[91]

瑞典一研究顯示[92] 指出變性手術能緩解性別不安,但不能完全解決,要求加強手術後護理。

跨性別運動員[编辑]

一項於2017年發表的系統綜述指出:「目前沒有直接或一致的研究表明跨性別男性或跨性別女性在其性別過渡的任何階段具有運動優勢,包括經已接受了跨性別激素療法、性別重置手術」[93]

參賽條件

依據國際奧林匹克委員會2003年的指引,改變性別的運動員,不論是男性變女性或女性變男性,都必須在完成性別重置手術後接受兩年荷爾蒙治療,才有資格參加比賽。 2016年1月,國際奧會發佈的新版指引取消手術要求。從女性變為男性的運動員可在沒有限制的情況下參加男性比賽,從男性變為女性的運動員則需滿足4項要求,包括聲明她們的女性性別;在首次參賽前至少一年時間裏將睪丸素維持在12 nmol/L 以下;在獲得參賽資格期間內將睪丸素維持在10 nmol/L 以下;在被測試時維持同樣的水平,若無法達到要求,該運動員將在12個月內無法參加女性比賽。 [94]

出櫃[编辑]

跨性别人士在选择何时,是否以及如何向家人,亲密朋友和其他人透露他们的跨性别身份方面各有各自的方法與時機。[95]社會上的歧視和暴力(跨性别人群更可能成为暴力受害者的可能性高出28%)[96]導致跨性别人群的出櫃可能令跨性别感到敵意。害怕报复行为,例如未成年时被带离父母家庭,这是造成跨性别人直到成年后才会在家中出櫃的一个原因。[97]父母困惑和缺乏对跨性别儿童的理解可能導致將跨性別想法視爲成長的一個階段或者通过利用精神卫生服务試圖改变孩子的性别身份,努力将他们的孩子變回“正常”。[98][99]

互联网可以在跨性别人士即将出櫃的过程中发挥重要作用。一些人首先以网络身份出櫃,这为在现实世界中冒着社会公審的风险之前提供了虚拟和安全地出櫃經驗的機會。[100]

女性主義[编辑]

一些女性主义者和女性主义组织支持跨性別。某些則不是。

虽然第二波女性主義主张生物性别和性别認同区分,但一些女性主義者认为跨性別身份和女性主義之间存在冲突; 例如她們认为男女之间的转换放弃或贬低了女性的身份,而跨性别人群则接受传统的性别角色和陈规定型观念。然而,许多跨性別女性主義者认为自己進行质疑和颠覆性别规范而对女性主义做出贡献。第三波女性主義和当代女性主义通常更支持跨性别人群。[101]

排跨基女

排跨基女(TERF,排除跨性別的基進女性主義者),為基進女性主義者的一分支,主張廢除跨性別主義。[102] 排跨基女主張自己並非仇恨跨性別群體,而是想要廢除整個性別系統(gender system),他們假設在一個沒有性別的烏托邦,是不會有跨性別、多元性別的存在。 [103]

法律[编辑]

一些司法管轄權存在法律程序,允許個人改變其法定性別或姓名以反映其性別認同。對於這些程序的要求各不相同,從明確的正式性別轉換症診斷到性別認同障礙的診斷,以及醫生的指出個人性別轉換療法或確立非常規性別的證明。[104] 在1994年,DSM IV條目從“性別轉換症”改為“性別認同障礙”。在許多地方,跨性別在工作場所或公共場所的歧視不受法律保護。[105]2011年2月發布的一份報告發現,90%的跨性別人群在工作中面臨歧視,失業人數是普通人口的兩倍[106] ,超過一半的人在試圖獲得公共服務時遭到騷擾或被拒絕。[107]跨性別者群體的成員在醫療中心方面也遭受高度歧視。[108]

跨性別權利[编辑]

現時社會保守,跨性別者缺乏權利,跨性別是新興概念,跨性別權利是支持者現時正向社會爭取之處,反對者則反對跨性別擁有跨性別權利,保持原狀。跨性別權利是支持者和反對者的爭議之處,例如反對者反對跨性別生育,支持者認為沒問題。

  • 性別認同和身分登記:身分登記包括護照、身份証和出世紙。

支持者認為最理想為無須任何生理治療及心理評估可改變身分登記,包括出世紙。 反對者認為身分登記一定要根據二元生理性別不能改變。或需要完成完全性別重置手術後只可改身分証。有些國家有性別認同條例,如英國,可供跨性別者改變登記性別身分。另設第三性構成其他爭議[109]

  • 跨性別婚姻:和同性或和異性結婚。

支持者認為如果跨性別可與其認同性別之異性結婚。若有同性婚姻,則不會有問題。 反對者認為必須只能和原身性別異性結婚。 香港變性人婚權案,裁決完成變性手術的人與異性別的人結婚。為免同性婚姻,中國法律禁止婚後變性。

  • 跨性別領養:是否能申請領養,跨性別領養是否對被領養者有利,跨性別是否作為領養考慮因素。

支持者認為跨性別適合養育孩子。 反對者認為跨性別不適合養育孩子。

  • 跨性別生育:生理性別為女性,身份性別為男性,可以自然懷孕。

支持者認為跨性別可自我決定生育。 反對者認為男性不可懷孕。女跨男不能懷孕。

  • 跨性別行為:行為包括激素替代療法、使用他們認同性別更衣室及洗手間、使用他們認同性別稱呼、使用他們認同性別服務及組織和會藉、使用雙性服務及組織和會藉以他們認同性別看待、法津上以他們認同性別對待。

支持者認為能以新性別身份生活。 反對者認為只能以原生性別身份生活。以出世紙性別上洗手間。

支持者認為支持所有跨性別治療及政府資助 反對者認為反對所有跨性別治療及政府資助。

  • 跨性別權利:與異性權利相等。

支持者認為以新性別對侍。 反對者認為必須以原生性別對侍。

  • 反歧視法:

支持者認為能被正確名稱。 反對者認為可自由稱呼。

各地民間反應[编辑]

亞洲[编辑]

日本[编辑]

2017年,擁有逾百年歷史的日本私立女校日本女子大學,收男跨女學生。[110]

香港[编辑]

2015年,國際特赦組織香港分會禁止酷刑委員會於2015年的審議結論中亦提及現時跨性別人士事必須於完成整套性別重塑手術後,港府才會承認他/她們的跨性別身份;上述情況都會令跨性別人士受到長期的心理及生理傷害,委員會對此表示關注。委員會亦促請港府,採取立法及行政措施,尊重跨性別人士及雙性人的性別選擇,以及他/她們生理和心理的需要,包括無須他/她們完成整套性別重塑手術後才確認相應性別。[111]

2016年10月,威院跨專科診所啟用[112]

印度[编辑]

2017年5月,印度南部喀拉拉邦柯枝市(Kochi)的地鐵公司Kochi Metro僱用了23名跨性別者為員工打破傳統[113]

美國[编辑]

2016年底媒體傳出,《國家地理雜誌》破天荒以一名9歲大跨性別兒童作為2017年1月份的封面,引起廣泛迴響。[114] 2017年1月底,美國男童軍總會宣布從即日起,不再以出生紙作為性別證明,將以申請表上列明的性別,作為判別男童軍申請資格的依據,亦即變相容許認為自己是男性的跨性別兒童加入。[115]

巴西[编辑]

2017年2月,由男變女的巴西跨性別女子丹達拉遭多人從公寓拖出,在眾目睽睽下,被毆打致死。這是巴西當月第五名被殺害的跨性別人士。[116]

媒體形象[编辑]

電影[编辑]

組織[编辑]

反對跨性別[编辑]

有部份組織或個人反對跨性別,因LGBT中的跨性別有別於同性恋及双性恋,同性恋及双性恋不会改變社會的性別认同。反對者會把跨性別運動和同志運動连结。[117]

理由[编辑]

組織[编辑]

相關條目[编辑]

以「跨性別」開頭的條目

註腳[编辑]

  1. ^ *In April 1970, TV Guide published an article which referenced a post-operative transsexual movie character as being "transgendered."(Sunday Highlights. TV Guide. 1970-04-26 [2012-05-28]. (原始内容存档于2012-06-04). [R]aquel Welch (left), moviedom's sex queen soon to be seen as the heroine/hero of Gore Vidal's transgendered "Myra Breckinridge"... )
    • In the 1974 edition of Clinical Sexuality: A Manual for the Physician and the Professions, transgender was used as an umbrella term and the Conference Report from the 1974 "National TV.TS Conference" held in Leeds, West Yorkshire, UK used "trans-gender" and "trans.people" as umbrella terms.(Oliven, John F. Clinical sexuality: A Manual for the Physician and the Professions 3rd. University of Michigan (digitized Aug 2008): Lippincott. 1974: 110, 484–487. ISBN 978-0-397-50329-2. (原始内容存档于2015-12-05). "Transgender deviance" p 110, "Transgender research" p 484, "transgender deviates" p 485, Transvestites not welcome at "Transgender Center" p 487 ), (2006). The Transgender Phenomenon (Elkins, Richard; King, Dave. The Transgender Phenomenon. Sage. 2006: 13. ISBN 978-0-7619-7163-4. (原始内容存档于2015-09-26). )
    • However A Practical Handbook of Psychiatry (1974) references "transgender surgery" noting, "The transvestite rarely seeks transgender surgery, since the core of his perversion is an attempt to realize the fantasy of a phallic woman."(Novello, Joseph R. A Practical Handbook of Psychiatry. University of Michigan, digitized August 2008: C. C. Thomas. 1974: 176. ISBN 978-0-398-02868-8. (原始内容存档于2015-09-19). )
  2. ^ Magnus Hirschfeld coined the German term "Transsexualismus" in 1923, which Cauldwell translated into English.
  3. ^ The recurring concern that transsexual implies sexuality stems from the tendency of many informal speakers to ignore the sex and gender distinction and use gender for any male/female difference and sex for sexual activity]. (Liberman, Mark. Single-X Education. Language Log. [2012-06-28]. (原始内容存档于2012-04-15). )

參考[编辑]

  1. ^ Terry Altilio, Shirley Otis-Green. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Social Work. Oxford University Press. 2011: 380 [2016-04-12]. ISBN 0199838275. Transgender is an umbrella term for people whose gender identity and/or gender expression differs from the sex they were assigned at birth (Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation [GLAAD], 2007). 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Craig J. Forsyth, Heith Copes. Encyclopedia of Social Deviance. Sage Publications. 2014: 740 [2016-04-12]. ISBN 1483364690. Transgender is an umbrella term for people whose gender identities, gender expressions, and/or behaviors are different from those culturally associated with the sex to which they were assigned at birth. 
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  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation.GLAAD Media Reference Guide - Transgender. GLAAD. 2011-09-09 [2018-05-13] (英语).  "An umbrella term for people whose gender identity and/or gender expression differs from what is typically associated with the sex they were assigned at birth."
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 Bilodeau, Brent. Beyond the Gender Binary: A Case Study of Two Transgender Students at a Midwestern Research University. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Issues in Education. 2005, 3 (1): 29–44. doi:10.1300/J367v03n01_05.  "Yet Jordan and Nick represent a segment of transgender communities that have largely been overlooked in transgender and student development research – individuals who express a non-binary construction of gender[.]"
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  13. ^ 13.0 13.1 Victoria,, Maizes,; Tieraona,, Low Dog,. Integrative women's health. Second edition. Oxford https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/921176115. : 745. ISBN 9780190214807. OCLC 921176115. Many transgender people experience gender dysphoria—distress that results from the discordance of biological sex and experienced gender (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Treatment for gender dysphoria, considered to be highly effective, includes physical, medical, and/or surgical treatments [...] some [transgender people] may not choose to transition at all.  缺少或|title=为空 (帮助)
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  20. ^ Oliven, John F. Sexual Hygiene and Pathology. 1965: 514. Where the compulsive urge reaches beyond female vestments, and becomes an urge for gender ("sex") change, transvestism becomes "transsexualism." The term is misleading; actually, "transgenderism" is what is meant, because sexuality is not a major factor in primary transvestism. Psychologically, the transsexual often differs from the simple cross-dresser; he is conscious at all times of a strong desire to be a woman, and the urge can be truly consuming. 
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  22. ^ 22.0 22.1 22.2 Thomas E. Bevan, The Psychobiology of Transsexualism and Transgenderism (2014, ISBN 1-4408-3127-0), page 42: "The term transsexual was introduced by Cauldwell (1949) and popularized by Harry Benjamin (1966) [...]. The term transgender was coined by John Oliven (1965) and popularized by various transgender people who pioneered the concept and practice of transgenderism. It is sometimes said that Virginia Prince (1976) popularized the term, but history shows that many transgender people adovcated the use of this term much more than Prince."
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  37. ^ For example, Virginia Prince used transgender to distinguish cross-dressers from transsexual people (glbtq > social sciences >> Prince, Virginia Charles. glbtq.com. (原始内容存档于2015-02-11). ), writing in Men Who Choose to Be Women (in Sexology, February 1969) that "I, at least, know the difference between sex and gender and have simply elected to change the latter and not the former."
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