本页使用了标题或全文手工转换

美國人

维基百科,自由的百科全书
(重定向自美国人
跳到导航 跳到搜索

美國人
Flag of the United States.svg
總人口
3.314億[1]
(2020年美國人口普查)
Map of the American Diaspora in the World.svg
分佈地區
墨西哥738,100–1,000,000[2][3]
加拿大316,350–1,000,000[4][5]
印度2,694–700,000[6]
菲律賓220,000–600,000[7][8]
巴西260,000[9]
法國200,000[10]
以色列200,000[11][12]
英國197,143(僅包含不在英國出生的)[13]
韓國120,000–158,000[14]
哥斯大黎加120,000–130,000[15]
德國111,529(僅包含美國公民)[16]
中國110,000[17]
哥倫比亞60,000[18]
香港60,000[19]
日本59,172-153,389[20][21]
澳大利亞56,276[22]
巴基斯坦52,486[23]
義大利50,000[24]
阿聯酋50,000[25]
海地45,000[26]
沙烏地阿拉伯40,000[27]
阿根廷37,000[28]
挪威33,509[29]
巴哈馬30,000[30]
俄羅斯30,000[來源請求]
黎巴嫩25,000[31]
巴拿馬25,000[32]
多明尼加24,457[33]
西班牙22,082[34]
智利19,161[35]
薩爾瓦多19,000[36]
紐西蘭21,462[37]
語言
主要是美國英語,此外還有西班牙語其他語言
宗教信仰
主要是基督教新教天主教,和其他基督教派系
猶太教其他宗教[38]
無宗教

美國人指的是美國公民僑民美國永久居民也可合法申請美國國籍。[39][40][41][42][43][44]美國是許多民族的家園。因此,美國的文化法律英语United States nationality law並不把國籍等同於種族民族,而是將其視作一種公民身份,也象徵着對國家的效忠。[45][46][47]

概覽[编辑]

大部分美國人並非原住民,而是移民和移民的後代。隨著美國領地的不斷擴張,夏威夷波多黎各關島美屬薩摩亞美屬維京群島以及北馬利安納群島的住民也陸續成為美國人。[48] [49] [40]

美國的主流文化主要源自西歐北歐,但也受到了非裔美國人的影響。[50]隨著西進運動的進行,路易斯安那的卡郡人克里奧爾人英语Louisiana Creole people、西南部的拉丁裔以及墨西哥人的文化也對美國文化產生了影響。19世紀末至20世紀初,來自南歐東歐亞洲非洲拉丁美洲的移民也影響了美國文化。在美國,各種文化一方面保持著自身的特徵,一方面又相互融合,因此美國常被稱為文化大熔爐或文化沙拉盤英语Salad bowl (cultural idea)[51]

美國人及其後裔廣泛分佈於世界各地。據估計,有多達700萬美國人生活在國外。[52][53][54]

種族和民族[编辑]

2010年美國調查局[55]表1[56]
自我認定種族 佔人口百分比
白人
  
72.4%
黑人
  
12.6%
亞裔
  
4.8%
大陸原住民
  
0.9%
太平洋島原住民英语Pacific Islands Americans
  
0.2%
混血美國人英语Multiracial Americans
  
2.9%
其他種族
  
6.2%
總計
  
100.0%
拉丁裔[註 1]:16.3%[57]

美國是一個多元文化主義國家。[58]美國普查局因統計需要將美國人劃分為六個種族:白人、美國印第安人和阿拉斯加原住民、亞洲人、黑人或非洲裔美國人、夏威夷原住民和其他太平洋島原住民,以及兩個或兩個以上種族的人。此外也可以選擇「其他種族」。普查局還將美國人分為拉丁裔和非拉丁裔,而拉丁裔是美國最大的少數族裔。[59][60][61]

美國白人[编辑]

根據2010年美國人口普查,3.08億美國人中有72.4%是白人。[62]其祖先是歐洲、中東和北非的原住民。[55]另有2.4%是白人與其他種族的混血兒,其中白人與黑人的混血兒最多。[62]拉丁裔白人佔美國人口的9.4%,在加利福尼亞德克薩斯新墨西哥內華達夏威夷佔多數。[63][64]非拉丁裔白人英语Non-Hispanic or Latino whites比例最高的州是緬因州[65]此外,非白人在哥倫比亞特區和五個有常住人口的海外領土佔多數。[55]

最早在美國大陸建立殖民據點的歐洲人是西班牙人,這段歷史可以追溯到1565年。[66]馬丁·德·阿圭列斯英语Martín de Argüelles是第一個生於美洲大陸的歐洲裔,他生於1566年新西班牙總督轄區聖奧古斯丁[67]此外,西班牙人還於1521年在波多黎各建立了聖胡安市弗吉尼亚·戴尔是第一個生於北美十三州的英格蘭裔,她生於1587年的羅阿諾克殖民地

根據2017年美國社區調查英语American Community Survey德裔愛爾蘭裔英格蘭裔意大利裔是美國的四大歐裔群體,佔總人口的35.1%。[68]然而,英格蘭裔和英國裔的人口被認為遭到嚴重低估。因為他們在美國居住的時間很長,一般只會說自己是美國人英语American ancestry,而不會強調自己的祖先來自哪裏。[註 2]這一現像在上南方尤其明顯,該地區長期以英國裔為主。[69][70][71][72][73][74]

在美國所有種族中,歐裔美國人的貧困率最低,受教育程度家庭所得英语Household income in the United States中位數和個人所得英语Personal income in the United States中位數位居第二。[75][76][77]

歐裔在美國的分佈(以縣為單位)
美國白人的各族群人口
排名 族群 佔美國人口百分比 估計人口 數據來源
1 德裔 13.2% 43,093,766 [68]
2 愛爾蘭裔 9.7% 31,479,232 [68]
3 英格蘭裔 7.1% 23,074,947 [68]
4 美國人英语American ancestry 6.1% 20,024,830 [68]
5 墨西哥裔 5.4% 16,794,111 [78]
6 意大利裔 5.1% 16,650,674 [68]
7 波蘭裔 2.8% 9,012,085 [68]
8 法裔 (不包含巴斯克裔英语Basque Americans
法裔加拿大美國人英语French Canadian Americans
2.4%
0.6%
7,673,619
2,110,014
[68]
9 蘇格蘭裔 1.7% 5,399,371 [68]
10 挪威裔 1.3% 4,295,981 [68]
11 荷蘭裔 1.2% 3,906,193 [68]
總計 美國白人 59.34% 231,040,398 [62]
來源:[79][80] 2010年美國人口普查和2017年美國社區調查

中東和北非裔[编辑]

根據美國猶太人檔案館英语American Jewish Archives阿拉伯裔美國人國家博物館英语Arab American National Museum的資料,第一批中東人和北非人(即猶太人柏柏爾人)在15世紀末至16世紀中期抵達美洲。[81][82][83]許多人是為了躲避西班牙宗教裁判所的迫害,還有一些人成為了美洲殖民者的奴隸。[84][85][86]阿拉伯裔美國人研究所英语Arab American Institute指出,22個阿盟成員國中,每個國家都有人移民美國。[87]

自1909年以來,美國人口普查局一直將中東和北非人歸為白人。隨著時代的變遷,許多專家認為這個分類已經過時。2014年,在與中東和北非組織協商後,普查局宣布將為來自中東北非阿拉伯世界的人建立一個新的族群類別,稱為MENA。[註 3][88]2018年1月,普查局宣布,2020年美國人口普查將不會單獨統計中東和北非人。[89]

中東裔美國人數量
族群 2000 2000(佔美國人口比例) 2010 2010(佔美國人口比例)
阿拉伯裔 1,160,729 0.4125% 1,697,570 0.5498%
亞美尼亞裔 385,488 0.1370% 474,559 0.1537%
伊朗裔 338,266 0.1202% 463,552 0.1501%
猶太人 6,155,000 2.1810% 6,543,820 2.1157%
其他 529,289 0.185718% 801,831 0.257771%
總計 8,568,772 3.036418% 9,981,332 3.227071%

來源:2000[90]-2010年美國人口普查[91]曼德爾·博曼研究所和博曼猶太人數據庫英语Berman Jewish DataBank[92]

拉丁裔美國人[编辑]

根據2010年普查,拉丁裔美國人佔美國人口的16.3%,是美國最大的少數族裔。[93][94]

美國拉丁裔人口統計[95][96]
排名 族群 佔人口百分比 人口 來源
1 墨西哥裔 10.29% 31,798,258 [97]
2 波多黎各 1.49% 4,623,716 [98]
3 古巴 0.57% 1,785,547 [99]
4 薩爾瓦多 0.53% 1,648,968 [100]
5 多明尼加 0.45% 1,414,703 [101]
6 危地馬拉 0.33% 1,044,209 [102]
7 哥倫比亞 0.3% 908,734 [103]
8 西班牙裔 0.2% 635,253 [104]
9 洪都拉斯 0.2% 633,401 [105]
10 厄瓜多爾 0.1% 564,631 [106]
11 秘魯 0.1% 531,358 [107]
其他 2.62% 7,630,835
總計 16.34% 50,477,594
2010年美國人口普查

亞裔美國人[编辑]

儘管早在美國獨立戰爭之前就有亞裔生活在北美殖民地,[108][109]但大部分亞裔是從19世紀中後期才移民至美國的。[110]2010年,美國有1730萬亞裔,佔總人口的5.6%。[111][112]亞裔最多的州是加利福尼亞州,共有560萬。[113]佔比最高的州是夏威夷州,佔比57%。[113]城市人口在亞裔當中佔比很高,大洛杉矶地区紐約都會區舊金山灣區有大量亞裔。[114]

亞裔不是單一的族群,而是由許多國家的移民及其後裔組成的。包括中國、台灣、日本、韓國、印度、巴基斯坦、菲律賓、越南、柬埔寨、寮國等。亞裔的收入和教育水平高於其他種族,而且這一差距還在持續擴大。[115][116][117]

亞裔也被稱為「模範少數族裔[118][119][120],也被稱為「永遠的外國人英语perpetual foreigner」。[121][122]

亞裔人口統計[111]
排名 族群 佔人口百分比 人口
1 华裔 1.2% 3,797,379
2 菲律賓裔 1.1% 3,417,285
3 印度裔 1.0% 3,183,063
4 越南裔 0.5% 1,737,665
5 韓裔 0.5% 1,707,027
6 日裔 0.4% 1,304,599
其他 0.9% 2,799,448
總計 5.6% 17,320,856
2010年美國人口普查

美洲原住民[编辑]

根據2010年人口普查,美國有520萬人(佔總人口的1.7%)有美洲原住民血統,其中230萬是混血。40.7%的原住民居住在美國西部[123]其他種族也不同程度地含有原住民的基因英语Native American ancestry美國黑人平均含有0.8%的原住民基因,白人有0.18%,而拉丁裔則有18.0%。[124][125]

美洲原住民於45,000至10,000年前來到美洲大陸。[126]前哥倫布時期的原住民發展出了數百種不同文化。[127]隨著哥倫布的到來英语Voyages of Christopher Columbus[128],歐洲開始殖民美洲。從16世紀到19世紀,原住民不斷減少英语Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas。其中的原因包括歐洲人與原住民之間的戰爭通婚[129][130],對原住民的奴役、強制遷移[131]种族灭绝[132][133],還有歐洲人帶來的流行病[134]

部落英语Tribe (Native American)劃分的美國原住民人口統計表[123][135]
排名 部落 佔總人口百分比 人口
1 切羅基人 0.26% 819,105
2 納瓦霍人 0.1% 332,129
3 喬克托族 0.06% 195,764
4 墨西哥原住民英语Indigenous peoples of Mexico 0.05% 175,494
5 欧及布威族 0.05% 170,742
6 苏族 0.05% 170,110
其他 1.08% 3,357,235
總計 1.69% 5,220,579
2010年美國人口普查

太平洋島原住民[编辑]

根據2010年人口普查,美國有120萬太平洋島原住民,佔總人口的0.4%,其中56%是多種族,14%的人至少有一個學士學位,15.1%的人生活在貧困線英语Poverty thresholds (United States Census Bureau)以下。71%的人生活在美國西部,其中有52%生活在夏威夷州加利福尼亞州,其他州的人口都不超過10萬。檀香山郡洛杉磯郡是太平洋島民的主要聚居地。[136][137]

美國太平洋島原住民人口統計[137]
排名 族群 佔人口百分比 人口
1 夏威夷族 0.17% 527,077
2 薩摩亞裔 0.05% 184,440
3 查莫羅人 0.04% 147,798
4 東加裔美國人英语Tongan Americans 0.01% 57,183
其他 0.09% 308,697
總計 0.39% 1,225,195
2010年美國人口普查

多種族美國人[编辑]

隨著時代變遷,美國的多種族運動也逐漸壯大。[138]2008年,多種族美國人有700萬,佔總人口的2.3%;[112]而根據2010年的普查,這一數字增長到了9,009,073,佔總人口的2.9%。其中黑白混血兒最為常見,共有1,834,212名,[139]第44任美國總統巴拉克·歐巴馬就是其中一例。他的母親是白人(有英格蘭和愛爾蘭血統),而父親則是生於肯亞盧歐族[140][141](但自我認同為非裔美國人)。[142][143]

多種族美國人數量[144]
排名 種族 佔總人口百分比 人口
1 白人與黑人 0.59 1,834,212
2 其他 0.58 1,794,402
3 白人與其他種族 0.56 1,740,924
4 白人與亞裔 0.52 1,623,234
5 白人與原住民 0.46 1,432,309
6 黑人與其他種族 0.1 314,571
7 黑人與原住民 0.08 269,421
總計英语Multiracial Americans 2.9 9,009,073
2010年美國人口普查

其他種族[编辑]

根據2010年美國人口普查,其他種族[註 4]是美國的第三大族群,有6.2%的(19,107,368名)美國人屬於此類別。36.7%的(18,503,103名)拉丁裔是其他種族,[145]其中有不少是麥士蒂索人[註 5],此比例在墨西哥和中美洲社區中尤其高。但美國人口普查不統計麥士蒂索人。

國家化身[编辑]

左圖是美國的國家化身山姆大叔,其形象與塞繆爾·威爾遜很相似。右圖則是美國的女性化身哥倫比亞,在18至19世紀十分流行。

山姆大叔是美國的國家化身,有時也特指美國政府。該詞第一次使用是在1812年戰爭期間。他的形象通常是一位嚴厲的白人老人,頭髮花白,留著山羊鬍英语Goatee,其衣著通常含有美國國旗的元素。

哥倫比亞是美國的女性化身。該詞起初用來指代美洲,後因非裔美國詩人菲利斯·惠特利英语Phillis Wheatley美國獨立戰爭期間的使用而廣為人知。其後,包括西半球在內的許多地區都將哥倫比亞用作人物、地點、物體、機構和公司的名字。美國政府所在地哥倫比亞特區就是其中一個例子。

語言[编辑]

2010年美國人在家使用語言狀況[146]
語言 人口百分比 使用者數量
英語 80.38% 233,780,338
西班牙語
(不包括波多黎各克里奧爾語英语Spanish-based creole language
12.19% 35,437,985
漢語
(包括現代標準漢語粵語
0.88% 2,567,779
他加祿語 0.53% 1,542,118
越南語 0.44% 1,292,448
法語 0.44% 1,288,833
韓語 0.38% 1,108,408
德語 0.38% 1,107,869
印度斯坦語
(包括印地語烏爾都語
0.32% 942,794
其他語言 4.04% 11,760,383

美國英語是美國事實上的國家語言。雖然聯邦政府沒有規定官方語言,但英語至少在28個州取得了官方語言的地位。也因此,一些美國人主張將英語作為美國的官方語言。[147]美國對入籍申請者的英語能力亦有要求。2007年,約有2.26億美國人(佔5歲及以上人口的80%)在家只說英語。西班牙語是美國的第二大語言,約有12%的人在家說西班牙語。[148][149]西班牙語也是波多黎各的官方語言。此外,新墨西哥州政府也使用西班牙語,而路易斯安那州政府亦使用法語,但兩州均未規定官方語言。[150]加利福尼亞等州則要求某些政府文件(如法庭表格)必須有西班牙文版。[151]另外,根據夏威夷州法律,英語和夏威夷語都是其官方語言。[152]一些美國非合併屬地對原住民語言也給予了官方認可。美屬薩摩亞關島分別承認薩摩亞語查莫羅語,而北馬利安納群島則承認加羅林語和查莫羅語。

宗教[编辑]

2014年美國各宗教人口佔比[153]
宗教 教徒佔美國人口比例(%)
基督教 70.6 70.6
 
新教 46.5 46.5
 
福音主義 25.4 25.4
 
主流新教 14.7 14.7
 
黑人教會英语Black church 6.5 6.5
 
天主教 20.8 20.8
 
耶穌基督後期聖徒教會 1.6 1.6
 
耶和華見證人 0.8 0.8
 
東正教 0.5 0.5
 
其他基督教 0.4 0.4
 
非基督教信仰 5.9 5.9
 
猶太教 1.9 1.9
 
伊斯蘭教 0.9 0.9
 
佛教 0.7 0.7
 
印度教 0.7 0.7
 
其他非基督教 1.8 1.8
 
無宗教 22.8 22.8
 
無特定宗教 15.8 15.8
 
不可知論 4.0 4
 
無神論 3.1 3.1
 
不知道或拒絕回答 0.6 0.6
 
總計 100 100
 

美國是世界上宗教最多元化的國家,不論是本土信仰還是外來信仰都能在美國蓬勃發展。[154]大多數美國人表示,宗教在他們的生活中扮演著「非常重要」的角色,這在已開發國家中並不常見,但在美洲國家中卻十分普遍。[155]美國是第一個禁止設立國教的國家,其憲法第一修正案禁止聯邦政府制定任何法律來確立國教或禁止信教自由。[156]該法條是少數宗教團體和各州人民爭取的結果,也受到了新教和理性主義的影響。美國最高法院解釋道,該法條的設立是為了防止政府以公權力干涉宗教。此外,美國憲法第六條第三款規定:合眾國政府之任何職位或公職,不得以任何宗教標準作為任職的必要條件。該法條以維吉尼亞宗教自由法令英语Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom為範本。[157]

美國擁有世界上最多的基督徒[158]76%的美國人信仰基督教,其中大多信仰新教天主教,他們分別佔美國人口的48%和23%。[159]其他宗教包括佛教印度教伊斯蘭教猶太教,這些教徒佔成年人口的4%至5%。[160][161][162]另有15%的成年人自認為沒有宗教信仰[160]根據美國宗教認同調查英语American Religious Identification Survey,全美各地的宗教信仰差異很大:美國西部(無教堂帶)有59%的美國人信,而南部(聖經帶)則有86%。[160][163]

此外,北美十三州中也有部分是由基督徒建立的,他們為了能夠自由的信仰自己的宗教而來到北美。其中,麻薩諸塞灣殖民地由英國清教徒建立,賓夕法尼亞省由英國和愛爾蘭的貴格會教徒建立,馬里蘭省由英國和愛爾蘭的天主教徒建立,維吉尼亞殖民地及自治領由英國聖公宗教徒建立。

文化[编辑]

蘋果派棒球是美國文化的象徵

美國地域寬廣,人口眾多,文化多樣性高。保守主義自由主義,科學與宗教在這裏碰撞融合。美國人普遍崇尚個人主義,相信自由、平等民主的價值,對言論自由與國家的政治制度十分重視。此外,美國人也比較喜歡冒險。

美國文化主要被西方文化所影響,但也受到了原住民西非東亞玻里尼西亞拉丁美洲文化的影響。殖民時期英语Colonial history of the United States對美國影響最大的是英國。通過殖民,英國向美洲大陸傳播了他們的語言法律其他文化[164]此外,以德國[165]法國[166]義大利[167]為代表的其他一些歐洲國家也對美國文化產生了重要影響。

美國的本土文化也有著強大的影響力。美國的本土節日體育運動軍事傳統英语Military tradition[168]以及藝術和娛樂方面的創新帶給國民強烈的民族自豪感[169]美國在許多方面都有自己獨特的社會和文化特徵,如方言音樂藝術英语Visual art of the United States社會習慣飲食美國民俗英语Folklore of the United States[170]

對外移民[编辑]

美國僑民的分佈(包括美國公民及其子女)
  美國
  + 1,000,000
  + 100,000
  + 10,000
  + 1,000

許多國家或地區都有來自美國的移民,包括阿根廷、澳大利亞英语American Australians、巴西、加拿大英语American Canadians、智利、中國哥斯大黎加、法國、德國、香港英语Americans in Hong Kong、印度、日本、墨西哥、紐西蘭、巴基斯坦、菲律賓、阿聯酋和英國。截至2016年 (2016-Missing required parameter 1=month!),約有900萬美國公民生活在海外。[171]

参见[编辑]

注釋[编辑]

  1. ^ 拉丁裔並非種族,僅指自身或祖先來自拉丁美洲的人。
  2. ^ 自1990年起,美國人口普查的族群認同一欄中增加了「美國人」這一選項。
  3. ^ 即Middle Easterners and North Africans(中東和北非人)的縮寫
  4. ^ 即所有自認為不屬於其他任何種族的人
  5. ^ 指美洲原住民與歐洲人所生的混血兒

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ Census Bureau's 2020 Population Count. United States Census. [2021-04-26].  The 2020 census is as of April 1, 2020.
  2. ^ People live in Mexico, INEGI, 2010. 
  3. ^ Smith, Dr. Claire M. These are our Numbers: Civilian Americans Overseas and Voter Turnout (PDF). OVF Research Newsletter. Overseas Vote Foundation. August 2010 [2012-12-11]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2013-10-24). Previous research indicates that the number of U.S. Americans living in Mexico is around 1 million, with 600,000 of those living in Mexico City. 
  4. ^ Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories - 20% sample data. Statistics Canada. Government of Canada. 2010-06-10 [2013-02-17]. Ethnic origins Americans Total responses 316,350 
  5. ^ Barrie McKenna. Tax amnesty offered to Americans in Canada. The Globe and Mail (Ottawa). 2012-06-27 [2012-12-17]. There are roughly a million Americans in Canada – many with little or no ties to the United States. 
  6. ^ Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Table 1. Total migrant stock at mid-year by origin and by major area, region, country, or a area of destination, 1990-2017. United Nations. December 2017 [29 June 2019]. HV1731 2,694 
    United Nations Population Division. Origins and Destinations of the World's Migrants, 1990-2017. Pew Research Center: Global Attitudes & Trends. 28 February 2018 [29 June 2019]. United States <10,000 
    Gottipati, Sruthi. Expats Flock to India Seeking Jobs, Excitement. The New York Times. 2012-02-08 [2019-03-20]. While 35,973 U.S. citizens (not including those eligible for special visas available for Americans of Indian origin) registered in 2008, 41,938 did so the following year, according to the latest figures available with the Ministry of Home Affairs. 
    White House. The United States and India — Prosperity Through Partnership. whitehouse.gov. 2017-06-26 [2019-03-19] –通过National Archives. Today, nearly 4 million Indian-Americans reside in the United States and over 700,000 U.S. citizens live in India. Last year, the United States Government issued nearly one million visas to Indian citizens, and facilitated 1.7 million visits by Indian citizens to the United States. 
  7. ^ Evan S. Medeiros; Keith Crane; Eric Heginbotham; Norman D. Levin; Julia F. Lowell. Pacific Currents: The Responses of U.S. Allies and Security Partners in East Asia to Chinaâ€TMs Rise. Rand Corporation. 2008-11-07: 115. ISBN 978-0-8330-4708-3. An estimated 4 million Filipino-Americans, most of whom are U.S. citizens or dual citizens, live in the United States, and over 250,000 U.S. citizens live in the Philippines. 
    New U.S. ambassador to PH aims to 'strengthen' ties. CNN Philippines (Metro Manila). 2016-12-02 [2017-03-20]. According to his figures, there are about 4 million Filipino-Americans residing in the U.S., and 250,000 Americans living and working in the Philippines. 
    Lozada, Aaron. New U.S. envoy: Relationship with PH 'most important'. ABS-CBN News (Manila). 2016-12-02 [2017-03-20]. According to Kim, the special relations between the U.S. and the Philippines is evident in the "four million Filipino-Americans who are residing in the United States and 250,000 Americans living and working in the Philippines." 
    International Business Publications, USA. Philippines Business Law Handbook: Strategic Information and Laws. Int'l Business Publications. 2013-08-01: 29. ISBN 978-1-4387-7078-9. An estimated 600,000 Americans visit the Philippines each year, while an estimated 300,000 reside in-country. 
    Kapoor, Kanupriya; Dela Cruz, Enrico. Americans in Philippines jittery as Duterte rails against United States. Reuters (Olongapo). 2016-10-17 [2018-04-20]. About four million people of Philippine ancestry live in the United States, one of its largest minorities, and about 220,000 Americans, many of them military veterans, live in the Philippines. An additional 650,000 visit each year, according to U.S. State Department figures. 
    FACT SHEET: United States-Philippines Bilateral Relations. U.S. Embassy in the Philippines. United States Department of State. 2014-04-28 [2018-04-20]. Around 350,000 Americans reside in the Philippines, and approximately 600,000 U.S. citizens visit the country each year. 
  8. ^ Cooper, Matthew. Why the Philippines Is America's Forgotten Colony. National Journal. 2013-11-15 [2015-01-28]. c. At the same time, person-to-person contacts are widespread: Some 600,000 Americans live in the Philippines and there are 3 million Filipino-Americans, many of whom are devoting themselves to typhoon relief. 
  9. ^ US Embassy in Brazil US Embassy in Brazil. Retrieved March 29, 2020.
  10. ^ Americans in France. Embassy of the United States, Paris. United States Department of State. [2015-04-26]. (原始内容存档于2015-04-18). Today, although no official figure is available it is estimated that over 150,000 American citizens reside in France, making France one of the top 10 destinations for American expatriates. 
  11. ^ Daphna Berman. Need an appointment at the U.S. Embassy? Get on line!. Haaretz. 2008-01-23 [2012-12-11]. According to estimates, some 200,000 American citizens live in Israel and the Palestinian territories. 
  12. ^ Michele Chabin. In vitro babies denied U.S. citizenship. USA Today (Jerusalem). 2012-03-19 [2012-12-11]. Most of the 200,000 U.S. citizens in Israel have dual citizenship, and fertility treatments are common because they are free. 
  13. ^ Simon Rogers. The UK's foreign-born population: see where people live and where they're from. The Guardian. 2011-05-26 [2013-02-17]. County of birth and county of nationality. United States of America 197 143 
  14. ^ U.S. Citizen Services. Embassy of the United States Seoul, Korea. United States Department of State. [2012-12-11]. (原始内容存档于2012-11-30). This website is updated daily and should be your primary resource when applying for a passport, Consular Report of Birth Abroad, notarization, or any of the other services we offer to the estimated 120,000 U.S. citizens traveling, living, and working in Korea. 
    North Korea propaganda video depicts invasion of South Korea, US hostage taking. Advertiser. Agence France-Presse. 2013-03-22 [2013-03-23]. According to official immigration figures, South Korea has an American population of more than 130,000 civilians and 28,000 troops. 
  15. ^ Background Note: Costa Rica. Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs. United States Department of State. 2012-04-09 [2012-12-11]. Over 130,000 private American citizens, including many retirees, reside in the country and more than 700,000 American citizens visit Costa Rica annually. 
    Bloom, Laura Begley. More Americans are fleeing to cheap faraway places. New York Post. 2018-07-31 [2020-02-19]. Approximately 120,000 citizens live in this stable country, many as retirees, according to the State Department. 
  16. ^ publisher. Pressemitteilungen - Ausländische Bevölkerung - Statistisches Bundesamt (Destatis). www.destatis.de. 
  17. ^ Calum Macleod. A guide to success in China, by Americans who live there. 2005-11-18 [2020-05-24]. 
  18. ^ Colombia (03/28/13). United States Department of State. [2014-02-27]. (原始内容存档于2013-04-20). Based on Colombian statistics, an estimated 60,000 U.S. citizens reside in Colombia and 280,000 U.S. citizens travel, study and do business in Colombia each year. 
  19. ^ Hong Kong (10/11/11). Previous Editions of Hong Kong Background Note. United States Department of State. 2011-10-11 [2012-12-11]. There are some 1,400 U.S. firms, including 817 regional operations (288 regional headquarters and 529 regional offices), and over 60,000 American residents in Hong Kong. 
  20. ^ 令和元年末現在における在留外国人数について (Excel). Immigration Services Agency of Japan. [2021-04-08]. 
  21. ^ 在日米軍の施設・区域内外居住(人数・基準) (PDF). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. 2008-02-22 [2021-04-08]. 
  22. ^ ibid, Ancestry (full classification list) by Sex – Australia. [2014-10-19]. 
  23. ^ Gishkori, Zahid. Karachi has witnessed 43% decrease in target killing: Nisar. The Express Tribune. 2015-07-30 [2017-08-03]. 52,486 Americans... are residing in [Pakistan], the interior minister added. 
  24. ^ Kelly Carter. High cost of living crush Americans' dreams of Italian living. USA Today (Positano, Italy). 2005-05-17 [2012-12-17]. Nearly 50,000 Americans lived in Italy at the end of 2003, according to Italy's immigration office. 
  25. ^ UAE´s population – by nationality. BQ Magazine. 2015-04-12 [2015-06-13]. (原始内容存档于2015-07-11). 
  26. ^ McKinley Jr.; James C. For 45,000 Americans in Haiti, the Quake Was 'a Nightmare That's Not Ending'. The New York Times. 2010-01-17 [2015-02-27]. 
  27. ^ SAUDI-U.S. TRADE. Commerce Office. Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia in Washington D.C. [2012-02-14]. (原始内容存档于2012-09-13). Furthermore, there are approximately 40,000 Americans living and working in the Kingdom. 
  28. ^ Argentina (03/12/12). Previous Editions of Argentina Background Note. United States Department of State. 2012-03-12 [2012-12-24]. The Embassy's Consular Section monitors the welfare and whereabouts of some 37,000 U.S. citizen residents of Argentina and more than 500,000 U.S. tourists each year. 
  29. ^ Statistics Norway – Persons with immigrant background by immigration category and country background. January 1, 2010. [2014-10-19]. 
  30. ^ Bahamas, The (01/25/12). Previous Editions of Panama Background Note. United States Department of State. 2012-01-25 [2012-12-29]. The countries share ethnic and cultural ties, especially in education, and The Bahamas is home to approximately 30,000 American residents. 
  31. ^ Kate King. U.S. family: Get us out of Lebanon. CNN. 2006-07-18 [2012-02-14]. (原始内容存档于2012-03-06). About 350 of the estimated 25,000 American citizens in Lebanon had been flown to Cyprus from the U.S. Embassy in Beirut by nightfall Tuesday, Maura Harty, the assistant secretary of state for consular affairs, told reporters. 
  32. ^ Panama (03/09). Previous Editions of Panama Background Note. United States Department of State. March 2009 [2012-12-17]. About 25,000 American citizens reside in Panama, many retirees from the Panama Canal Commission and individuals who hold dual nationality. 
  33. ^ IX Censo Nacional de Poblacion y Vivenda 2010 (PDF): 101. [2015-07-23]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2013-09-27). 
  34. ^ Foreign population by sex, country of nationality and age (up to 85 and above).. Instituto Natcional de Estadistica. 2007-01-01 [2018-05-28] (西班牙语). Both genders 22,082 
  35. ^ S. Vedoya; V. Rivera. Gobierno cifra en más de un millón el número de inmigrantes que están en Chile. Latercera. 2018-04-04 [2018-04-20] (西班牙语). 
  36. ^ El Salvador (01/10). United States Department of State. [2014-04-11]. (原始内容存档于2014-04-13). More than 19,000 American citizens live and work full-time in El Salvador 
  37. ^ North Americans: Facts and figures. Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. 
  38. ^ Luis Lug; Sandra Stencel; John Green; Gregory Smith; Dan Cox; Allison Pond; Tracy Miller; Elixabeth Podrebarac; Michelle Ralston. U.S. Religious Landscape Survey (PDF). Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. Pew Research Center. February 2008 [2012-02-12]. 
  39. ^ 美國法典第8卷英语Title 8 of the United States Code第1401章; 美國法典第8卷英语Title 8 of the United States Code第1408章; 美國法典第8卷英语Title 8 of the United States Code第1452章; see also
  40. ^ 40.0 40.1
  41. ^
  42. ^ See
    • Template:USCFR(c)(3)(vi) (about filing a "motion to reopen" removal proceedings with the Board of Immigration Appeals "based on specific allegations, supported by evidence, that the respondent is a United States citizen or national");
    • Template:USCFR ("U.S. non-citizen national means a person on whom U.S. nationality, but not U.S. citizenship, has been conferred at birth under 8 U.S.C. 1408, or under other law or treaty, and who has not subsequently lost such non-citizen nationality.").
  43. ^ Petersen, William; Novak, Michael; Gleason, Philip. Concepts of Ethnicity. Harvard University Press. 1982: 62 [2013-02-01]. ISBN 9780674157262. ...from Thomas Paine's plea in 1783...to Henry Clay's remark in 1815... "It is hard for us to believe ... how conscious these early Americans were of the job of developing American character out of the regional and generational polaritities and contradictions of a nation of immigrants and migrants." ... To be or to become an American, a person did not have to be of any particular national, linguistic, religious, or ethnic background. All he had to do was to commit himself to the political ideology centered on the abstract ideals of liberty, equality, and republicanism. Thus the universalist ideological character of American nationality meant that it was open to anyone who willed to become an American. 
  44. ^ Foreign nationals. Federal Election Commission. 2017-06-23 [2021-02-18]. 
  45. ^
    • Fernandez v. Keisler, 502 F.3d 337. Fourth Circuit: 341. 2007-09-26. The INA defines 'national of the United States' as '(A) a citizen of the United States, or (B) a person who, though not a citizen of the United States, owes permanent allegiance to the United States.' 
    • Robertson-Dewar v. Mukasey, 599 F. Supp. 2d 772. U.S. District Court for the Western District of Texas: 779 n.3. 2009-02-25. The [INA] defines naturalization as 'conferring of nationality of a state upon a person after birth, by any means whatsoever.' 
  46. ^ Permanent Allegiance Law and Legal Definition. definitions.uslegal.com. 
  47. ^ Christine Barbour; Gerald C Wright. Keeping the Republic: Power and Citizenship in American Politics, 6th Edition The Essentials. CQ Press. 2013-01-15: 31–33 [2015-01-06]. ISBN 978-1-4522-4003-9. Who Is An American? Native-born and naturalized citizens 
    Shklar, Judith N. American Citizenship: The Quest for Inclusion. The Tanner Lectures on Human Values. Harvard University Press. 1991: 3–4 [2012-12-17]. ISBN 9780674022164. 
    Slotkin, Richard. Unit Pride: Ethnic Platoons and the Myths of American Nationality. American Literary History (Oxford University Press). 2001, 13 (3): 469–498 [2012-12-17]. S2CID 143996198. doi:10.1093/alh/13.3.469. But it also expresses a myth of American nationality that remains vital in our political and cultural life: the idealized self-image of a multiethnic, multiracial democracy, hospitable to differences but united by a common sense of national belonging. 
    Eder, Klaus; Giesen, Bernhard. European Citizenship: Between National Legacies and Postnational Projects. Oxford University Press. 2001: 25–26 [2013-02-01]. ISBN 9780199241200. In inter-state relations, the American nation state presents its members as a monistic political body-despite ethnic and national groups in the interior. 
    Petersen, William; Novak, Michael; Gleason, Philip. Concepts of Ethnicity. Harvard University Press. 1982: 62 [2013-02-01]. ISBN 9780674157262. To be or to become an American, a person did not have to be of any particular national, linguistic, religious, or ethnic background. All he had to do was to commit himself to the political ideology centered on the abstract ideals of liberty, equality, and republicanism. Thus the universalist ideological character of American nationality meant that it was open to anyone who willed to become an American. 
    Charles Hirschman; Philip Kasinitz; Josh Dewind. The Handbook of International Migration: The American Experience. Russell Sage Foundation. 1999-11-04: 300. ISBN 978-1-61044-289-3.  已忽略未知参数|url-access= (帮助)
    David Halle. America's Working Man: Work, Home, and Politics Among Blue Collar Property Owners. University of Chicago Press. 1987-07-15: 233. ISBN 978-0-226-31366-5. The first, and central, way involves the view that Americans are all those persons born within the boundaries of the United States or admitted to citizenship by the government. 
  48. ^ Lifshey, Adam. Subversions of the American Century: Filipino Literature in Spanish and the Transpacific Transformation of the United States. University of Michigan Press. 2015: 119. ISBN 978-0-472-05293-6. the status of Filipinos in the Philippines as American nationals existed from 1900 to 1946 
    Rick Baldoz. The Third Asiatic Invasion: Empire and Migration in Filipino America, 1898-1946. NYU Press. 2011-02-28: 174. ISBN 978-0-8147-9109-7. Recalling earlier debates surrounding Filipinos' naturalization status in the United States, he pointed out that U.S. courts had definitively recognized that Filipinos were American "nationals" and not "aliens." 
    8 FAM 302.5 Special Citizenship Provisions Regarding the Philippines. Foreign Affairs Manual. United States Department of State. 2020-05-15 [2020-06-09]. 
  49. ^ U.S. Census Bureau. Foreign-Born Population Frequently asked Questions viewed January 19, 2015. The U.S. Census Bureau uses the terms native and native born to refer to anyone born in Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, or the U.S. Virgin Islands.
  50. ^ Holloway, Joseph E. (2005). Africanisms in American Culture, 2d ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, pp. 18–38. ISBN 0-253-34479-4. Johnson, Fern L. (1999). Speaking Culturally: Language Diversity in the United States. Thousand Oaks, California, London, and New Delhi: Sage, p. 116. ISBN 0-8039-5912-5.
  51. ^ Adams, J.Q., and Pearlie Strother-Adams (2001). Dealing with Diversity. Chicago: Kendall/Hunt. ISBN 0-7872-8145-X.
  52. ^ Jay Tolson. A Growing Trend of Leaving America. U.S. News & World Report. 2008-07-28 [2012-12-17]. Estimates made by organizations such as the Association of Americans Resident Overseas put the number of nongovernment-employed Americans living abroad anywhere between 4 million and 7 million, a range whose low end is based loosely on the government's trial count in 1999. 
  53. ^ 6.32 million Americans (excluding military) live in 160-plus countries.. Association of Americans Resident Overseas. [2012-12-17]. (原始内容存档于2012-11-19). The total is the highest released to date: close to 6.32 million. 
  54. ^ The American Diaspora. Esquire (Hurst Communications, Inc.). [2012-12-17]. he most frequently cited estimate of nonmilitary U. S. citizens living overseas is between three and six million, based on a very rough State Department calculation in 1999--and never updated. 
  55. ^ 55.0 55.1 55.2 Karen R. Humes; Nicholas A. Jones; Roberto R. Ramirez. Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010 (PDF). United States Census Bureau. March 2011 [2015-01-02]. 
  56. ^ Race, Combinations of Two Races, and Not Hispanic or Latino: 2010. 2010 Census Summary File 1. United States Census Bureau. 2010 [2015-01-02]. (原始内容存档于2015-01-03). 
  57. ^ Hispanic or Latino by Type: 2010. 2010 Census Summary File 1. United States Census Bureau. 2010 [2015-01-02]. (原始内容存档于2015-01-03). 
  58. ^ Our Diverse Population: Race and Hispanic Origin, 2000 (PDF). United States Census Bureau. [2008-04-24]. 
  59. ^ Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity. Office of Management and Budget. [2008-05-05]. (原始内容存档于2009-03-15). 
  60. ^ Grieco, Elizabeth M; Rachel C. Cassidy. Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2000 (PDF). United States Census Bureau. [2015-01-02]. 
  61. ^ U.S. Census website. 2008 Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau. [2010-02-28]. 
  62. ^ 62.0 62.1 62.2 Lindsay Hixson; Bradford B. Hepler; Myoung Ouk Kim. The White Population: 2010 (PDF). United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. September 2011 [2012-11-20]. 
  63. ^ U.S. whites will soon be the minority in number, but not power – Baltimore Sun. The Baltimore Sun. [2018-01-21]. 
  64. ^ Minority population surging in Texas. NBC News. Associated Press. 2005-08-18 [2009-12-07]. 
  65. ^ Bernstein, Robert. Most Children Younger Than Age 1 are Minorities, Census Bureau Reports. United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. 2012-05-17 [2012-12-16]. 
  66. ^ A Spanish Expedition Established St. Augustine in Florida. Library of Congress. [2009-03-27]. 
  67. ^ D. H. Figueredo. Latino Chronology: Chronologies of the American Mosaic. Greenwood Publishing Group. 2007: 35. ISBN 978-0-313-34154-0. 
  68. ^ 68.00 68.01 68.02 68.03 68.04 68.05 68.06 68.07 68.08 68.09 68.10 Selected Social Characteristics in the United States (DP02): 2017 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau. [2018-11-20]. (原始内容存档于2020-02-14). 
  69. ^ Ethnic Landscapes of America - By John A. Cross
  70. ^ Census and you: monthly news from the U.S. Bureau... Volume 28, Issue 2 - By United States. Bureau of the Census
  71. ^ Sharing the Dream: White Males in a Multicultural America By Dominic J. Pulera.
  72. ^ Reynolds Farley, 'The New Census Question about Ancestry: What Did It Tell Us?', Demography, Vol. 28, No. 3 (August 1991), pp. 414, 421.
  73. ^ Stanley Lieberson and Lawrence Santi, 'The Use of Nativity Data to Estimate Ethnic Characteristics and Patterns', Social Science Research, Vol. 14, No. 1 (1985), pp. 44-6.
  74. ^ Stanley Lieberson and Mary C. Waters, 'Ethnic Groups in Flux: The Changing Ethnic Responses of American Whites', Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 487, No. 79 (September 1986), pp. 82-86.
  75. ^ Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2004 (PDF). 
  76. ^ Median household income newsbrief, US Census Bureau 2005. [2006-09-24]. (原始内容存档于2006-09-03). 
  77. ^ US Census Bureau, Personal income for Asian Americans, age 25+, 2006. [2006-12-17]. (原始内容存档于2006-09-29). 
  78. ^ Sharon R. Ennis; Merarys Ríos-Vargas; Nora G. Albert. The Hispanic Population: 2010 (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau: 14 (Table 6). May 2011 [2011-07-11]. 
  79. ^ B04006, People Reporting Ancestry. 2009-2011 American Community Survey. United States Census Bureau. [2012-11-23]. (原始内容存档于2020-02-12). 
  80. ^ Table 52. Population by Selected Ancestry Group and Region: 2009 (PDF). 2009 American Community Survey. United States Census Bureau. January 2011 [2012-11-20]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2012-10-23).  已忽略未知参数|df= (帮助)
  81. ^ "History Crash Course #55: Jews and the Founding of America" Spiro, Rabbi Ken. Aish.com. Published December 8, 2001. Accessed December 12, 2015. "The first Jews arrived in America with Columbus in 1492, and we also know that Jews newly-converted to Christianity were among the first Spaniards to arrive in Mexico with Conquistador Hernando Cortez in 1519."
  82. ^ "Arab Americans: An Integral Part of American Society" Arab American National Museum. Published 2009. Accessed December 12, 2015. "Zammouri, the first Arab American...traveled over 6,000 miles between 1528 and 1536, trekking across the American Southwest."
  83. ^ "The American Jewish Experience through the Nineteenth Century: Immigration and Acculturation" Golden, Jonathan, and Jonathan D. Sarna. National Humanities Center. Brandeis University. Accessed December 12, 2015.
  84. ^ Netanyahu, Benzion.The Origins of the Inquisition in Fifteenth Century Spain. New York: Random House, 1995. Hardcover. 1390 pages. p. 1085.
  85. ^ "Conversos & Crypto-Jews" 互联网档案馆存檔,存档日期December 22, 2015,. City of Albuquerque. Accessed December 12, 2015.
  86. ^ "Timeline in American Jewish History" American Jewish Archives. Accessed December 12, 2015.
  87. ^ Arab American Institute – Texas (PDF). Arab American Institute. [2015-12-12]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2012-02-07). 
  88. ^ Public Comments to NCT Federal Register Notice (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau; Department of Commerce. [2015-12-13]. 
  89. ^ Wang, Hansi Lo. No Middle Eastern Or North African Category On 2020 Census, Bureau Says. National Public Radio. 2018-01-29 [2018-06-09]. 
  90. ^ Table 1. First, Second, and Total Responses to the Ancestry Question by Detailed Ancestry Code: 2000 (XLS). U.S. Census Bureau. [2010-12-02]. 
  91. ^ Total ancestry categories tallied for people with one or more ancestry categories reported: 2010 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. United States Census Bureau. [2012-11-30]. (原始内容存档于2020-02-12). 
  92. ^ Ira Sheskin; Arnold Dashefsky. Jewish Population in the United States, 2010 (PDF). Mandell L. Berman Institute North American Jewish Data Bank, Center for Judaic Studies and Contemporary Jewish Life, University of Connecticut. Brandeis University. 2010 [2015-11-16]. 
  93. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为tthqvu的参考文献提供内容
  94. ^ Humes, Karen R.; Jones, Nicholas A.; Ramirez, Roberto R. Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010 (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. [2011-03-28]. "Hispanic or Latino" refers to a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race. 
  95. ^ Sharon R. Ennis; Merarys Ríos-Vargas; Nora G. Albert. The Hispanic Population: 2010 (PDF). United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. May 2011 [2012-09-09]. 
  96. ^ 2010 Census Shows Nation's Hispanic Population Grew Four Times Faster Than Total U.S. Population. United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. 2011-05-26 [2012-09-09]. (原始内容存档于2012-09-08). 
  97. ^ 2010 Census Shows Nation's Hispanic Population Grew Four Times Faster Than Total U.S. Population. United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. 2011-05-26 [2012-09-09]. (原始内容存档于2012-09-08). 
  98. ^ 2010 Census Shows Nation's Hispanic Population Grew Four Times Faster Than Total U.S. Population. United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. 2011-05-26 [2012-09-09]. (原始内容存档于2012-09-08). 
  99. ^ 2010 Census Shows Nation's Hispanic Population Grew Four Times Faster Than Total U.S. Population. United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. 2011-05-26 [2012-09-09]. (原始内容存档于2012-09-08). 
  100. ^ 2010 Census Shows Nation's Hispanic Population Grew Four Times Faster Than Total U.S. Population. United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. 2011-05-26 [2012-09-09]. (原始内容存档于2012-09-08). 
  101. ^ 2010 Census Shows Nation's Hispanic Population Grew Four Times Faster Than Total U.S. Population. United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. 2011-05-26 [2012-09-09]. (原始内容存档于2012-09-08). 
  102. ^ 2010 Census Shows Nation's Hispanic Population Grew Four Times Faster Than Total U.S. Population. United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. 2011-05-26 [2012-09-09]. (原始内容存档于2012-09-08). 
  103. ^ 2010 Census Shows Nation's Hispanic Population Grew Four Times Faster Than Total U.S. Population. United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. 2011-05-26 [2012-09-09]. (原始内容存档于2012-09-08). 
  104. ^ 2010 Census Shows Nation's Hispanic Population Grew Four Times Faster Than Total U.S. Population. United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. 2011-05-26 [2012-09-09]. (原始内容存档于2012-09-08). 
  105. ^ 2010 Census Shows Nation's Hispanic Population Grew Four Times Faster Than Total U.S. Population. United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. 2011-05-26 [2012-09-09]. (原始内容存档于2012-09-08). 
  106. ^ 2010 Census Shows Nation's Hispanic Population Grew Four Times Faster Than Total U.S. Population. United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. 2011-05-26 [2012-09-09]. (原始内容存档于2012-09-08). 
  107. ^ 2010 Census Shows Nation's Hispanic Population Grew Four Times Faster Than Total U.S. Population. United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. 2011-05-26 [2012-09-09]. (原始内容存档于2012-09-08). 
  108. ^ The Journey from Gold Mountain: The Asian American Experience (PDF). Japanese American Citizens League: 3. 2006 [2016-11-27]. 
  109. ^ California Declares Filipino American History Month. San Francisco Business Times. 2009-09-10 [2011-02-14]. 
  110. ^ Hune, Shirley; Takeuchi, David T.; Andresen, Third; Hong, Seunghye; Kang, Julie; Redmond, Mavae'Aho; Yeo, Jeomja. Asian Americans in Washington State: Closing Their Hidden Achievement Gaps (PDF). Commission on Asian Pacific American Affairs. State of Washington. April 2009 [2012-02-09]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2010-11-03).  已忽略未知参数|df= (帮助)
  111. ^ 111.0 111.1 2010 United States Census statistics (PDF). 
  112. ^ 112.0 112.1 B02001. RACE – Universe: TOTAL POPULATION. 2008 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. 美国普查局. [2010-02-28]. 
  113. ^ 113.0 113.1 Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month: May 2011. Facts for Features. U.S. Census Bureau. 2011-12-07 [2012-01-04]. 
  114. ^ Shan Li. Asian Americans had higher poverty rate than whites in 2011, study says. Los Angeles Times. 2013-05-03 [2013-05-06]. In 2011, for example, nearly a third of Asians in the U.S. lived in the metropolitan regions around Los Angeles, San Francisco and New York. 
    Selected Population Profile in the United States. U.S. Census. U.S. Department of Commerce. [2011-06-25]. (原始内容存档于2020-02-12). 
  115. ^ Meizhu Lui; Barbara Robles; Betsy Leondar-Wright; Rose Brewer; Lua错误:bad argument #1 to 'gsub' (string expected, got nil)。. The Color of Wealth. The New Press. 2006. 
  116. ^ US Census Bureau report on educational attainment in the United States, 2003 (PDF). [2006-07-31]. 
  117. ^ The American Community-Asians: 2004 (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. February 2007 [2007-09-05]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2007-09-26).  已忽略未知参数|df= (帮助)
  118. ^ Chou, Rosalind; Joe R. Feagin. The myth of the model minority: Asian Americans facing racism. Paradigm Publishers. 2008: x [2011-02-09]. ISBN 978-1-59451-586-6. 
  119. ^ Tamar Lewin. Report Takes Aim at 'Model Minority' Stereotype of Asian-American Students. 纽约时报. 2008-06-10 [2012-02-09]. 
  120. ^ Tojo Thatchenkery. Asian Americans Under the Model Minority Gaze. International Association of Business Disciplines National Conference. modelminority.com. 2000-03-31 [2012-02-26]. (原始内容存档于2012-03-18). 
  121. ^ Lien, Pei-te; Mary Margaret Conway; Janelle Wong. The politics of Asian Americans: diversity and community. Psychology Press. 2004: 7 [2012-02-09]. ISBN 978-0-415-93465-7. In addition, because of their perceived racial difference, rapid and continuous immigration from Asia, and on going detente with communist regimes in Asia, Asian Americans are construed as "perpetual foreigners" who cannot or will not adapt to the language, customs, religions, and politics of the American mainstream. 
  122. ^ Wu, Frank H. Yellow: race in America beyond black and white. Basic Books. 2003: 79 [2012-02-09]. ISBN 978-0-465-00640-3. asian americans perpetual foreigners.  已忽略未知参数|url-access= (帮助)
  123. ^ 123.0 123.1 Tina Norris; Paula L. Vines; Elizabeth M. Hoeffel. The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2010 (PDF). United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. January 2012 [2012-09-09]. 
  124. ^ Bryc, Katarzyna; Durand, Eric Y.; Macpherson, J. Michael; Reich, David; Mountain, Joanna L. The Genetic Ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across the United States. The American Journal of Human Genetics. January 2015, 96 (1): 37–53. ISSN 0002-9297. PMC 4289685可免费查阅. PMID 25529636. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2014.11.010. 
  125. ^ Carl Zimmer. White? Black? A Murky Distinction Grows Still Murkier. The New York Times. 2014-12-24 [2018-10-21]. The researchers found that European-Americans had genomes that were on average 98.6 percent European, .19 percent African, and .18 Native American. 
  126. ^ Axelrod, Alan. The Complete Idiot's Guide to American History. Complete Idiot's Guide to. Penguin. 2003: 4 [2012-09-09]. ISBN 9780028644646. 
  127. ^ Magoc, Chris J. Chronology of Americans and the Environment. ABC-CLIO. 2011: 1 [2012-09-09]. ISBN 9781598844115. 
  128. ^ Columbus, Christopher; de las Casas, Bartolomé; Dunn, Oliver; Kelley, James Edward. de las Casas, Bartolomé; Dunn, Oliver , 编. The Diario of Christopher Columbus's First Voyage to America, 1492-1493. Volume 70 of American Exploration and Travel Series. University of Oklahoma Press. 1991: 491 [2012-09-09]. ISBN 9780806123844. 
  129. ^ Woods Weierman, Karen. One Nation, One Blood: Interracial Marriage In American Fiction, Scandal, and Law, 1820-1870. University of Massachusetts Press. 2005: 44 [2012-09-09]. ISBN 9781558494831. 
  130. ^ Mann, Kaarin. Interracial Marriage In Early America: Motivation and the Colonial Project (PDF). Michigan Journal of History (University of Michigan). 2007, (Fall) [2012-09-08]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2013-05-15). 
  131. ^ R. David Edmunds. Native American Displacement Amid U.S. Expansion. KERA. Public Broadcasting Service. 2006-03-14 [2012-09-09]. 
  132. ^ Thornton, Russell. American Indian Holocaust and Survival: A Population History Since 1492. Volume 186 of Civilization of the American Indian Series. University of Oklahoma Press. 1987: 49 [2012-09-09]. ISBN 9780806122205. genocide warfare europeans american indians.  已忽略未知参数|url-access= (帮助)
  133. ^ Kessel, William B.; Wooster, Robert. Encyclopedia Of Native American Wars And Warfare. Facts on File library of American History. Infobase Publishing. 2005: 398 [2012-09-09]. ISBN 9780816033379. 
  134. ^ Bianchine, Peter J.; Russo, Thomas A. The Role of Epidemic Infectious Diseases in the Discovery of America. Allergy and Asthma Proceedings (OceanSide Publications, Inc). 1992, 13 (5): 225–232. PMID 1483570. doi:10.2500/108854192778817040. 
  135. ^ American Indian and Alaska Native Heritage Month: November 2011. United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. 2011-11-01 [2012-09-09]. 
  136. ^ Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month: May 2011. United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. 2011-04-29 [2012-09-11]. 
  137. ^ 137.0 137.1 引用错误:没有为名为2010CensusNHOPI的参考文献提供内容
  138. ^ Jon M. Spencer. The New Colored People: The Mixed-Race Movement in America. NYU Press. August 2000. ISBN 978-0-8147-8072-5. 
    Loretta I. Winters; Herman L. DeBose. New Faces in a Changing America: Multiracial Identity in the 21st Century. SAGE. 2003. ISBN 978-0-7619-2300-8. 
  139. ^ Karen R. Humes; Nicholas A. Jones; Roberto R. Ramirez. Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010 (PDF). 2010 Census Briefs. United States Census Bureau. March 2011 [2013-02-22]. 
  140. ^ Ewen MacAskill; Nicholas Watt. Obama looks forward to rediscovering his Irish roots on European tour. The Guardian (London). 2011-05-20 [2011-08-03]. 
  141. ^ Mason, Jeff. Obama visits family roots in Ireland. Reuters. 2011-05-23 [2011-08-03]. 
  142. ^ Oscar Avila. Obama's census-form choice: 'Black'. Los Angeles Times. 2010-04-04 [2013-02-22]. 
  143. ^ Sam Roberts; Peter Baker. Asked to Declare His Race, Obama Checks 'Black'. The New York Times. 2010-04-02 [2013-02-22]. 
  144. ^ Nocholas A. Jones; Jungmiwka Bullock. The Two or More Races Population: 2010 (PDF). United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. September 2012 [2014-11-18]. 
  145. ^ Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010 (PDF). 
  146. ^ United States. Modern Language Association. [2013-09-02]. 
  147. ^ Feder, Jody. English as the Official Language of the United States—Legal Background and Analysis of Legislation in the 110th Congress (PDF). Ilw.com (Congressional Research Service). 2007-01-25 [2007-06-19]. 
  148. ^ Table 53—Languages Spoken at Home by Language: 2007 (PDF). Statistical Abstract of the United States 2010. U.S. Census Bureau. [2009-09-21]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2010-03-27). 
  149. ^ Foreign Language Enrollments in United States Institutions of Higher Learning (PDF). MLA. Fall 2002 [2006-10-16]. (原始内容 (PDF)存档于1999-11-27). 
  150. ^ Dicker, Susan J. Languages in America: A Pluralist View. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters. 2003: 216, 220–25. ISBN 1-85359-651-5. 
  151. ^ California Code of Civil Procedure, Section 412.20(6). Legislative Counsel, State of California. [2007-12-17]. (原始内容存档于2010-07-22).  California Judicial Council Forms. Judicial Council, State of California. [2007-12-17]. 
  152. ^ The Constitution of the State of Hawaii, Article XV, Section 4. Hawaii Legislative Reference Bureau. 1978-11-07 [2007-06-19]. (原始内容存档于2007-07-05). 
  153. ^ America's Changing Religious Landscape. The Pew Forum. 2015-05-12 [2015-05-12]. 
  154. ^ Eck, Diana. A New Religious America: the World's Most Religiously Diverse Nation. HarperOne. 2002: 432. ISBN 978-0-06-062159-9.  已忽略未知参数|url-access= (帮助)
  155. ^ U.S. Stands Alone in its Embrace of Religion. Pew Global Attitudes Project. [2007-01-01]. (原始内容存档于2007-02-08). 
  156. ^ Feldman, Noah (2005). Divided by God. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, pg. 10 ("For the first time in recorded history, they designed a government with no established religion at all.")
  157. ^ Marsden, George M. 1990. Religion and American Culture. Orlando: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, pp.45–46.
  158. ^ ANALYSIS. Global Christianity. Pewforum.org. 2011-12-19 [2012-08-17]. 
  159. ^ Newport, Frank. Five Key Findings on Religion in the U.S.. Gallup. 2016-12-23 [2018-04-05] (美国英语). 
  160. ^ 160.0 160.1 160.2 Barry A. Kosmin and Ariela Keysar. American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS) 2008 (PDF). Hartford, Connecticut, US: Trinity College. 2009 [2009-04-01]. 
  161. ^ CIA Fact Book. CIA World Fact Book. 2002 [2007-12-30]. 
  162. ^ Religious Composition of the U.S. (PDF). U.S. Religious Landscape Survey. Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. 2007 [2009-05-09]. (原始内容存档 (PDF)于2009-05-06). 
  163. ^ Newport, Frank. Belief in God Far Lower in Western U.S.. The Gallup Organization. 2008-07-28 [2010-09-04]. (原始内容存档于2010-08-28). 
  164. ^ Carlos E. Cortés. Multicultural America: A Multimedia Encyclopedia. SAGE Publications. 2013-09-03: 220. ISBN 978-1-4522-7626-7. The dominance of English and Anglo values in U.S. culture is evident in the country's major institutions, demonstrating the melting pot model. 
  165. ^ Kirschbaum, Erik. The eradication of German culture in the United States, 1917-1918. H.-D. Heinz. 1986: 155. ISBN 3-88099-617-2. 
  166. ^ Peter J. Parish. Reader's Guide to American History. Taylor & Francis. January 1997: 276. ISBN 978-1-884964-22-0. However, France was second only to Britain in its influence upon the formation of American politics and culture. 
  167. ^ Marilyn J. Coleman; Lawrence H. Ganong. The Social History of the American Family: An Encyclopedia. SAGE Publications. 2014-09-16: 775. ISBN 978-1-4522-8615-0. As the communities grew and prospered, Italian food, entertainment, and music influenced American life and culture. 
  168. ^ M. D. R. Evans; Jonathan Kelley. Religion, Morality and Public Policy in International Perspective, 1984-2002. Federation Press. January 2004: 302. ISBN 978-1-86287-451-0. 
  169. ^ America tops in national pride survey finds. NBC News. Associated Press. 2006-06-27 [2014-10-22]. 
    Elizabeth Theiss-Morse. Who Counts as an American?: The Boundaries of National Identity. Cambridge University Press. 2009-07-27: 133. ISBN 978-1-139-48891-4. 
  170. ^ Thompson, William, and Joseph Hickey (2005). Society in Focus. Boston: Pearson. ISBN 0-205-41365-X.
  171. ^ CA by the Numbers (PDF). (原始内容 (PDF)存档于2016-06-16).