本页使用了标题或全文手工转换

涌现

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳到导航 跳到搜索
水分子聚集后组成了雪花是一个物理上的创发现象。
一个由白蚁产生一个白蚁塔是一个自然界典型涌现的例子

涌现或称创发突现呈展英语:emergence)是一种现象,为许多小实体交互作用后产生了大实体,而这个大实体展现了组成它的小实体所不具有的特性。

定义[编辑]

许多人都曾定义过“涌现”这个概念,包括亚里士多德[1]约翰·斯图尔特·密尔[2]朱利安·赫胥黎[3]乔治·亨利·刘易斯英语George Henry Lewes[4]Jeffrey Goldstein英语Jeffrey Goldstein则对涌现作以下定义:[5]

复杂系统中在自我组织的过程中,所产生的各种新奇且清晰的结构、图案、和特性。

涌现中有两种学派的看法:弱涌现中,元素层面的互动会造成新的特质出现,而突现特质可以化约到其个别的成分,通常是决定论者的观点;强涌现里,新特质是无法化约的,是超过各部分的总和的。[6]

相关条目[编辑]

参考文献[编辑]

引用[编辑]

  1. ^ Aristotle, Metaphysics, Book H 1045a 8-10: "... the totality is not, as it were, a mere heap, but the whole is something besides the parts ...", i.e., the whole is greater than the sum of the parts.
  2. ^ "The chemical combination of two substances produces, as is well known, a third substance with properties different from those of either of the two substances separately, or of both of them taken together" (Mill 1843
  3. ^ 朱利安·赫胥黎: "now and again there is a sudden rapid passage to a totally new and more comprehensive type of order or organization, with quite new emergent properties, and involving quite new methods of further evolution" (Huxley & Huxley 1947
  4. ^ Blitz 1992) "Every resultant is either a sum or a difference of the co-operant forces; their sum, when their directions are the same -- their difference, when their directions are contrary. Further, every resultant is clearly traceable in its components, because these are homogeneous and commensurable. It is otherwise with emergents, when, instead of adding measurable motion to measurable motion, or things of one kind to other individuals of their kind, there is a co-operation of things of unlike kinds. The emergent is unlike its components insofar as these are incommensurable, and it cannot be reduced to their sum or their difference." (Lewes 1875,p.412)
  5. ^ 原文 "the arising of novel and coherent structures, patterns and properties during the process of self-organization in complex systems".
  6. ^ Who's in Charge?: Free Will and the Science of the Brain [我们真的有自由意志吗?——意识、抉择与背后的大脑科学]. 猫头鹰出版. ISBN 978-9862621295 (中文(繁体)‎). 

来源[编辑]