异性恋

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異性戀亦稱為異性向,一般指對異性(包括生理性別及性別認同為當事人的異性)能產生愛慕感、建立浪漫關係,或認為異性擁有性吸引力的一種現象。把異性戀視作性傾向時,其定義則為「一種對異性產生的持久情感、喜愛、愛情和/或性吸引力的模式」;它「亦指人的一種性認同——該認同依據這些因素而作出:受到異性吸引、相關行為、其他同樣受到異性吸引的人所組成的群體」[1][2]。異性戀在某些情況下會被稱為「直」。

它是三大主要性傾向分類之一,與双性恋同性戀並列於性取向連續體之內[1]。不論社會文化,異性戀者皆為人口中最為普遍的群體[3]。科學界尚未確切了解性傾向的成因,不過他們相信性傾向是由基因、激素和環境的共同作用所促成[4][5][6],且不認為它是一種選擇[4][5][7]。儘管單一成因理論尚未得到廣泛支持,但科學界偏向支持有生物性基礎的理論[4]。與社會性成因相比,相對較多證據支持性傾向的非社會性生物學成因[3][8][9]

人口統計[编辑]

由於缺乏可靠的數據,某一種性取向的人口往往難以確定。縱觀人類性史,不同社會的態度和行為存有不少差異。根據主流研究的結果,89-98%的人在其一生中只跟異性有過性接觸[10][11][12][13],但若受訪者報稱受到同性所吸引或進行過同性性行為時,這一數字便會跌至79–84%[13]。在一項2006年發表的研究中,80%的匿名受訪者報稱受到異性所吸引,但97-98%受訪者表示他們是異性戀者[14]。一項1992年發表的研究表示,93.9%的英國男性總是有异性恋經歷,法國則有95.9%[15]

相關條目[编辑]

  • 異性戀主義
  • 婚姻:传统上是男女兩個人依一定的法律、伦理和風俗的規定所建立起來的夫婦關係。
  • 好人文化:1990年代以後,在台灣等地男女交往問題發展出來的一種网络文化次文化。

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Sexual orientation, homosexuality and bisexuality. American Psychological Association. [August 10, 2013]. (原始内容存档于August 8, 2013). 
  2. ^ APA California Amicus Brief (PDF). Courtinfo.ca.gov. [2013-10-11]. 
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 Bailey, J. Michael; Vasey, Paul; Diamond, Lisa; Breedlove, S. Marc; Vilain, Eric; Epprecht, Marc. Sexual Orientation, Controversy, and Science. Psychological Science in the Public Interest. 2016, 17 (2): 45–101. PMID 27113562. doi:10.1177/1529100616637616. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 4.2 Frankowski BL; American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Adolescence. Sexual orientation and adolescents. Pediatrics. June 2004, 113 (6): 1827–32. PMID 15173519. doi:10.1542/peds.113.6.1827. 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 Lamanna, Mary Ann; Riedmann, Agnes; Stewart, Susan D. Marriages, Families, and Relationships: Making Choices in a Diverse Society. Cengage Learning. 2014: 82 [February 11, 2016]. ISBN 978-1-305-17689-8. The reason some individuals develop a gay sexual identity has not been definitively established  – nor do we yet understand the development of heterosexuality. The American Psychological Association (APA) takes the position that a variety of factors impact a person's sexuality. The most recent literature from the APA says that sexual orientation is not a choice that can be changed at will, and that sexual orientation is most likely the result of a complex interaction of environmental, cognitive and biological factors...is shaped at an early age...[and evidence suggests] biological, including genetic or inborn hormonal factors, play a significant role in a person's sexuality (American Psychological Association 2010). 
  6. ^ Gail Wiscarz Stuart. Principles and Practice of Psychiatric Nursing. Elsevier Health Sciences. 2014: 502 [February 11, 2016]. ISBN 978-0-323-29412-6. No conclusive evidence supports any one specific cause of homosexuality; however, most researchers agree that biological and social factors influence the development of sexual orientation. 
  7. ^ Gloria Kersey-Matusiak. Delivering Culturally Competent Nursing Care. Springer Publishing Company. 2012: 169 [February 10, 2016]. ISBN 978-0-8261-9381-0. Most health and mental health organizations do not view sexual orientation as a 'choice.' 
  8. ^ LeVay, Simon. Gay, Straight, and the Reason Why: The Science of Sexual Orientation. Oxford University Press. 2017. ISBN 9780199752966. 
  9. ^ Balthazart, Jacques. The Biology of Homosexuality. Oxford University Press. 2012. ISBN 9780199838820. 
  10. ^ Laumann, E. O., Gagnon, J. H., Michael, R. T., & Michaels, S. (1994). The social organization of sexuality: Sexual practices in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.[页码请求]
  11. ^ Wellings, K., Field, J., Johnson, A., & Wadsworth, J. (1994). Sexual behavior in Britain: The national survey of sexual attitudes and lifestyles. London, UK: Penguin Books.[页码请求]
  12. ^ Bogaert AF. The prevalence of male homosexuality: the effect of fraternal birth order and variations in family size. Journal of Theoretical Biology. September 2004, 230 (1): 33–7. PMID 15275997. doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2004.04.035.  Bogaert argues that: "The prevalence of male homosexuality is debated. One widely reported early estimate was 10% (e.g., Marmor, 1980; Voeller, 1990). Some recent data provided support for this estimate (Bagley and Tremblay, 1998), but most recent large national samples suggest that the prevalence of male homosexuality in modern western societies, including the United States, is lower than this early estimate (e.g., 1–2% in Billy et al., 1993; 2–3% in Laumann et al., 1994; 6% in Sell et al., 1995; 1–3% in Wellings et al., 1994). It is of note, however, that homosexuality is defined in different ways in these studies. For example, some use same-sex behavior and not same-sex attraction as the operational definition of homosexuality (e.g., Billy et al., 1993); many sex researchers (e.g., Bailey et al., 2000; Bogaert, 2003; Money, 1988; Zucker and Bradley, 1995) now emphasize attraction over overt behavior in conceptualizing sexual orientation." (p. 33) Also: "...the prevalence of male homosexuality (in particular, same-sex attraction) varies over time and across societies (and hence is a "moving target") in part because of two effects: (1) variations in fertility rate or family size; and (2) the fraternal birth order effect. Thus, even if accurately measured in one country at one time, the rate of male homosexuality is subject to change and is not generalizable over time or across societies." (p. 33)
  13. ^ 13.0 13.1 Hope, Debra A (编). Contemporary Perspectives on Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identities. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation 54. 2009. ISBN 978-0-387-09555-4. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-09556-1. 
  14. ^ McConaghy et al., 2006
  15. ^ Sexual Behavior Levels Compared in Studies In Britain and France. nytimes.com. 8 December 1992.