伊斯兰恐惧症

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伊斯兰恐惧症[譯名請求]是指對穆斯林的偏見,反对,仇恨,非理性的恐懼以及种族偏见。[1][2][3][4]

在1997年,英國拉尼米德信託將伊斯蘭恐懼症定義為:「對伊斯蘭教的恐懼或仇恨,因此,對所有的穆斯林恐懼和厭惡」,說明它也指藉由將他們從全國的經濟,社會和公共生活中排除來歧視穆斯林。這一概念也包括認為伊斯蘭教與其他文化沒有共同的價值觀,不如西方,是一種暴力政治意識形態,而不是宗教等。[5]

伊斯蘭恐懼症在斯德哥爾摩打擊不容忍國際論壇被認定為宗教不容忍和仇外心理的形式。[6]在此次發布會上,出席會議的聯合國秘書長科菲·安南,高級人權專員瑪麗·羅賓遜,歐安組織秘書長揚·庫比什和歐盟即歐洲理事會的代表,通過了一項打擊種族滅絕種族清洗種族主義反猶太主義,伊斯蘭恐懼症和仇外心理,並打擊一切形式的種族歧視和相關的不容忍的宣言。[7]一些社會學者認為是一種種族主義,但是依然有爭議。[8]

二十一世紀初伊斯蘭恐懼症和仇視伊斯蘭教事件的增加被歸因於911事件,也有人歸因於穆斯林在西方世界的增加。在2002年5月,歐盟的歐洲種族主義和仇外心理監測中心(EUMC), 公佈了一份報告,題為“911後的歐盟中的伊斯蘭恐懼症總結報告”,描述911事件後歐洲會員國伊斯蘭恐懼症相關事件的增加。

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ The Multicultural State We're In: Muslims,'Multiculture'and the 'Civic Re‐balancing'of British Multiculturalism, Political Studies: 2009 Vol 57, 473–497
    [https://www.surrey.ac.uk/cronem/files/Tariq-Modood-article.pdf Remaking multiculturalism after 7/7, Tariq Modood, 29 September 2005

    The most important such form of cultural racism today is anti-Muslim racism, sometimes called Islamophobia.

    ]
    A sociological comparison of anti-Semitism and anti-Muslim sentiment in Britain, Nasar Meer, Tehseen Noorani The Sociological Review, Volume 56, Issue 2, pages 195–219, May 2008

    Across Europe activists and certain academics are struggling to get across an understanding in their governments and their countries at large that anti-Muslim racism/Islamophobia is now one of the most pernicious forms of contemporary racism and that steps should be taken to combat it.


    “GET OFF YOUR KNEES”, Journalism Studies, Volume 7, Issue 1, 2006, pages 35-59
    Anti-Semitism and Islamophobia - new enemies, old patterns
    Fighting anti-Muslim racism: an interview with A. Sivanandan
    Differentiating Islamophobia: Introducing a new scale to measure Islamoprejudice and Secular Islam Critique

    Thus, Islamophobia is characterized as neologism for racism

  2. ^
    • Fredman, Sandra. Discrimination and human rights: the case of racism. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. 2001. 121. ISBN 0-19-924603-3. 
    • Haddad, Yvonne Yazbeck. Muslims in the West: from sojourners to citizens. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. 2002. 19. ISBN 0-19-514806-1. 
    • Islamophobia: A Challenge for Us All, Runnymede Trust, 1997, p. 1, cited in Quraishi, Muzammil. Muslims and crime: a comparative study. Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate. 2005. 60. ISBN 0-7546-4233-X. . Early in 1997, the Commission on British Muslims and Islamophobia, at that time part of the Runnymede Trust, issued a consultative document on Islamophobia under the chairmanship of Professor Gordon Conway, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Sussex. The final report, Islamophobia: A Challenge for Us All, was launched in November 1997 by Home Secretary Jack Straw
  3. ^ Holden, Cathie; Hicks, David V. Teaching the global dimension: key principles and effective practice. New York: Routledge. 2007. 140. ISBN 0-415-40448-7. 
  4. ^ Islamofobi - en studie av begreppet, ungdomars attityder och unga muslimers utsatthet, published by Forum f?r levande historia
    The rise of anti-Muslim racism in Australia: who benefits?
    Poynting & Mason: "Tolerance, Freedom, Justice and Peace?: Britain, Australia and Anti-Muslim Racism since 11 September 2001", Journal of Intercultural Studies, Vol. 27, No. 4 (2006), pp.365-391
  5. ^ Runnymede 1997, p. 5, cited in Quraishi 2005, p. 60.
  6. ^ Roald, Anne Sophie. New Muslims in the European Context: The Experience of Scandinavian Converts. Brill. 2004. 53. ISBN 9004136797. 
  7. ^ Conference Two: Combating Intolerance. Chancellery of the Government of Sweden. [19 November 2011]. 
  8. ^ Reviewed in: Ayhan Kaya. Fryklund, Björn; Righard, Erica (编). Islamophobia as a form of governmentality: Unbearable weightiness of the politics of fear. Malmö: Malmö University, Malmö Institute for Studies of Migration, Diversity and Welfare (MIM). 2011 [August 15, 2012].  See also:

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