Across Europe activists and certain academics are struggling to get across an understanding in their governments and their countries at large that anti-Muslim racism/Islamophobia is now one of the most pernicious forms of contemporary racism and that steps should be taken to combat it.
Fredman, Sandra. Discrimination and human rights: the case of racism. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. 2001. 121. ISBN0-19-924603-3.
Haddad, Yvonne Yazbeck. Muslims in the West: from sojourners to citizens. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. 2002. 19. ISBN0-19-514806-1.
Islamophobia: A Challenge for Us All, Runnymede Trust, 1997, p. 1, cited in Quraishi, Muzammil. Muslims and crime: a comparative study. Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate. 2005. 60. ISBN0-7546-4233-X.. Early in 1997, the Commission on British Muslims and Islamophobia, at that time part of the Runnymede Trust, issued a consultative document on Islamophobia under the chairmanship of Professor Gordon Conway, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Sussex. The final report, Islamophobia: A Challenge for Us All, was launched in November 1997 by Home SecretaryJack Straw
^Holden, Cathie; Hicks, David V. Teaching the global dimension: key principles and effective practice. New York: Routledge. 2007. 140. ISBN0-415-40448-7.