涌现

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雪花的圖案是一個物理系統湧現作用的例子.
一個由白蟻產生一個白蟻塔是一個自然界典型湧現的例子

湧現英语emergence,或譯為突現呈展)是一個複雜系統中由次級組成單元間簡單的互動所造成的複雜現象。此為複雜系統重要的特性之一。

定義[编辑]

許多人都曾定義過“湧現”這個概念,包括亞里士多德[1]約翰·斯圖爾特·密爾[2]朱利安·赫胥黎[3]George Henry Lewes英语George Henry Lewes[4]Jeffrey Goldstein英语則對湧現作以下定義:[5]

複雜系統中在自我組織的過程中,所產生的一個新奇的同調的結構、圖案、和特性。

湧現中有兩種學派的看法:弱湧現中,元素層面的互動會造成新的特質出現,而突現特質可以化約到其個別的成分,通常是決定論者的觀點;強湧現裡,新特質是無法化約的,是超過各部分的總和的。[6]

相關條目[编辑]

附註與參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ Aristotle, Metaphysics, Book H 1045a 8-10: "... the totality is not, as it were, a mere heap, but the whole is something besides the parts ...", i.e., the whole is greater than the sum of the parts.
  2. ^ "The chemical combination of two substances produces, as is well known, a third substance with properties different from those of either of the two substances separately, or of both of them taken together" (Mill 1843
  3. ^ 朱利安·赫胥黎: "now and again there is a sudden rapid passage to a totally new and more comprehensive type of order or organization, with quite new emergent properties, and involving quite new methods of further evolution" (Huxley & Huxley 1947
  4. ^ Blitz 1992) "Every resultant is either a sum or a difference of the co-operant forces; their sum, when their directions are the same -- their difference, when their directions are contrary. Further, every resultant is clearly traceable in its components, because these are homogeneous and commensurable. It is otherwise with emergents, when, instead of adding measurable motion to measurable motion, or things of one kind to other individuals of their kind, there is a co-operation of things of unlike kinds. The emergent is unlike its components insofar as these are incommensurable, and it cannot be reduced to their sum or their difference." (Lewes 1875,p.412)
  5. ^ 原文 "the arising of novel and coherent structures, patterns and properties during the process of self-organization in complex systems".
  6. ^ Who's in Charge?: Free Will and the Science of the Brain [我們真的有自由意志嗎?——意識、抉擇與背後的大腦科學]. 貓頭鷹出版. ISBN 978-9862621295 (中文(繁體)‎). 
  • Mill, John Stuart, On the Composition of Causes, A System of Logic Ratiocinative and Inductive. 1872, London: John W. Parker and Son. 1843:  371 
  • Huxley, Julian S.; Huxley, Thomas Henry, Evolution and Ethics: 1893-1943, London, 1947: The Pilot Press. 1947:  120