时间

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钟表是最常见的计时仪器。

时间是一种尺度,藉著时间,事件发生之先后可以按过去-现在-未来之序列得以确定(时间点),也可以衡量事件持續的期間以及事件之间之间隔长短(时间段)[1][2] 。時間是除了空間三個維度以外的第四維度[3]

長久以來,時間都是宗教哲學科學領域的研究主題之一,但學者們還無法找到一個時間的定義可以適用於各領域,有一致性又沒有循環定義[4]。不過像商業、工業、體育、科學及表演藝術都有一些用來標示及度量時間的方式[5][6][7]。一些簡單,爭議較小的定義包括「時間是時鐘量測的物理量。」[8][9]及「時間使得所有事情不會同時發生。」[10][11][12][13]

哲學家對於時間有兩派不同的觀點:一派認為時間是宇宙的基本結構,是一個會依序列方式出現的維度,像艾萨克·牛顿就對時間有這様的觀點。包括戈特弗里德·莱布尼茨伊曼努爾·康德在內的另一派認為時間不是任何一種已經存在的維度,也不是任何會「流動」的實存物,時間只是一種心智的概念,配合空間可以讓人類對事件排先後順序及進行比較。有介定為:時間不過是人為便於思考宇宙,而對物質運動劃分,是人定規則,愛因斯坦相對論概念用在比喻心理時鐘不是絕對。[14]

丈量与记录[编辑]

计时仪器[编辑]

中国古代的计时仪器有太阳钟和机械钟两类。太阳钟是以太阳的投影和方位来计时,分别以土圭圭表日晷为代表。由于地球轨道偏心率以及地球倾角的影响,真太阳时和平太阳时是不一致的,机械钟应运而生,代表有水鐘香篆鐘沙漏

单位[编辑]

时间的基本国际单位。它现在以133原子基态的两个超精细能级间跃迁对应的辐射的9,192,631,770个周期的持续时间為標準[15]

物理学[编辑]

位於塔干洛的水平日晷

目前最廣泛被接受關於时间的物理理论是阿尔伯特·爱因斯坦相对论。在相对论中,时间与空间一起组成四维时空,构成宇宙的基本结构。时间與空間都不是绝对的,觀察者在不同的相对速度或不同时空结构的测量点,所测量到时间的流易是不同的。狹義相對論預測一个具有相对運動的時鐘之时间流易比另一个靜止的時鐘之时间流易慢。在一九七一年,物理學家哈菲爾(Joe Hafele)與基廷(Richard Keating)做了証明。他們將高度精確的原子鐘放在飛機上繞著世界飛行,然後將讀到的時間與留在地面上完全一樣的時鐘做比較。結果証實:在飛機上的時間流易得比實驗室里的慢。據愛因斯坦的理論,當移動的速度越快,時間流易速度越慢,當移動速度達到光速的一半時,時間約慢13%。

另外,廣義相對論預測质量產生的重力场將造成扭曲的时空结构,並且在大质量(例如黑洞)附近的時鐘之时间流易比在距离大质量较远的地方的時鐘之时间流易要慢。现有的仪器已經证实了這些相对论關於时间所做精確的预測,並且其成果已經應用於全球定位系統

就今天的物理理论来说时间是连续的,不间断的,也没有量子特性。但有一些理论试图将相对论与量子力学结合起来,如量子重力理论弦理论M理论,预言时间是间断的,有量子特性的;但它们还没有被實驗証明過的。另有一些理论猜测普朗克時間可能才是时间的最小单位。

根據史提芬·霍金所解出廣義相對論中的愛因斯坦方程式,顯示宇宙的时间是有一個起始點,由大霹靂(或稱大爆炸)開始的,在此之前的時間是毫無意義的。而物質與時空必須一起並存,沒有物質存在,時間也無意義。不過最近,霍金推翻了他自己的理論。

从人类的开始人们就知道时间是不可逆的,人出生,成长,衰老,死亡,没有反过来的。玻璃瓶掉到地上摔破,没有破瓶子从地上跳起来合整的。古典力学无法解释时间的不可逆性。两个粒子弹性碰撞的过程顺过来反过去没有实质上的区别。时间的不可逆性只有在统计力学热力学的观点下才可被理论地解释。热力学第二定律说在一个封闭的系统中(我们可以将宇宙看成是最大的可能的封闭系统)只能增大,不能减小。宇宙中的熵增大后不能减小,因此时间是不可逆的。

天文学[编辑]

最早研究时间的科学不是物理学,而是天文学。天文学的一个最重要的任务就是测量时间,从确定的长短,四季的变化,到制定历法。在古代中国和在西方一样,制定历法的需要是推动天文学理论发展的重要因素之一。

今天的天文学已与历法或时间测量毫无关联了,但天文学观测对时间概念的发展依然非常重要。天体发出的地球上被观测到需要一定的时间。离地球越远的天体发出的光需要的时间也越长,因此对宇宙越远的地方的观测也是对宇宙越古老的时间的观测。现在最被公认的宇宙学理论(宇宙大爆炸理论)认为时间与空间和宇宙内的质能一样是在140亿年前产生的。目前的天文学观测估计宇宙的扩展是没有尽头的,因此时间也应该是没有尽头的。

哲学[编辑]

哲學家對於時間有兩派不同的觀點:一派認為時間是宇宙的基本結構,是一個會依序列方式出現的維度,艾萨克·牛顿就對時間有這様的觀點,因此也稱為「牛頓式的時間」[16]。另一派認為時間不是任何一種已經存在的維度,也不是任何會「流動」的實存物,時間只是一種心智的概念,配合空間可以讓人類對事件排先後順序及進行比較[17]。依照戈特弗里德·莱布尼茨伊曼努爾·康德的傳統[18][19],第二派的觀點認為空間和時間「本身並不存在,而是我們表達事物方式的產物」,

文学[编辑]

在文学中,时间的流易和不可逆性是一个古今中外一再提到的内容。光阴似箭,日月如梭,这句成语既体现了古人对时间的最直接的领会:日与夜、光与阴的交汇,也体现了古人对时间不可逆性的认识以及对此的感慨。

科幻小说中,时间旅行是热門題材之一。

參見[编辑]

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维基词典上的词义解释:

一些科學和藝術上的相關概念[编辑]

一些和時間有關的單位[编辑]


参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ Oxford Dictionaries:Time. Oxford University Press. 2011 [18 December 2011]. "the indefinite continued of existence and events in the past, present, and future regarded as a whole" 
  2. ^ Webster's New World College Dictionary. 2010 [9 April 2011]. "1.indefinite, unlimited duration in which things are considered as happening in the past, present, or future; every moment there has ever been or ever will be… a system of measuring duration 2.the period between two events or during which something exists, happens, or acts; measured or measurable interval" 
  3. ^ "Newton did for time what the Greek geometers did for space, idealized it into an exactly measurable dimension." About Time: Einstein's Unfinished Revolution, Paul Davies, p. 31, Simon & Schuster, 1996, ISBN 978-0684818221
  4. ^ Sean M Carroll. From Eternity to Here: The Quest for the Ultimate Theory of Time. Dutton. 2009. ISBN 978-0-525-95133-9. 
  5. ^ Official Baseball Rules, 2011 Edition. Rules 8.03 and 8.04 (Free PDF download). Major League Baseball. 2011 [7 July 2012]. "Rule 8.03 Such preparatory pitches shall not consume more than one minute of time...Rule 8.04 When the bases are unoccupied, the pitcher shall deliver the ball to the batter within 12 seconds...The 12-second timing starts when the pitcher is in possession of the ball and the batter is in the box, alert to the pitcher. The timing stops when the pitcher releases the ball" 
  6. ^ Guinness Book of Baseball World Records. Guinness World Records, Ltd. [7 July 2012]. "The record for the fastest time for circling the bases is 13.3 seconds, set by Evar Swanson at Columbus, Ohio in 1932...The greatest reliably recorded speed at which a baseball has been pitched is 100.9 mph by Lynn Nolan Ryan (California Angels) at Anaheim Stadium in California on 20 August 1974." 
  7. ^ Zeigler, Kenneth. Getting organized at work : 24 lessons to set goals, establish priorities, and manage your time. McGraw-Hill. 2008. ISBN 9780071591386.  108 pages
  8. ^ 引用错误:无效<ref>标签;未为name属性为DefRefs01的引用提供文字
  9. ^ 引用错误:无效<ref>标签;未为name属性为Burnham的引用提供文字
  10. ^ Cummings, Raymond King. The Girl in the Golden Atom. U of Nebraska Press. 1922: 46 [9 April 2011]. ISBN 978-0-8032-6457-1.  Chapter 5. Cummings repeated this sentence in several of his novellas. Sources, such as this one, attribute it to his earlier work, The Time Professor, in 1921. Before taking book form, several of Cummings's stories appeared serialized in magazines. The first eight chapters of his The Girl in the Golden Atom appeared in All-Story Magazine on 15 March 1919. In the novel version the quote about time appears in Chapter V.
  11. ^ International, Rotary. The Rotarian. Published by Rotary International. 47. Aug 1973 [9 April 2011]. ISSN 0035-838X. , What does a man possess? page 47
  12. ^ Daintith, John. Biographical Encyclopedia of Scientists third. CRC Press. 2008: 796 [9 April 2011]. ISBN 1-4200-7271-4. , Page 796, quoting Wheeler from the American Journal of Physics, 1978
  13. ^ Davies, Davies. About time: Einstein's unfinished revolution. Simon & Schuster. 1995: 236 [9 April 2011]. ISBN 0-671-79964-9. 
  14. ^ 愛因斯坦曾說:「跟一個漂亮女孩並坐兩小時,你會覺得那只是兩分鐘,叫你坐在熱爐上坐兩分鐘,你會覺得那是兩小時,這就是相對論。」見勒范恩﹙Robert Levine﹚著、馮克芸等譯:《時間地圖》,台北:臺灣商務印書館,1997年,第40頁
  15. ^ Leap Seconds. Time Service Department, United States Naval Observatory. [2006-12-31]. 
  16. ^ Markosian, Ned. Time. (编) Edward N. Zalta. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2002 Edition). [23 September 2011]. "The opposing view, normally referred to either as “Platonism with Respect to Time” or as “Absolutism with Respect to Time,” has been defended by Plato, Newton, and others. On this view, time is like an empty container into which events may be placed; but it is a container that exists independently of whether or not anything is placed in it." 
  17. ^ Navratil, Gerhard. Research Trends in Geographic Information Science. Springer Japan. 2009: 217 [9 April 2011]. ISBN 3-540-88243-X. 
  18. ^ Mattey, G. J. : UC Davis. Critique of Pure Reason, Lecture notes: Philosophy 175 UC Davis. 22 January 1997 [9 April 2011]. "What is correct in the Leibnizian view was its anti-metaphysical stance. Space and time do not exist in and of themselves, but in some sense are the product of the way we represent things. The[y] are ideal, though not in the sense in which Leibniz thought they are ideal (figments of the imagination). The ideality of space is its mind-dependence: it is only a condition of sensibility.... Kant concluded "absolute space is not an object of outer sensation; it is rather a fundamental concept which first of all makes possible all such outer sensation."...Much of the argumentation pertaining to space is applicable, mutatis mutandis, to time, so I will not rehearse the arguments. As space is the form of outer intuition, so time is the form of inner intuition.... Kant claimed that time is real, it is "the real form of inner intuition."" 
  19. ^ McCormick, Matt : California State University, Sacramento. Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) Metaphysics: 4. Kant's Transcendental Idealism. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2006 [9 April 2011]. "Time, Kant argues, is also necessary as a form or condition of our intuitions of objects. The idea of time itself cannot be gathered from experience because succession and simultaneity of objects, the phenomena that would indicate the passage of time, would be impossible to represent if we did not already possess the capacity to represent objects in time.... Another way to put the point is to say that the fact that the mind of the knower makes the a priori contribution does not mean that space and time or the categories are mere figments of the imagination. Kant is an empirical realist about the world we experience; we can know objects as they appear to us. He gives a robust defense of science and the study of the natural world from his argument about the mind's role in making nature. All discursive, rational beings must conceive of the physical world as spatially and temporally unified, he argues." 

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