2019冠状病毒病疫情对新闻界的影响

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳到导航 跳到搜索

2019冠状病毒疫情严重影响了新闻行业以及记者的工作。广告收益大幅减少,许多地方报纸因此承受了严重的经济损失。记者失业、出版物遭受停刊,一些订阅制的新闻报刊也在疫情期间内减少了相关订阅费。[1][2][3][4]

新闻工作者在疫情期间积极对相关误导信息进行辟谣,向大众提供了公共卫生方面的追踪报道,并提供了一些娱乐消遣,以帮助人们应对病毒带来的影响。[5]

审查制度[编辑]

在一些国家记者因报道2019冠状病毒疫情而遭受威胁或逮捕[6] ,这些国家包括土耳其[7]埃及[8]印度[9]孟加拉国[10]伊拉克[11]伊朗[12]尼日利亚[13]埃塞俄比亚[14]肯尼亚[15]科特迪瓦[16]津巴布韦[17]委内瑞拉[18]白俄罗斯[19]黑山[20]科索沃[21]哈萨克斯坦[22]阿塞拜疆[23]马来西亚[24]新加坡[25]菲律宾[26]索马里[27]

Roya电视台英语Ro'ya(阿拉伯语:قناة رؤيا الفضائية‎)的老板Fares Sayegh和新闻主任Mohamad al-Khalidi被约旦当局逮捕,因其在4月中旬报道了宵禁下的工人们失去工作,不能维持家庭开支的困境。[28]

3月16日,罗马尼亚总统克劳斯·约翰尼斯签署了一项紧急法令,授权当局举报、删除、或关闭发表2019冠状病毒疫情“假新闻”的网站,并且禁止一切申诉。[29][30]

缅甸,有221个新闻网站被封禁,[31]其中包括几家当地主流媒体网站。[32]

2020年5月5日,菲律宾国家电信委员会英语National Telecommunications Commission (Philippines)(NTC)对菲律宾最大的媒体公司ABS-CBN发布了一条停播令,迫使其暂停所有实体广播频道的运营。[33]有指控称下达停播的缘由,是因ABS-CBN对总统罗德里戈·杜特尔特做出过批评性的报道。[34]在停播令下达后,ABS-CBN媒体集团在一份声明中表示,“ABS-CBN被禁止在今晚电视台以及电台进行播出,数百万菲律宾群众将失去他们的信息和娱乐来源,” 并且称“在国家应对冠状病毒疫情的过程中,人们需要重要且及时的讯息。”[35]

澳大利亚[编辑]

美國網路新聞媒體公司BuzzFeed宣布终止在澳大利亚英国的新闻业务,部分原因来自疫情导致的广告收益下滑,并将四名在澳大利亚的员工停职。[36]

加拿大[编辑]

加拿大,因受疫情影响,许多新闻媒体公司面临裁员或者关闭的巨大挑战。

大西洋省份SaltWire Network英语SaltWire Network宣布停产所有周刊三个月,只有它的四大日报——《纪事通讯》(The Chronicle Herald)英语The Chronicle Herald《布雷顿角邮报》(Cape Breton Post)英语Cape Breton Post《卫报》(The Guardian)英语The Guardian (Charlottetown)《电报》(The Telegram)英语The Telegram——仍在继续生产。[37][38]此外,在新斯科舍省的省会哈利法克斯当地,《海岸》(The Coast)英语The Coast进行了大幅裁员。[37]

Postmedia英语Postmedia Network媒体网络公司在曼尼托巴省宣布停印《Altona Red River Valley Echo》、《Carman Valley Leader》、《Interlake Spectator, Morden Times, Selkirk Journal》、《Stonewall Argus & Teulon Times》、《Winkler Times》等报纸,在安大略省宣布停产《Kingsville Reporter》、《Windsor-Essex's Lakeshore News》、《LaSalle Post》、《Tecumseh Shoreline Week》、《Tilbury Times》等报纸。此外,Postmedia媒体网络公司英语Postmedia Network《纳帕内指南》(The Napanee Guide )英语The Napanee Guide和《巴黎之星》(Paris Star)则是停止了纸质印刷出版,而改为提供线上版本。[39]

Torstar英语Torstar公司旗下的出版社Metroland Media英语Metroland Media Group宣布停印《Beach-East York Neighbourhood Voice》、《Bloor West-Parkdale Neighbourhood Voice》 和 《York-City Centre Neighbourhood Voice》 三份报纸。[40]《The Caledon Enterprise》报纸关闭了位于安大略省博爾頓市英语Bolton, Ontario的办公所,当地员工被转移至同省密西沙加市,使用由Brampton Guardian报社和Mississauga News报社共用的新闻工作室。[41]

魁北克地区,CN2i公司从三月份以来将旗下六份日报改版成周报,致其143名员工遭停职。[42]

Torstar英语Torstar公司的《星岛日报》不再供应免费的纸质印刷版周刊。运营了60年的《加拿大犹太新闻》英语Canadian Jewish News(Canadian Jewish News)如今也不得不永久停止业务。[43][44]成立于1925年的《温尼伯犹太新闻邮报》(Winnipeg's The Jewish News and Post)也停印报刊,改为提供线上版本。[45]

印度[编辑]

截至2020年5月4日,有大约100名印度记者冠状病毒被检测为阳性,Jai Maharashtra英语Jai Maharashtra媒体公司有15名员工被感染,而Punjab Kesari英语Punjab Kesari报刊社则有19名。[46]印度媒体报道了各地因疫情而导致的失业、减薪以及报刊停刊等现象。[47][48][49][50]

英国[编辑]

在英国,众多新闻媒体称广告业务在疫情期间急剧下滑。英国數位化、文化、媒體和體育大臣英语Secretary of State for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport奥利弗·道登称,因疫情影响,英国媒体公司的本地和国际报刊的发行总量都在急剧下降,新闻界将面临史上“最严重的生存危机。”[51]

2020年3月20日,伦敦商报City A.M.英语City A.M.停印纸质版报刊,并且宣布将在四月份对员工减薪50%。[52]

一些独立媒体,例如The Independent、indy100等,对员工进行减薪,并将部分员工停职。[53]

美國網路新聞媒體公司BuzzFeed因疫情期间广告业务的下滑,宣布结束其在英国以及澳大利亚的业务,其在英国的十位新闻工作者也因此被停职。[36]

每日镜报》和《每日快報》所属集团Reach plc英语Reach plc(曾名Trinity Mirror)在2020年4月报道其总营业额在该季度下滑近30%。[54]

美国[编辑]

在美国,冠状病毒疫情的爆发使得几家大型报刊出版商,比如彭博社纽约时报华尔街日报,暂停了他们的付费订阅服务,[55][56]许多地方报刊在疫情爆发之前就已陷入了巨大的经济危机。[56]许多在受疫情影响的都市发布的报刊在经济压力下宣布了裁员,其中包括譬如华盛顿州西雅图市的《陌生人》(The Stranger)和德克萨斯州首府奥斯汀的《奥斯汀编年英语Austin Chronicle》(Austin Chronicle)。许多报刊极度依赖于公众活动来产生收益,但由于疫情的影响,使得各地的活动不得不中断、延期或是取消,导致许多报刊面临着极大的经济压力。[56][57]为了不让广告被置于疫情相关报道旁而产生可能的负面影响,互联网广告商在疫情期间也减少了广告的放投。[58]


另见[编辑]

2019冠狀病毒病疫情相關錯誤資訊

参考链接[编辑]

  1. ^ Jerde, Sara. Major Publishers Take Down Paywalls for Coronavirus Coverage. Adweek. 2020-03-12 [2020-03-25]. 
  2. ^ Hsu T, Tracy M. Local News Outlets Dealt a Crippling Blow by This Biggest of Stories. The New York Times. 2020-03-23. 
  3. ^ Africa's media hit hard by COVID-19 crisis. Deutsche Welle. 2020-05-14. 
  4. ^ Kottke, Jason. Media Paywalls Dropped for COVID-19 Crisis Coverage. kottke.org. [2020-04-18]. 
  5. ^ Natividad, Ivan. COVID-19 and the media: The role of journalism in a global pandemic. Berkeley News. 2020-05-06 [2020-05-30]. 
  6. ^ Coronavirus Has Started a Censorship Pandemic. Foreign Policy. 2020-04-01. 
  7. ^ Turkish journalists arrested for reporting Covid-19 cases. Reporters Without Borders. 2020-05-11. 
  8. ^ Egypt is more concerned with controlling information than containing the coronavirus. The Globe and Mail. 2020-04-03. 
  9. ^ Journalists detained, assaulted in India during COVID-19 lockdown. Committee to Protect Journalists. 2020-04-28. 
  10. ^ Bangladeshi journalists, cartoonist, arrested for Covid-19 coverage. Reporters Without Borders. 2020-05-14. 
  11. ^ Iraqi Kurdistan: Wave of arrests of journalists since Covid-19’s arrival. Reporters Without Borders. 2020-04-17. 
  12. ^ Iran: Press freedom violations recounted in real time January 2020. Reporters Without Borders. 2020-05-14. 
  13. ^ Coronavirus Law Used to Arrest Nigerian Journalist Over Health Story. Market Watch. 2020-04-20. 
  14. ^ Ethiopia: Free Speech at Risk Amid Covid-19. Human Rights Watch. 2020-05-06. 
  15. ^ Protect Kenya’s Journalists Reporting on Covid-19. Human Rights Watch. 2020-05-04. 
  16. ^ Authorities across West Africa attacking journalists covering COVID-19 pandemic. IFEX. 2020-04-22. 
  17. ^ Press freedom violations throughout Africa linked to Covid-19 coverage. Radio France Internationale. 2020-04-14. 
  18. ^ Venezuela arbitrarily detaining reporters covering COVID-19: CPJ. Al Jazeera. 2020-05-03. 
  19. ^ Belarusian journalist arrested for criticizing president’s Covid-19 approach. Reporters Without Borders. 2020-03-31. 
  20. ^ Concern for Rights in Montenegro amid COVID-19 Fight. Balkan Insight. 2020-03-26. 
  21. ^ Watchdogs Concerned Over 'Pressure' Put On Kosovar News Portal Amid Pandemic. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2020-04-12. 
  22. ^ Kazakh journalists harassed over Covid-19 reporting. Reporters Without Borders. 2020-04-30. 
  23. ^ Azerbaijan: Crackdown on Critics Amid Pandemic. Human Rights Watch. 2020-04-16. 
  24. ^ Malaysian journalist faces six years in prison over COVID-19 Facebook posts. Committee to Protect Journalists. 2020-05-05. 
  25. ^ Singapore's Fake News and Contempt Laws a Threat to Media, Journalists Say. Voice of America. 2020-05-06. 
  26. ^ Some leaders use pandemic to sharpen tools against critics. ABC News. 2020-04-16. 
  27. ^ Somali Journalists Arrested, Intimidated While Covering COVID-19. Voice of America. 2020-04-18. 
  28. ^ Jordan military arrests TV executives for airing virus complaints. Al Jazeera. 2020-04-10. 
  29. ^ Romania’s Drive to Censor 'Fake News' Worries Activists. Balkan Insight. 2020-04-27. 
  30. ^ COVID-19: restrictions on access to information in Romania. European Federation of Journalists. 2020-03-29. 
  31. ^ Myanmar blocks hundreds of news sites and threatens editor with life in jail. The Guardian. 2020-04-01. 
  32. ^ In mid-coronavirus crisis, Myanmar blocks 221 sites for “fake news”. Reporters Without Borders. 2020-04-03. 
  33. ^ Philippines largest TV network ABS-CBN ordered shut. www.aljazeera.com. 2020-05-05. 
  34. ^ Philippines' main channel forced off-air amid coronavirus lockdown. The Guardian. 2020-05-05. 
  35. ^ Major Philippines broadcaster regularly criticized by President Duterte forced off air. CNN. 2020-05-06. 
  36. ^ 36.0 36.1 Sweney, Mark. BuzzFeed pulls plug on UK and Australian news operations. The Guardian. 2020-05-13 [2020-05-13]. 
  37. ^ 37.0 37.1 Quon, Alexander. Coronavirus continues to upend Atlantic media outlets as SaltWire lays off 40% of staff. Global News (Halifax NS). 2020-05-24 [2020-05-04]. 
  38. ^ Patil, Anjuli. Atlantic Canada's largest newspaper chain temporarily lays off 40% of staff. CBC News (Halifax NS). 2020-03-24 [2020-05-04]. 
  39. ^ Lefebvre, Charles. Postmedia shuttering community newspapers in Manitoba, Ontario. CTV Winnipeg (Winnipeg MB). 2020-04-28 [2020-05-04]. 
  40. ^ Torstar ceasing publication of three Toronto community newspapers. Toronto.com (Toronto ON). 2020-04-16 [2020-05-04]. 
  41. ^ Strader, Matthew. The Caledon Enterprise will close Bolton office. The Caledon Enterprise (Caledon ON). 2020-04-30. 
  42. ^ Lauzon, Véronique. Le Soleil et d’autres journaux suspendent leurs publications papier. La Presse (QC). 2020-03-23 [2020-05-04]. 
  43. ^ Wheeler, Brad. The Canadian Jewish News closes after 60 years. The Globe and Mail (Toronto ON). 2020-04-07 [2020-05-04]. 
  44. ^ Wolfe, Elizabeth. To our readers: everything has its season. It is time.. Canadian Jewish News. 2020-04-13 [2020-05-04]. 
  45. ^ Chisvin, Sharon. Jewish newspapers affected by coronavirus. Winnipeg Free Press (Winnipeg MB). 2020-05-02 [2020-05-04]. 
  46. ^ Biswas, Soutik. Coronavirus: How Covid-19 is ravaging India's newsrooms. BBC News. 2020-05-04 [2020-05-15]. 
  47. ^ Job losses, pay cuts, editions shut — coronavirus triggers new crisis for Indian media. The Print. 2020-04-23 [2020-05-30]. 
  48. ^ The Quint sends 45 staffers on indefinite leave without pay, ToI lays off 3 from Sunday magazine. News Laundry. 30 May 2020. 2020-04-13. 
  49. ^ Layoffs, pay cuts, leave without pay: COVID-19 hits Indian media. The News Minute. 2020-04-14 [2020-05-30]. 
  50. ^ Media Companies 'Using Lockdown' to Lay Off Employees, Cut Salaries. The Wire. 2020-04-15 [2020-05-30]. 
  51. ^ Drury, Colin. 'Save the fourth emergency service': Culture secretary urges people buy a paper as press struggles amid coronavirus crisis. The Independent. 2020-04-18 [2020-05-15]. 
  52. ^ Mayhew, Freddy. City AM suspends print and cuts salaries as coronavirus hits business. Press Gazette. 2020-03-20 [2020-05-13]. 
  53. ^ Mayhew, Freddy. Covid-19 ad slump costing Independent six-figures in lost revenue as it furloughs staff and cuts pay. Press Gazette. 2020-04-23 [2020-05-13]. 
  54. ^ Sweney, Mark. Mirror and Express owner reports 30% slump in revenues. The Guardian. 2020-05-07 [2020-05-13]. 
  55. ^ Jerde, Sara. Major Publishers Take Down Paywalls for Coronavirus Coverage. Adweek. March 12, 2020 [March 15, 2020]. 
  56. ^ 56.0 56.1 56.2 Allsop, Jon. How the coronavirus could hurt the news business. Columbia Journalism Review. March 13, 2020 [March 15, 2020]. 
  57. ^ Scire, Sarah. "This time is different": In Seattle, social distancing forces The Stranger to make a coronavirus plea. Nieman Foundation for Journalism. March 12, 2020 [March 15, 2020]. 
  58. ^ Pandemic Threatens Local Papers Even As Readers Devour Their Coverage. NPR.org.