2019冠状病毒病疫情对政治的影响

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2019冠状病毒病疫情影響了國際關係,並影響了多個國家的政治體系,導致立法活動被暫停,多個政客的隔離或死亡,以及由於擔心傳播這種病毒而重新安排了選舉時間。[3]

整體[编辑]

對這種大流行的反應導致政府權力的空前擴張。 小政府的擁護者擔心,危機過後,國家將不願放棄這種權力,這在歷史上是經常發生的情況[4]

民調[编辑]

有證據表明,大流行在許多國家引起了聚旗效应,意大利(+27個百分點),德國(+11),法國(+11)和英國的政府支持率的上升[5][6][7]

緊急狀態[编辑]

至少有84個國家已宣布應對這種大流行進入緊急狀態,導致人們擔心濫用權力[8]無國界記者組織聲稱,有38個國家限制了新聞自由[8]。 其他例子包括禁止大規模抗議,推遲選舉或在反對派無法有效競選的情況下舉行選舉,有選擇地對政治反對者實施封鎖規則,向政治支持者發放救濟金,或者是指少數民族当替罪羊[9]。 許多國家/地區還推出了用於跟踪聯繫人的大規模監視程序,從而導致人們擔心它們對隱私的影響[10]

國際關係[编辑]

歐盟[编辑]

西班牙總理佩德羅·桑切斯表示:“如果我們現在不提議對這場經濟危機採取統一、有力和有效的對策,不僅影響將更加嚴峻,而且影響將持續更長的時間」[11]

關於如何應對這種流行病及其經濟影響的辯論,在北歐和南歐成員國之間拉開了裂痕,讓人聯想起2010年歐洲債務危機的辯論。[12]

美國[编辑]

3月初,歐盟領導人譴責美國限制從歐洲到美國旅行的決定。[13]

10月2日,湯姆·提利斯(Thom Tillis)參議員宣布他的COVID-19測試呈陽性。

國內政治[编辑]

選舉[编辑]

政治人物影響[编辑]

相關確診人物[编辑]

議會[编辑]

  確診人士   病故人士   同一人會標記

國家/地區 上院 下院 地方議會
 澳大利亚 參議院
[candidates 1]
众议院
[candidates 2]
 巴西 联邦参议院
[candidates 3]
众议院
 布吉納法索 国民议会
 布吉納法索 国民议会
 加拿大 參議院
下議院
[candidates 4]
 智利 Senate
[candidates 5]
Chamber of Deputies
[candidates 6]
 法國 参议院
國民議會
[candidates 7]
 印尼 地方代表理事会
人民代表會議
 伊朗 專家會議

确定国家利益委员会
伊斯蘭議會
[candidates 8]
[candidates 9]
 以色列 议会
[candidates 10]
 義大利 共和国参议院
[candidates 11]
众议院
[candidates 12]
 墨西哥 共和国参议院
众议院
 摩洛哥 House of Councillors
House of Representatives
[candidates 13]
 马来西亚 上議院
下議院
[candidates 14]
砂拉越州议会
[candidates 15]
 摩納哥 国民议会
 奈及利亞 参议院
众议院
 挪威 議會
 菲律賓 Senate
[candidates 16]
眾議院
[candidates 17]
 波蘭 参议院
众议院
 俄羅斯 聯邦委員會
国家杜马
[candidates 18]
莫斯科市杜馬
[candidates 19]
Moscow Oblast Duma
[candidates 20]
Legislative Assembly of Leningrad Oblast
[candidates 21]
 西班牙 眾議院
[candidates 22]
Parliament of Navarre
 南非 National Council of Provinces
[candidates 23]
[国民议会
[candidates 24]
Eastern Cape Provincial Legislature [candidates 25]
Free State Provincial Legislature [candidates 26]
Gauteng Provincial Legislature [candidates 27]
KwaZulu-Natal Legislature [candidates 28]
Mpumalanga Provincial Legislature [candidates 29]
North West Provincial Legislature [candidates 30]
Western Cape Provincial Parliament [candidates 31]
 烏克蘭 最高拉达
[candidates 32]
 美國 参议院
[candidates 33]
众议院
[candidates 34]
纽约州众议院 [candidates 35]
佐治亚州众议院 [candidates 36]
佐治亚州参议院 [candidates 37]
Wisconsin State Assembly [candidates 38]
康涅狄格州众议院 [candidates 39]
科罗拉多州参议院 [candidates 40]
科罗拉多州众议院 [candidates 41]
夏威夷州参议院 [candidates 42]
路易斯安那州众议院 [candidates 43]
新泽西州众议院 [candidates 44]
俄克拉何马州参议院 [candidates 45]
俄克拉何马州众议院 [candidates 46]
密苏里州众议院 [candidates 47]
密歇根州众议院 [candidates 48]
[candidates 49]
南达科他州众议院 [candidates 50]
马萨诸塞州众议院 [candidates 51]
 英國 上議院
[candidates 52]
下议院
[candidates 53]
 联合国
 歐盟 欧洲议会
來源:[14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25]

註記[编辑]

  1. ^ 蘇珊·麥克唐納昆士蘭參議員
    安德魯·布拉格新南威爾斯參議員
    雷克斯·帕特里克南澳大利亞參議員
  2. ^ 彼德·達頓迪克森議員
  3. ^ Davi Alcolumbre, President of the Federal Senate, 阿馬帕州联邦参议院
  4. ^ Kamal Khera, MP for Brampton West
  5. ^ Manuel José Ossandón
    Jorge Pizarro
    José García Ruminot
  6. ^ Marcela Sabat
  7. ^ Jean-Luc Reitzer
    Elisabeth Toutut-Picard
    Guillaume Vuilletet
    Sylvie Tolmont
  8. ^ 阿里·拉里贾尼, Speaker
    马哈茂德·萨德吉
    穆杰塔巴·宗努尔
    Masoumeh Aghapour Alishahi
    Zohreh Elahian
  9. ^ 法蒂玛·拉赫巴尔
    穆罕默德·阿里·拉马扎尼·达斯塔克
  10. ^ Yaakov Litzman
    Sami Abu Shehadeh
  11. ^ Pierpaolo Sileri
  12. ^ Anna Ascani
    Diego Binelli
    Edmondo Cirielli
    Chiara Gribaudo
    Luca Lotti
    Claudio Pedrazzini
  13. ^ Abdelkader Aamara, MP for Salé
  14. ^ 黄灵彪
    俞利文
    Rubiah Wang
  15. ^ Jerip Susil (Mabong)
  16. ^ Juan Miguel Zubiri
    Koko Pimentel
    Sonny Angara
  17. ^ Henry Villarica
  18. ^ Leonid Kalashnikov, Dmitry Novikov, Svetlana Maximova, Oksana Pushkina and two unnamed MPs
  19. ^ Lyudmila Stebenkova and Yevgeny Stupin
  20. ^ Ivan N. Zhukov
  21. ^ Sergey Bebenin
  22. ^ Javier Ortega Smith
    圣地亚哥·阿瓦斯卡尔
    Macarena Olona
    Beatriz Jiménez
  23. ^ Martha Mmola
  24. ^ Hendrietta Bogopane-Zulu
    Cedric Frolick
    Inkosi Holomisa
    Collen Malatji
    Gwede Mantashe
    Simphiwe Mbatha
    Nosiviwe Mapisa-Nqakula
    Kenneth Meshoe
    Thulas Nxesi
    Ebrahim Patel
    Zamuxolo Peter
    Steven Swart
  25. ^ Mlungisi Mvoko
    Nomakhosazana Meth
  26. ^ Tate Makgoe
    Thembeni Nxangisa
  27. ^ David Makhura
    Tasneem Motara
  28. ^ Ricardo Mthembu
    Mbali Ntuli
  29. ^ Gillion Mashego
  30. ^ Gordon Kegakilwe
    Job Mokgoro
  31. ^ Gladys Bakubaku-Vos
    Alan Winde
  32. ^ Serhii Shakhov
  33. ^ 兰德·保罗, 參議員 from 肯塔基州
  34. ^ 馬里奧·迪亞斯-巴拉特, Florida 25
    本·麥克亞當斯, Utah 4
    Joe Cunningham, South Carolina 1
    麥克·凱利, Pennsylvania 16
    摩甘·格里菲斯, Virginia 9
    路易·戈莫特, Texas 1
  35. ^ Kimberly Jean-Pierre, District 11
    Helene Weinstein, District 41
    Charles Barron, District 60
  36. ^ Matthew Gambill, District 15
  37. ^ Brandon Beach, District 21
    Kay Kirkpatrick, District 32
    Nikema Williams, District 39
    Lester Jackson, District 2
    Bruce Thompson, District 14
  38. ^ David Bowen, District 10
  39. ^ Jane Garibay, District 60
  40. ^ Jim Smallwood, District 4
  41. ^ Dafna Michaelson Jenet, District 30
  42. ^ Clarence Nishihara, District 17
  43. ^ Reggie Bagala, District 54
  44. ^ Clinton Calabrese, District 36
  45. ^ Paul Rosino, District 45
  46. ^ Jason Lowe, District 97
  47. ^ Joe Runions, District 37
  48. ^ Tyrone Carter, District 6
    Karen Whitsett, District 9
  49. ^ Isaac Robinson, District 4
  50. ^ Bob Glanzer, District 22
  51. ^ Michael Day, District 31
  52. ^ Lord Gordon of Strathblane
  53. ^ 娜汀·多里斯, 中貝德福德郡議員
    Kate Osborne, 賈羅議員
    Lloyd Russell-Moyle, 布萊頓肯普敦MP
    鲍里斯·约翰逊, 阿克斯布里奇和南賴斯利普
    马修·汉考克, 西薩福克MP
    阿利斯特·杰克, 鄧弗里斯和加洛韋MP
    Tony Lloyd, for 羅奇代爾MP

行政官員[编辑]

國家 國家官員 地方官員
 亞美尼亞 尼科爾·帕希尼揚亞美尼亞總理
 澳大利亚 彼德·達頓Minister for Home Affairs
 巴西 雅伊爾·博索納羅巴西总统
Bento Albuquerque,Ministry of Mines and Energy
Augusto HelenoSecretary of Institutional Security
Nestor ForsterAmbassador of Brazil to the United States
 玻利维亚 珍妮·艾尼茲玻利维亚总统 (interim)
 布吉納法索 Oumarou Idani,Minister of Mines and Quarries
斯坦尼斯拉斯·瓦罗,Minister of National Education,Literacy and Promotion of National Languages
Siméon Sawadogo,Minister of State,Territorial Administration,Decentralization and Social Cohesion
阿尔法·巴里Minister of Foreign Affairs
 布隆迪 皮埃尔·恩库伦齐扎,President of Burundi
 智利 Alfredo Moreno, Ministry of Public Works Víctor Manoli, Intendant of 阿劳卡尼亚大区
 法國 弗蘭克·里斯特文化部長
Brune Poirson, Secretary of State for the Ecological and Inclusive Transition
 印尼 Budi Karya Sumadi, Minister of Transportation Bima Arya Sugiarto, 茂物
 伊朗 埃沙格·贾汉吉里, 伊朗副總統
玛苏梅·埃卜特卡尔, Vice President for Women and Family Affairs
阿里·阿斯加尔·穆尼桑, Minister of Cultural Heritage
雷扎·拉哈马尼, Minister of Industry, Mine and Trade
 以色列 Yaakov Litzman, Minister of Health Jeremy Issacharoff, Ambassador of Israel to Germany
 義大利 Marta Cartabia, President of the Constitutional Court of Italy 尼古拉·津加雷蒂, President of 拉齐奥
阿尔贝托·奇里奥, President of Piedmont
Fulvio Centoz, Mayor of 奥斯塔
Gianluca Galimberti, Mayor of 克雷莫納
Alessandro Tambellini, Mayor of 卢卡
Patrizia Barbieri, Mayor of 皮亚琴察
 墨西哥 Omar Fayad, Governor of Hidalgo
Francisco Domínguez Servién, Governor of Querétaro
Adán Augusto López Hernández, Governor of Tabasco
Silvia Guillermina Roldán Fernández, Secretary of Health, 塔巴斯科州
 摩洛哥 Abdelkader Aamara, Minister of Equipment, Transport and Logistics
 摩納哥 阿尔贝二世, Prince of Monaco
 奈及利亞 Abba Kyari, Chief of Staff to the President
 挪威 Torbjørn Røe Isaksen, Minister of Labour and Social Inclusion
 菲律賓 Eduardo Año, Secretary of the Interior and Local Government
Leonor Briones, Secretary of Education
Mark Villar, Secretary of Public Works and Highways[26]
Rebecca Ynares, Governor of Rizal
Ferdinand Estrella, Mayor of 描里瓦
Philip Caesar Crispino, Mayor of Caba
Junard Chan, Mayor of 拉普拉普市[27]
Bernardita Catalla, Ambassador of the Philippines to Lebanon[28]
Joy Belmonte, Mayor of Quezon City[29]
 波蘭 Michał Woś, Minister of Environment
雅罗斯瓦夫·米卡, 波蘭將軍
 俄羅斯 米哈伊尔·米舒斯京, 俄罗斯总理
Vladimir Yakushev, Minister of Construction and Housing
Olga Lyubimova, 俄羅斯聯邦文化部
Valery Falkov, Minister of Science and Higher Education
Dmitry Peskov, Kremlin Press Secretary
Alexander Drozdenko, Governor of Leningrad Oblast[30]
绍尔班·卡拉乌尔, Head of the Republic of Tuva[31]
 南非 Hendrietta Bogopane-Zulu, Deputy Minister of Social Development
Inkosi Holomisa, Deputy Minister of Justice and Correctional Services
Gwede Mantashe, Minister of Mineral Resources and Energy
Nosiviwe Mapisa-Nqakula, Minister of Defence and Military Veterans
Thulas Nxesi, Minister of Employment and Labour
Ebrahim Patel, Minister of Trade and Industry
Job Mokgoro, 西北省省長
Alan Winde, 西開普省省長
David Makhura, 豪登省省長
Tasneem Motara, Gauteng MEC for Infrastructure Development
Mlungisi Mvoko, Eastern Cape MEC for Finance, Economic Development and Environmental Affairs
Gordon Kegakilwe, North West MEC for Cooperative Governance, Human Settlement and Traditional Affairs
Alfred Mtsi, Speaker of the Buffalo City council and former mayor
Gillion Mashego, Mpumalanga MEC for Public Works
Nomakhosazana Meth, Eastern Cape MEC for Rural Development and Agrarian Reform
Thembeni Nxangisa, Free State MEC for Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs
Tate Makgoe, Free State MEC for Education
 西班牙 卡门·卡尔沃, 第一西班牙副首相
伊雷内·蒙特罗, Minister of Equality
卡罗琳娜·达里亚斯, Minister for Territorial Administrations
奎姆·托拉, 加泰隆尼亞政府主席
Pere Aragonès, Vice President of Catalonia
伊莎贝尔·迪亚斯·阿尤索, President of the Community of Madrid
 美國 唐納·川普, 美国总统
梅蘭妮亞·川普, 美国第一夫人
班·卡森, 住房和城市发展部部长
Brenda Jones, President of the Detroit City Council
Kevin Stitt, 28th Governor of Oklahoma
Francis X. Suarez, 迈阿密市長
 英國 鲍里斯·约翰逊, 英国首相
查爾斯, 威爾士親王
马修·汉考克, 卫生大臣
娜汀·多里斯, Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State
阿利斯特·杰克, 蘇格蘭事務大臣
 委內瑞拉 Diosdado Cabello, Constituent Assembly President

Tareck El Aissami, Minister of Petroleum

Omar Prieto, Governor of Zulia
 联合国 David Beasley, Executive Director of the 世界糧食計劃署
 歐盟 米歇爾·巴尼耶, Head of the UK Task Force
來源:[32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][21][51][52][53][54][55][56][57]

註記[编辑]


另見[编辑]

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ COVID-19 Dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU). ArcGIS. 約翰·霍普金斯大學. [2021-01-21]. 
  2. ^ WHO COVID-19 Dashboard. WHO.int. 世界卫生组织. [2021-01-21]. 
  3. ^ Stasavage, David. Democracy, Autocracy, and Emergency Threats: Lessons for COVID-19 From the Last Thousand Years. International Organization. 2020: 1–17. doi:10.1017/S0020818320000338.  已忽略未知参数|doi-access= (帮助)
  4. ^ The Economist, March 28th 2020, page 7.
  5. ^ Schminke, Tobias Gerhard. EU Parliament Projection: Corona Rallies Europeans Around the Flag. Europe Elects. 2 April 2020 [12 April 2020]. (原始内容存档于2020-05-22) (英语). 
  6. ^ Yglesias, Matthew. Trump's coronavirus poll bump, explained. Vox. 31 March 2020 [6 April 2020]. (原始内容存档于2020-05-22) (英语). 
  7. ^ Bol, Damien Giani, Marco, Blais, André, Loewen, Peter John. COVID-19 lockdowns have increased support for incumbents, trust in government, and satisfaction with democracy. VoxEU. 7 May 2020 [11 July 2020] (英语). 
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 Would-be autocrats are using covid-19 as an excuse to grab more power. The Economist. [27 April 2020]. ISSN 0013-0613. (原始内容存档于2020-05-22). 
  9. ^ Autocrats see opportunity in disaster. The Economist. [27 April 2020]. ISSN 0013-0613. (原始内容存档于2020-05-22). 
  10. ^ Feldstein, Steven. Beware the Implications of Coronavirus Surveillance. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. [6 April 2020]. (原始内容存档于2020-05-22) (英语). 
  11. ^ EU will lose its 'raison d'etre' if it fails to help during COVID-19 crisis, Italy's PM warns. 28 March 2020. 
  12. ^ Amaro, Silvia. Nine European countries say it is time for 'corona bonds' as virus death toll rises. CNBC. 25 March 2020 [28 March 2020] (英语). 
  13. ^ Toosi, Nahal. 'Lord of the Flies: PPE Edition': U.S. cast as culprit in global scrum over coronavirus supplies. POLITICO. 3 April 2020. 
  14. ^ Mackinnon, Darcy Palder, Amy. Coronavirus in the Corridors of Power. Foreign Policy. [27 March 2020]. (原始内容存档于2020-05-16) (美国英语). 
  15. ^ Fox, Benjamin. Boris Johnson tests positive for COVID-19 with 'mild symptoms'. euractiv.com. 27 March 2020 [27 March 2020] (英国英语). 
  16. ^ Brewster, Jack. These 20 U.S. Politicians Have Tested Positive For The Coronavirus. Forbes. [27 March 2020] (英语). 
  17. ^ South African politicians test positive for COVID-19. aa.com.tr. [28 March 2020]. 
  18. ^ Politicians, candidates, and government officials diagnosed with or quarantined due to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, 2020. Ballotpedia. [28 March 2020] (英语). 
  19. ^ Foran, Clare. Two more members of Congress test positive for Covid-19. CNN. [28 March 2020]. 
  20. ^ Scottish Secretary has Covid-19 symptoms. BBC News. 28 March 2020 [28 March 2020] (英国英语). 
  21. ^ 21.0 21.1 Governor of Querétaro announces that he also has coronavirus Lua错误 在Module:Lang/utilities的第79行:attempt to call local 'name_from_tag' (a nil value) Expansión Politica, 30 March 2020, retrieved 5 April 2020
  22. ^ Coronavirus nel Pd, Lotti guarito torna in aula. Fuori pericolo anche la deputata dem Gribaudo. La Repubblica. 15 April 2020 [15 April 2020] (意大利语). 
  23. ^ Коронавирус выявили у 6 депутатов Госдумы. НТВ. 18 May 2020 [29 May 2020] (俄语). 
  24. ^ Marcela Sabat se convierte en la primera diputada en dar positivo por Covid-19. Radio Bio Bio. 25 May 2020 [25 May 2020] (西班牙语). 
  25. ^ Матвиенко: Пятеро сенаторов переболели коронавирусом. Российская газета. 29 May 2020 [19 May 2020] (俄语). 
  26. ^ Gonzales, Cathrine. DPWH Secretary Villar tests positive for COVID-19. Philippine Daily Inquirer. July 15, 2020 [July 15, 2020]. 
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  28. ^ PH envoy to Lebanon dies of COVID-19 complications. ABS-CBN News. 2 April 2020 [2 April 2020]. (原始内容存档于2020-04-02). 
  29. ^ QC Mayor Belmonte tests positive for coronavirus. Philippine Daily Inquirer. 8 July 2020 [8 July 2020]. 
  30. ^ Губернатор Ленобласти Александр Дрозденко рассказал о своем коронавирусе. МК.ru. 12 May 2020 [11 May 2020]. 
  31. ^ Глава Тувы заразился коронавирусом. РИА Новости. 29 May 2020 [25 May 2020]. 
  32. ^ 引用错误:没有为名为USA Today的参考文献提供内容
  33. ^ Brazil's Cabinet Security Chief Tests Positive for Coronavirus. 19 March 2020. 
  34. ^ Burkina Faso Mines Minister Tests Positive for Coronavirus. Bloomberg.com. 21 March 2020 [21 March 2020] (英语). 
  35. ^ #Coronavirus : Franck Riester, le ministre de la Culture, testé positif mais "en forme" (cabinet). Twitter. Agence France-Presse. [9 March 2020]. (原始内容存档于2020-04-08). 
  36. ^ Menhub Budi Karya Sumadi positif COVID-19. Antara News. 14 March 2020 [14 March 2020]. (原始内容存档于2020-04-26) (印度尼西亚语). 
  37. ^ Agenciabrasil.ebc.comb.br: Em quarentena, Nestor Forster tem resultado positivo para o Covid-19, March 2020
  38. ^ Coronavirus: Iran's vice president Masoumeh Ebtekar has COVID-19 as 26 are killed by virus. Sky News. 28 February 2020 [28 February 2020]. (原始内容存档于2020-03-10). 
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