美国签证政策

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美國簽證英語United States visas,亦稱美簽),是美国政府发放给外国人的,允许外国人访问美国签证。美國簽證簽發给需要前往并符合美国入境要求的外国人。除免簽證計劃國家的公民外,欲进入美国的其它国家公民必须到美国驻各国使领馆获得美国签证,但對墨西哥公民有另外的要求。[1]此政策也适用于波多黎各美属维尔京群岛[2]

概览[编辑]

2012年,美国签证已派發給890萬名赴美的外國公民和48.2萬名移民。[3]外籍人士前往美国需要出示签证才能入境,除非他(她)具备以下条件:

美國簽證有185种类型,主要有兩個類別[4]

  • 非移民簽證:旅遊,商務,工作或學習。
  • 移民簽證:移民到美國的人。入境后则需要办理美國永久居民卡(綠卡)。

申请过程[编辑]

签证申请过程

美国签证申请步骤分为如下步骤[5]

  1. 选择适合申请人入境需求的签证,完成填写在线DS-160申请表格;
  2. 通过使领馆注册登记,缴纳申请费用以及预约您的面谈时间;
  3. 在所选择的使领馆进行面谈(并不是所有的申请人都需要前来面谈);
  4. 如果通过,在所选择的使领馆(或代理机构)领取护照和签证。

美国使领馆的安检制度相对严格,所有申请人皆不可以携带食物手枪武器或者任何的液体(包括饮料洗手液和抗菌胶液)进入使馆。所有的电子设备也是被禁止携带的,包括手机摄影机摄像机收音机电脑[5]

所有访客、商务、过境和学生签证的申请费为160美元(或等值货币,申请费视汇率变化而定,一旦拒签,费用不退)。[6]而移民签证申请费则为165美元(美国移民局移民费)。[7]

签证类型[编辑]

非移民签证[编辑]

类别 适用对象
A-1 因公前往美国的外国政府的部长大使领事或其他的职业外交官及他们的直系亲属
A-2 因公前往美国的外国政府的其他官员及他们的直系亲属
A-3 A-1签证和A-2签证持有者的随从、服务人员或私人雇员及后者的直系亲属
B-1 前往美国进行短期商务活动的人员
B-2 前往美国旅游的人员
C-1 途经美国前往第三国的旅客(此签证可由B-1/B-2签证代替)
C-2 根据相关协议前往联合国总部大楼的人员
C-3 途经美国前往第三国的政府官员以及他们的直系亲属、随从、服务人员和私人雇员
CP 由美国联邦执法部门签发给愿意配合相关调查的犯罪行为的受害者
D 船员或机组人员
E-1* 条约商人及他们的配偶或子女
E-2* 条约投资人及他们的配偶或子女
E-3] 澳大利亚自由贸易协议下的条约商人或条约投资人
F-1 参加学术或语言学习的学生
F-2 F-1签证持有者的配偶或子女
F-3 Border commuter student (academic or language training program)
G-1 Principal resident representative of recognized foreign member government to international organization, staff, and immediate family
G-2 Other representative of recognized foreign member government to international organization, and immediate family
G-3 Representative of nonrecognized or nonmember foreign government to international organization, and immediate family
G-4 International organization officer or employee, and immediate family
G-5 Attendant, servant, or personal employee of G-1 through G-4, and immediate family
GB Temporary visitors: for business, visa waiver, Guam
GT Temporary visitors: for pleasure, visa waiver, Guam
H-1B* Temporary worker of distinguished merit and ability performing services other than as a registered nurse
H-1C Nurse in health professional shortage area
H-2A Temporary worker performing agricultural services unavailable in the United States H-2B
H-3 Temporary workers and trainees: industrial trainees
H-4* Temporary workers and trainees: spouses and children of H-1, H-2, and H-3 workers
I Representative of foreign information media, spouse and children
J-1 Exchange visitor
J-2 Spouse or child of exchange visitor
K-1* Fiance(e) of U.S. citizen
K-2* Child of fiance(e) of U.S. citizen
K-3* Spouse of U.S. citizen awaiting availability of immigrant visa
K-4* Child of K-3
L-1* Intracompany transferee (executive, managerial, and specialized personnel continuing employment with international firm or corporation)
L-2* Spouse or child of intracompany transferee
M-1 Vocational student or other nonacademic student
M-2 Spouse or child of M-1
M-3 Border commuter student (vocational or nonacademic)[8]
N-8 Parent of SK-3 special immigrant
N-9 Child of N-8 or of SK-1, SK-2 or SK-4 special immigrant
NATO-1 Principal permanent representative of member state to NATO (including any of its subsidiary bodies) resident in the U.S. and resident members of official staff; Secretary General, Assistant Secretaries General, and Executive Secretary of NATO; other permanent NATO officials of similar rank, and members of immediate family
NATO-2 Other representatives of member states to NATO (including any of its subsidiary bodies) including representatives, advisers, and technical experts of delegations, and members of immediate family; dependents of members of a force entering in accordance with the provisions of the NATO Status-of-Forces Agreement or in accordance with provisions of the "Protocol on the Status of International Military Headquarters"; members of such a force if issued visas
NATO-3 Official clerical staff accompanying a representative of member state to NATO (including any of its subsidiary bodies), and members of immediate family
NATO-4 Officials of NATO (other than those classifiable as NATO-1), and members of immediate family
NATO-5 Experts, other than officials classifiable as NATO-4, employed in missions on behalf of NATO, and their dependents
NATO-6 Members of a civilian component accompanying a force entering in accordance with the provisions of the NATO Status-of-Forces Agreement; members of a civilian component attached to or employed by an Allied Headquarters under the "Protocol on the Status of International Military Headquarters" set up pursuant to the North Atlantic Treaty; and their dependents
NATO-7 Attendant, servant, or personal employee of NATO-1 through NATO-6 classes, and immediate family
O-1* Person with extraordinary ability in the sciences, arts, education, business, or athletics
O-2* Person accompanying and assisting in the artistic or athletic performance by O-1
O-3* Spouse or child of O-1 or O-2
P-1* Internationally recognized athlete or member of an internationally recognized entertainment group
P-2* Artist or entertainer in a reciprocal exchange program
P-3* Artist or entertainer in a culturally unique program
P-4* Spouse or child of P-1, P-2, or P-3
Q-1 Participant in an international cultural exchange program
Q-2 Irish Peace Process trainee
Q-3 Spouse or child of Q-2
R-1 Person in a religious occupation
R-2 Spouse or child of R-1
S-5 Informant possessing information on criminal activity
S-6 Informant possessing information on terrorism
S-7 Spouse, married or unmarried son or daughter, or parent of S-5 or S-6
SIJS Special Immigrant Juvenile Status: Qualifying children present in the U.S. who are declared dependents of a juvenile court and who would be harmed if returned to their home country
TN NAFTA professional
TD Spouse or child of TN
T-1 Victim of a severe form of trafficking in persons
T-2 Spouse of T-1
T-3 Child of T-1
T-4 Parent of T-1 under 21 years of age
U-1 Victim of criminal activity
U-2 Spouse of U-1
U-3 Child of U-1
U-4 Parent of U-1 under 21 years of age
V-1* Spouse of lawful permanent resident awaiting availability of immigrant visa
V-2* Child of lawful permanent resident awaiting availability of immigrant visa
V-3* Derivative child of V-1 and V-2
WB Temporary visitors: visa waiver, business
WT Temporary visitors: visa waiver, pleasure

移民签证[编辑]

美国的移民签证,主要分为移民和K类签证,最常见的签证为EB-5签证[9]

免签证计划[编辑]

  美国
  免签证计划成员国
  其他豁免於簽證計畫的國家

所有免签证计划成员国的公民,可免办B签证前往美国并在美国境内旅行最多90天,但需要缴纳旅遊許可電子系統费用。[10]

另外,根据协议,马绍尔群岛[11]密克罗尼西亚联邦[12]帕劳[13]加拿大的公民,前往美国并短期停留不需要任何签证。[14][15]而加拿大公民可以通过简易程序办理签证,前往美国学习或工作。[16]

拒签[编辑]

根据《美国移民和国籍法》中第214条b款规定,“每位外国人在申请签证时都将首先被假定具有移民倾向,除非他能使领事官员确信其具有非移民资格”。因此,申请人必须符合美国移民法的要求才能具备非移民签证的资格,如果不符合移民法的要求,则将按此条款进行拒签。而申请人被拒签,大部分的原因是是因为整体情况不符合条件(或者在面谈中提出的条件与申请表不符),申请人应在整体情况有了较大变化后再申请签证。[17][18]

最著名的被拒签人士是印度总理莫迪(当时为古吉拉特邦首席部长),他于2005年申请美国外交签证时被拒,2014年,莫迪赢得印度总理选举,美国不得不“改变心意”,表示将对其放行。另外普拉博沃·苏比安托也是被拒签的著名人士,2000年,美国国务院拒绝了普拉博沃赴波士顿参加其子毕业典礼的签证申请,当时并未说明原因。而在2012年,他仍然被拒签,美方指“在苏哈托下台后煽动暴乱,导致数百人死亡”。[19][20]

注释[编辑]

參考资料[编辑]

外部連結[编辑]