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严重急性呼吸综合征冠状病毒2变种

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引发2019冠状病毒病严重急性呼吸综合征冠状病毒2具有多个變種英语Variant (biology),有些为高關注變異株英语Variant of concern[1]病毒的核酸序列变异有可能导致抗原漂移,而使得病毒得以逃避宿主免疫应答,并影响疫苗的效力。[2]这种现象称为免疫逃避英语antigenic escape

本文主要讲述严重急性呼吸系统综合征冠状病毒2的重要变种及其发生的错义突变

概覽[编辑]

代号 發現 重要突变 传播 相对于武汉首次发现变体的临床变化
PANGOLIN PHE英语Public Health England[3] WHO[4] 其他名稱 首次爆发地點 最早样本日期 传播力 致命性 抗原性
B.1.1.207  奈及利亞 2020年3月 P681H[5] 多国[6]
P.2 VUI-21JAN-01 Zeta  巴西 2020年4月[7] 多国[7] 单克隆抗体中和效力可能降低,疫苗接种后血清中和效力降低[8]
B.1.351[5][1] VOC-20DEC-02 Beta 501.V2, 20H/501Y.V2[9]  南非 2020年5月[4] N501Y, K417N, E484K[5][10][11][12][13][14] 多国[15][A] 增高≈50%(20113%) 变化不大[16] 显著降低抗体中和效力[17][18][19][20]
B.1.427,B.1.429[21] Epsilon CAL.20C[22]  美國 2020年6月[21] L452R[21] 多国[21][B] 增高≈20% (18.6%–24.2%)[8][23] 恢复期和疫苗接种后血清中和效力降低[8]
B.1.1.298[24] Cluster 5英语Cluster 5, ΔFVI-spike[25]  丹麥 2020年9月[26] Y453F, 69–70deltaHV[25] 可能灭绝[27]
B.1.1.7[1] VOC-20DEC-01 Alpha 20I/501Y.V1  英國 2020年9月[4][28] N501Y, 69–70del, P681H[5][9][29][30] 全球[28][A] 增高≈82%(43130%) [31] 正在调查 抗体中和效力略降低[19]
P.1英语Lineage P.1[9][1] VOC-21JAN-02 Gamma Descendant of B.1.1.28[32]  巴西 2020年11月[4] N501Y, E484K, K417T[5][33][34] 多国[35][A] 增高≈161%(145174%)[36][D] 致命性增高≈50%(2090%) [37][C][E] 抗体中和效力降低[9]
B.1.1.7#E484K書面挪威語Lineage B.1.1.7 with E484K[3] VOC-21FEB-02 Alpha B.1.1.7+E484K[39]  英國 2020年12月[3] N501Y, 69–70del, P681H,[5][40] E484K 多國[A] 正在调查 正在调查 正在调查
B.1.525[41] VUI-21FEB-03 Eta  奈及利亞 2020年12月[42] E484K, F888L[41] 多国[43] 单克隆抗体、恢复期和疫苗接种后血清中和效力可能降低[8]
B.1.617[44] VOC-21APR-02 Kappa(B.1.617.1)、Delta(B.1.617.2) 双突变体[45]  印度 2020年10月[44] E484Q, L452R, P681R[46] 多国[47][A] Delta变种增高≈198%[F] 正在调查[G] 抗体中和效力降低[51][20]
P.3 VUI-21MAR-02 Theta  菲律賓 2021年1月[4] 多国[52]
 俄羅斯 202106 俄羅斯[53]
C.37英语SARS-CoV-2 Lambda variant Lambda  秘魯 2020年8月[54] 祕魯、智利、厄瓜多、阿根廷等29國[54][55]
  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 世界卫生组织等机构宣布的引发关切的变种英语Variant of concern
  2. ^ 美国疾病控制与预防中心宣布的引发关切的变种英语Variant of concern
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 The reported conficende or credible interval has a low probability, so the estimated value can only be understood as possible, not certain nor likely.
  4. ^ Another study[37] has estimated that P.1 may be ≈100%(50% CrI, 70140%) more transmissible.[C]
  5. ^ Preliminary results from a study in the Southern Region of Brazil found P.1 much more lethal for healthy young people. In groups without pre-existing conditions, the variant was found to be ≈490%(220985%) more lethal for men in the 20-39 age group, ≈465%(1901003%) more lethal for women in the 20-39 age group and ≈670%(4011083%) for women in the 40-59 age group.[38]
  6. ^ About 64%(26113%) more transmissible than the Alpha variant,[48] so 1.64 × 1.82 ≈ 2.98.
  7. ^ 相对2020年初参考病毒株,Delta变种症状发展更快、更严重[49];相对Alpha变种,感染者住院率增加约一倍[50]
随疫情发展,D614G变异書面挪威語Mutasjon D614G(属B.1演化支[56])逐渐成为目前全球主要传播的严重急性呼吸综合征冠状病毒2类型。[57]

支序演化树[编辑]

以下为严重急性呼吸综合征冠状病毒2主要变种的支序演化树示意图。[58]

SARS-CoV-2
A.1–A.6

WIV04/2019(参考基因组[59]

B.1[57]
B.1.1.1

C.36書面挪威語C.36 (B.1.1.1.36)[56]

C.37谱系英语SARS-CoV-2 Lambda variant (Lambda, B.1.1.1.37) [54][60][56]

VOC-20DEC-01 (B.1.1.7谱系, Alpha) [A]

VOC-21FEB-02 (B.1.1.7#E484K)書面挪威語Lineage B.1.1.7 with E484K [3][A]

B.1.1.28

P.1谱系英语SARS-CoV-2 Gamma variant (Gamma) [A]

P.2谱系英语SARS-CoV-2 Zeta variant (Zeta) [61]

P.3谱系英语SARS-CoV-2 Theta variant (Theta)

B.1.1.207書面挪威語Lineage B.1.1.207

B.1.351谱系 (Beta) [A]

CAL.20C書面挪威語California-koronavarianten (B.1.427書面挪威語Lineage B.1.427B.1.429書面挪威語Lineage B.1.429, Epsilon) [B]

B.1.525英语SARS-CoV-2 Eta variant (Eta)

B.1.526英语SARS-CoV-2 Iota variant (Iota)

B.1.617谱系[44][66][67]

B.1.617.1英语SARS-CoV-2 Kappa variant (Kappa)

B.1.617.2英语SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant (Delta) [62][A]

B.1.617.2.1 (Delta Plus, AY.1) [63]

B.1.617.3

B.1.618 [64][65]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 引发关切的变种英语Variant of concern
  2. ^ 美国疾病控制与预防中心宣布的引发关切的变种英语Variant of concern
PANGO命名系统的SARS-CoV-2谱系图

受關切變種[编辑]

病毒的变异是一个自然随机过程。病毒变种引发关切的程度取决于其导致的传染性、发病率、死亡率,及逃避检测、免疫与治疗的风险。目前在世界多地引发关切的主要为最早发现于英国、南非、巴西及印度的四个变种。[1][68][62] 最早发现于美国加州的B.1.427及B.1.429也被美国疾病控制与预防中心列为关切变种。[8]

B.1.1.7谱系[编辑]

B.1.1.7谱系,WHO命名为“Alpha”,在2020年9月首次从英国采集的样本中发现。[69]

2021年6月1日,日本宣布在神户市发现带有E484Q突变的“Alpha”变种。[70][71]

B.1.351谱系[编辑]

B.1.351谱系,WHO命名為「Beta」,又称501Y.V2变种,于2020年12月18日被南非科学家和卫生官员首先报道。[72]501Y.V2变种最早在南非东开普省纳尔逊·曼德拉湾发现。[73]与先前的新冠病毒变种相比,501Y.V2变种的传染率增加约50%。[74]有证据表明,501Y.V2变种的刺突蛋白突变E484K可能会影响一些多克隆抗体单克隆抗体的中和作用。当前尚未有证据表明该变种影响COVID-19病的严重程度。[75]

P.1谱系[编辑]

P.1谱系,WHO命名為「Gamma」,最初在东京国际机场从四名巴西飞抵日本的旅客发现,由日本国立感染症研究所报道[75]

B.1.427及B.1.429[8][编辑]

B.1.617谱系[编辑]

B.1.617谱系是2020年10月于印度发现的一种双突变变种。直到2021年1月前,该变种的感染人数都寥寥无几。4月时该变种已经蔓延至超过20个国家,遍及南极洲和南美洲以外的所有大洲。[76][77][78]

在该变种约15个谱系定义突变中包括刺突蛋白突变D111D(同义突变英语synonymous substitution)、G142D[79]、P681R、E484Q[80]、L452R[81],其中后两个突变可能会影响恢复期血浆单克隆抗体的中和作用。[82]

英国公共卫生部英语Public Health England于2021年4月21日将B.1.617列为“受调查的变种”,命名为VUI-21APR-01;[47] 5月7日将谱系中的一支B.1.617.2列为“受关切变种英语Variant of concern”,命名为VOC-21APR-02。[62][83] 5月10日WHO称,因为B.1.617较高的传染性,该变异正被列为全球范围内受关切变种[68]。WHO將B.1.617.1命名為「Kappa」、B.1.617.2命名為「Delta」。6月1日WHO将受关切变种限定为B.1.617谱系当中的B.1.617.2(Delta)变种。[84]

其他重要变种[编辑]

命名簡化[编辑]

2021年6月起,WHO將變種病毒以希臘字母所代表。[87]

希臘字母 病毒變種地
Alpha / Άλφα 英國
Beta / Βήτα 南非
Gamma / Γαμμα 巴西
Delta / Δελτα 印度

参见[编辑]

参考文献[编辑]

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